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Report of the Proceedings 

of the 

Third Entomological Meetiaff 

Held at Pasa, 3rd to 15th February 1919 

^ ■ 



^Proceedings of the '^hird Entomological 


Held at Pusa on the 3rcl to 15th February 1919 

In Three Volumes 

Edited by 
T. BAINBRIGGE FLETCHER, r.n., f.l.s., f.e.s., f.z.s., 

Im/jcriul Eiilunwlogisl 


/ MAR 2 3 1921 




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Papers read at the Meeting. 

47. The life history of Caliijula cachara, by J. Henry Watson . . . . 

48. Life-histories of Indian Microlepidoptera {Abstract), by T. Bainbrigge Fletcher 

49. Exhibition of drawings, by Major F. C. Fraser, I. M.S., of early stages of Indian 

Butterflies ............ 

50. The life-history of Orthezia insifjnis, by K. Kunhi Kannan 

51. The function of the chitinous plate in Bruchus QlUneiisis (AbstriKt), by K. Kunhi 

Kannan ........... 

52. Some Insect Prey of Birds in the Central Provinces, by E. A, D'Abreu 

53. Life-history of Comocrilis pieria, by R. Senior- White .... 

54. Xotes on rearing insects in hot countries, by T. Bainbrigge Fletcher and C. C 

Gliosh . . .,.-.... 

55. Breeding Cages and general insectary technique for wood-borers, by C. Beeson 
.50. Notes on night-flying dragon-flies, by Major F. C. Fraser 

57. Note-on larva of C'atocAcj/sops s(rn6o, by Major F. C. Fraser . 

58. Spiders as checks on lepidopterous larva;, by Major F. C. Fraser 

59. The comparative invisibility of Papilio dcinvlcus during flight, Iiy Dr. E. H 

Hankin ........... 

430. The forms of Papilio polytes, by Professor E. B. Poult on 

■61. The importance of insects to fisheries in India, by Dr. Baini Prashad 

■62. Note on a musciphagous wasp, by T. V. Ramakrishna A}-yar 

63. Notes on the life-history of Cnntao ocellatus. by T. V. Ramakrishna Ayj'ar 

<)4 Notes on the life-history of Polyplychiis dentatus, by T. V. Ramakrislina Ayyar 

Ho. Some observations on the life-history of an Eroli/lid breeding in Italian millet, 

by P. V. Isaac .......... 

'66. The Ufe-history of the Moringa stem-borer, by T. V. Subramaniam 

67. Notes on the life-history of the Po/^t flea-bectlf (Longitarsus nigripcnnia) of 

pepper, by T. V. Ramakrishna Ayyar ...... 

€8. On some of the bionomics of Bruchida", by R. S. Kasergode . 

69. On the insect parasites of some Indian crop-pests, by T. V. Ramakrishna 

Ayyar . . . ' 

70. Hints on collecting and preserving insects, by T. Bainbrigge Fletcher 

71. A method of preserving butterflies and other insects, by Dr. E. H. Hankin 

72. The importance of collecting, by Dr. D. Sharp ..... 

73. Note on a very curious GeoAietrid larva, by T. Bainbrigge Fletcher 

74. Indian Epipyropidfe, by T. Bainbrigge Fletcher .... 

75. Indian Fossil Insects, by T. Bainbrigge Fletcher . . . 

76. The dcsirabihty and praotioabiUty of the preparation - and pubUcation of 

general catalogue of aU described Indian Insects, b}' T. Bainbrigge Fletohe 

77. A sketch of our present knowledge of Indian Microlepidoptera, by E. Meyrick 

78. The Trichonymphid parasites of some Indian Termites, by Captain FroUano 


79. GenitaUa of some Ceylonese Hesperiada?, by W. Qrmiston 

80. On the BoUworm parasite described as Rhogns lefroyi by Dudgeon and Gough, 

by Professor C. T. Brues ........ 

81. Some recently npted South Indian MololimtliidK of economic importance, by 

P. V. Isaac 

( iii ) 





















Papers read and the Meetiruj — contd. 

82. Notes on two Psyllid galls exhibited, -with remarks on Indian Psyllida^ by 

T. V. Eainakrishna Ayyar ". 1030 

83. Note on some swarming Fulgorid Bugs, by T. V. Ramakrishna Ayyar . . 1032 

84. Eumastacina? from South India, by T. V. Ramakrishna Ayyar ... . 1033 

85. Suggestions regarding publication of ccimmunjcations on Indian Insects, by 

C. C. Ghosh 1034 

86. The preparation and reproduction of scientific illustrations, by A. W. Slater . 1043 

87. Lantern Shdes (Exhibition and di^^cussion) 1048 

88. Note on the decimal method of subject-indexing entomological literature, by 

C. Becson . . . . . ". 1048 

89. Note on Plant Imports into India, by T. Bainbrigge Fletcher . . . 1052 

90. Entomological Education in Agricultural CoOeges [General Discussion) . 1070 

91. Some aspects of Economic Entomology in India, by C. C. Ghosh . . . 1073 
02. The Organization of Entomological Work in India {General Discnssion) . . 1081 
Closing Speeches ............ 1094 

List of Resolutions passed by the Meeting ... ... 1097 

IHDEX 1101 


Plate 130. 

Larva of Caliguln cachara 

Breeding cages of different types 

Feeding Borer larvae ; Tile-cage for termites 
Pusa Insectary 

Cages for wood-boring beetles 

Bembexliinata . 

Canlao ocellidus (Coloured) 

Polyptychus dentntus . 

^narfa«(«ssp. (Coloured) . 

Moringa stem-borer 

Collecting outfit, e.g., nets, traps, etc. 

Store-box .... 

Setting and mounting insects 
Forceps, knives, glass-bottomed box 
Killing insects .... 
Pinning and setting of insects 

Storage of papered insects 

Insect-cabinet .... 

A Geometrid larva on Ilepluphurum 
Epipyrops emyhrachydis 
Indian Fossil Insects 

Acrocercops re.splenrleiis 
Trichonymphid Parasites of Termites 

Genitalia of Ceylonese Hesperiada) 

Two PsylUds and their galls 

836 -- 


( V ) 


Plate 175. Phylloclioreia ramalcrishnai, Bol . . . 

176. Preparation and Reproduction of Illustrations 

177. „ „ „ . . 
» .. .. (Coloured) 


Fumigation box, sketch and external measurements 
„ „ (closed up for fumigation) 

„ ,, (open) ..... 










Proceedings of the Third Entomological Meeting 




By J. Henry Wat.son, F.E.S. 
(Plate L30.) 

The following notes on the partial Life -History of Caligula cachara 
are not complete as no larvae sui-vived longer than the middle of the 
fourth age. It was most disappointing as they appeared to be thriving 
to the end of the third age, but no doubt it was due to the food they 
were fed upon, the common English Hawthorn, Crataegus oxyacantha, 
which was evidently unsuitable for them ; but of course that is one of 
the points one has to contend with in breediag exotic larvae, the natural 
food plant of which is unknown . The species is for the present included 
in Caligula but I think it should not be included in this genus, nor in the 
genus Didyoploca to which C. simla and C. japonica are now referred. 

Unlike Caligula japonica, where the ovipositing is like our British 
Salumia carpini (that is, laid in closely-packed sheets or regularly round 
twigs), the ova of C. cachara are in httle groups irregularly laid and un- 
evenly covered with brown cement giving them a streaky appearance. 
The size of the egg is about 2'5 X 15 mm. 

The ova were laid from a female paired to the same male for two 
successive nights but which separated each night before dawn. They 
were laid 19th to 23rd March. laid on the 22nd and 23rd were 
without cement and quite white and were deposited at a foot away from 
where the female was caged, evidently by propulsion ; none of these last 
ones hatched ; the others hatched 13th to 17th April. 

The larvae on first hatching are about 3'5 mm. long and are pale 
milk-blue on the dorsal surface shading down the sides to greenish- 
blue, more prominent on the first four segments and reminding one of 
the last two stages of D. simla and the last stage of some larvae of D. 
japoiiica. During feeding in the first stage the larvae changed from 
milk-blue to green, yellowish on moultiag. 

Head, glossy black with a few scattered forward projecting creamy 
hairs. Carapace yellow, kidney-shaped ; with a black glossy kidney- 
shaped mark, on anterior edge of which on both sides of the median line 
a similar yellow mark ; anterior edge of each havmg a flat spindle-shaped 
yellowish tubercle with forward projecting hairs similar to those on the 
head ; on lateral posterior edge of this segment an oval black spot 
surrounding the first spiracle ; m front of it in a line with the lower 
edge of black carapace, a small yellowish flat tubercle with a few hairs 
longest in the middle. Feet black, glossy and with very few hars. 
The oval black spot and the aforementioned tubercles form the lateral 

Page 830. 

Larva of Califjiila cachdra ; >(, thoracic shield, first instar ; h. thoracic shield, third instar ; v, larva in 
fourth instar, half-grown, magnified. 


row of tubercles and spots and their relative position on the sides of the 
larva is nearly the same all through the first stage, except that the spots 
on the second and third segments are longer and obliquely set and on 
all other segments are behind the spiracle, as it is set on the extreme 
anterior edge of spot. The se ond and third segments hav3 a blood 
crimson oval mark on each end of which is set a pale transparent yellow 
tubercle with slender yellowish spines curving mostly dorsally and 
backward, and is very noticeable. Forward and also behind in a dorsal 
line is a long black spot broken at the intersections ; both at the fore and 
hinder lateral edges, other spots (the submedian row of black spots). 
Lateral ruga (the infraspiracular line of Packard) is more yellowish and 
not very pronounced. Abdominal legs greenish yellow. Suranal jjlate 
same colour with a broad heartsluiped black centre and edged anteriorly 
with black. Anal legs with small black sjiot. There is a slight varia- 
tion in the amount of spots and markings of these larvae. 

Larvae spun up 21st April. Moulted 24th April. 

Length end of first age 7 mm. 

Second Age. The first larvae moulted 24:th April, aged eleven days. 
Head and feet glossy black. Dorsal surface milk-white, lateral surface 
pale-gold. The black spots along the sides are broken up and the cara- 
pace is now only edged behind with a narrow line of black which extends 
in a median line to the anterior edge. Dorsal tubercles of second and 
third segments are larger and of the crimson colour of the oval raised 
spots they spring frrm and with short carneous spines and a very short 
white hair in the centre. The rest of the dorsal and all the subdorsal 
tubercles have a very long white hair in the centre of .each, which is 
wanting on the subspiracular row. Suranal plate triangular and ' nar- 
rowly edged black. Anal legs with curved black mark. In this stage 
the whole lai-va is covered with fine milk-blue hairs from body, longer 
from the tubercles, except those from carapace ; last two segments and 
subspiracular tubercles pale maize yellow. 

Comparmg it with D. japonica and D. Atmla of same age ; whilst 
G. cachara resembles B. simla in fourth ago, but with the addition of 
four red tubercles, D. japonica is all black and the dorsal tubercle hairs 
of second and third segments are the longest. These in cachara are the 
shortest and spring from large red dorsal tubarcles. The dorsal lina of 
tubercles in japonica are relatively taller and armed with stronger spines 
than cachara where except for the two rod pairs they are only papillate. 
Length of larva at end of second age about 10 mm. 

Third Age. Moulted 5th May, aged 23 days. Hardly differing from 
last excepi that the black marks are more broken and scattered, ending 
abniptly just above the yellow lateral ruga and re-appearing faintly 


below. The head has imw a pale inverted V-shaped mark. Length 
at end of third age 19 mm. Spun up 10th May; moulted 19th 'May. 
Fovrth Age. Is very like third in general appearance and is shown 
half grown in this age in sketch the length when 43 days old being 
about 38 mm. The head has now a pale upper lip as well as the pale V 
mark. It is a pity the unsuitableness of the food showed itself by them 
going off one by one. I hope one day to complete the life history. 

I have here [exhibited] some specimens of the various stages of Caligula 
cacham which Mr. Watson has sent for exhibition at this Meeting. Mr. 
Watson has made a special study of silk-moths for many years and pro- 
bably knows more of them than anybody else. We are much indebted 
to him for sending this paper on the early stages of one of our Indian 


B>/ T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S.. Imperial 

Thi* abstract gives little more than a list of names of Species with 
their food plants so far as is kno^\7i but it will perhaps serve to indicate 
what is known and the numerous gaps in our knowledge. 

Diaciotricha fa^ciolo. Zell. — Known from Ceylon and Pusa. Larva in 

flowers of Averrhoa hilimhi and A. carambola. 
Buckleria jmhidicola. Fletcher. — Ceylon and Khasis. Larva on Drosera 

Buckleria xerodes, Meyr. — Ceylon to Nagpur. Larva on Gynandropsis. 
Buckleria defectalis, Wlk. — Throughout Plains. Larva on Boerhaavia. 
Buckleria tvahlbergi, Zell. — Throughout India and Ceylon. Larva on 

Oxalis sp. 
Sphenarches caffer, Zell. — Throughout India, Burma, Ceylon. Larva 

on Cajamis indicus, DoUchos lablab, Lagenaria vulgaris, Lujfa sp., 

Hibiscus miitabilis, Averrhoa bilimbi, Biophytmn sensitii'iim and 

Mimosa pudica. 
Oxyptilns lactucce, Fletcher. — Dehra Dun. Larva on lettuce. 

* The orfginal intentioa was to publish this paper n) extenso in these Proceedings 
but it has run to such a length that it is considered desirable to publish an abstract only 
and to issue the complete paper elsewhere. 


Oxyplilu.s epidectes, Meyr. — South India ; Burma : Ceylon. Larva on 

Biophylum sensitivum . 
Oxyptilus chorditef:, Meyr. — Colombo ; Kaiwar. Larva on Cahjcoptcris 

Oxyptilus pelecyntes, MejT. — Khasis ; Ceylon. Larva on Sciilrllan'a 

OxyjMus cmisodes, Meyr. — Peradeniya ; Pusa. Larva in fruits of DIUcnia 

Xyroptila vaughani, Fletcher. — Ceylon. Larva probably in fruit of 

Dimorphocalyx glabellus. 
Beuterocopns alopecodes, Mep-. — Karwar. Larva on Vitis isp. 
Deuterocojnis socolramis, Rebel. — Plains of India, Burma, Ceylon. Lan'a 

on flowers of Vitis quadrangularis and F. trifolia. 
Deiiferocopus planeta, Meyr. — Ceylon ; South India ; Khasis ; Burma. 

Larva on flowers of Leeasambucina. 
Deiiierocopus ritsemw, WlSm. — Ceylon : Coorg ; Assam. Larva on Lcea 

Platyptilia cifropleura, Meyr. — Ceylon ; Khasis. Larva in seed-pods of 

Begonia sp. 
Platyptilia taprobanes, Feld. — Ceylon to Pusa ; Khasis. Larva on 

StuteUaria discolor. 
Platyptilia pusillidactyla, Wlk. — Throughout India, Burma. Ceylon. 

Larva in flowers of Lantana caniara, L. indica and Lippia geminata . 
Platyptilia hrachymorpha, Meyr. — Plains from Ceylon to Pusa ; Burma. 

Lan-a ou Celsia coromandeliana and on unnamed Solanaceou^ plant. 

Platyptilia direptalis, Wlk. — Hills of India and Ceylon ; Pusa. Larva 

on Teucrivm quadrifarium and Scutellaria discolor. 
Platyptilia molopias, Meyr. — Ceylon Hills. Larva on Teucrium tomen- 

Platyptilia cacalice, Fletcher. — Coimbatore. Larva in flower-head of 

C'acaUa coccinea. 
Platyptilia gonodactyla, Schif^'. — Darjiling ; Rawalpindi. Larva on TkssH- 

agofarfara in Euroi)e. 
StevoptiUa zophodactyla, Dup. — Throughout India and Ceylon. Larva 

on Sopubia trifida and Blumea balsamifera. 
Exelastis liopdmnes, Meyr. — Throughout India, Burma, Ceylon. Larva 

on Oxalis. 
Exelastis atomosa, Wlsm. — Plains of India. Larva on Cajanvs indic^ls 

and Dolichos lablab. 
Ptcrophorus lienigianvs, Zell. — Throughout India, Burma, C'eylon. 

Larva on Solanum melongena (on Artemisia vidgaris in Europe). 


Pteropliorus monodactijlus, Linn. — North-West India ; Kashmir. Larva 

on Cmivolvulus in Europe. 
Alucila niveodadyla, Pag. — Hills of India and Ceylon. Larva on Ipo- 

mcea sp. 
Steganodactyla concursa, Wlsm. — Ceylon ; Coorg ; Belgaum. Larva in 

unexpanded leaves of Argyreia sp. and Ipomcea popiilifoUa. 
Agdistis tamaricis, Zell. — Karachi ; Peshawar. Larva on Tainarix 

gallica . 


MeridarcMs scyrodes, Meyr. — Plains of India. Larva in fruits of 

Zizyplms jujuba. 
MeridarcMs reprobaia, Meyr. MS. — Nagpur ; Surat ; Kashmir. Larva in 

fruits of Eugenia jambolana and cultivated olive. 


Clysia ambigueJla, Hb. — Assam ; Bunjia. Larva in fiower-buds of vine 

in Europe. 
Phalonia hybridella, Hb.^Dharmsala. Larva in seed-heads of Picris 

Jiieracioidcs in Europe. 


Capua invalidana, Wlk. — India, Ceylon. Larva on leaves of betel- 

Adoxophyes privatana, Wlk. — India, Burma, Ceylon. Larva in flowers 
oiLantana camara. 

Hamona coffearia, Nietn. — India, Ceylon. Larva on tea, coffee, Lantana 

Hamona menciana, Wlk. — India. Larva on Lantana camara. 

Cacoscia micaceana, Vf]k. — India, Burma, Ceylon. Larva on guava and 

Caccecia epicyrta, Meyi'. — India, Ceylon. Larva in fraits of Duranta and 
guava, flower-heads of Lantana camara. 

Caccecia isocyita, Meyi\ MS. — Pusa. Larva on lucerne. 

Caccecia pensilis, Meyr. MS. — Madras. Larva boring into orange fruit. 

Caccecia compacta, MejT. — Pusa. Larva on leaves of Sctlix sp. 

Caccecia dispilana, Wlk. — India, Burma. Larva rolling leaves of honey- 

Caccecia philippa, Meyr. — Abbottabad. Larva on leaves of Hcdera. 

Vlodemis trigrapJia, Meyr. — North East India (Hills). Larva on berries 
of Viburmmi (?) 

Pandemis ribeana, Hb. — Himalayas. Larva on Cratcegus, Rosa, Primus, 
Pyrus, Qiterciis, Bhamtius, Fraxinus, Bctxtla, etc., in Europe. 


Tortrix semialbana, Gn. — Himalayas. Larva on Lonicera, Rosa, Cheli- 

donium, Lilimn, Urtica, etc., in Europe. 
Tmtrix duniitana, Tr. — Kashmir. Larva on Lonicera, U-rlica, Hedera, 

Rubus, Umbelliferse, Quercus, etc., in Europe. 
Harmologa miserana, Wlk. — ^Assam. Larva on Ficus spp. in Australia. 
■Cnephasia argcntana, CI. — Himalayas ; Kashmir. 
Planostocha cumulata, Meyr. — Ceylon, South India. Larva on Lantana 

Ebodu obstinata, Meyr. — Ceylon ; Pusa. Larva rolUng leaf of Cardios- 

permum Sp. 
Peronea siderota, Meyr. — Peradeniya. Larva mining twigs of Cinna- 

momum camphora. 
Peronea epidesma, Low.— Ceylon ; Pusa. Larva on leaves of Polyalthia 



Spilonotarhothia, Meyv. — India, Ceylon. Larva on guava and Eugenia 

AcrocUtacheradola, Meyr. — Ceylon ; Pusa. Larva rolling leaves of Ficus 

Acroclita ncevana, Hb. — India, Ceylon. Larva on blackthorn, holly, 

Vaccinium:, etc., in Europe. 
Acroclita vigescens, Meyr. MS. — -Pusa. Larva on Cordia myxa and C. 

Ancylis glyajphaga, Meyr. — Pusa ; Abbottabad. Larva on sugary excre- 
tion of Phromnia marginella (Homoptera). 
Aitcylis lutescens, Meyr. — Hoshangabad ; Pusa ; Gauhati. Larva rolling 

leaves of Zizyphus jujuba. 
.Ancylis cyanostoma, Meyi-. — Pusa. Larva in spun leaves of ZiiypJius 

Diplonearcha insinuans, Meyr. — Peradeniya. Reared from Psyllid gall 

on Ficus. 
Eucosma critica, Meyr-. — Plains of India. Larva on Cajanus indicus. 
Eucosma tnelanaula, Meyr. — Plains of India ; Khasi Hills. Larva on 

Cajanus indicus, Phaseolus aconitif alius, P. mungo, P. radiatus, 

Florida beggar-weed. 
Eucosma Salanoptycha, Mep-. — Plains of India, Ceylon. Larva on 

Pongamia glabra. 
Eucosma clepsidoma, Mep-. — Coimbatore. Reared from gall on un- 
identified plant. 
Eucosma conciliata, Meyr. MS. — Pusa. Larva on flowers of Bulea 



Eucosma fcenella, Linn. — Dharmsala. Larva in stems and roots of 

Artemisia imlgaris in Europe. 
Evcosma zehta, Meyr. — Abbottabad. Larva sjsinning up rose leaves. 
Evcosjna steieoma, Meyr. — Pusa. Larva in flowers of Pithecohbium 

(I idee (or Inga dulcis). 
Eucosma melanmreura, Meyr. — Khasi Hills. Larva spinning up flowers 

of Rhus semialata. 
Crocidosema plebeiana, Zell. — Pundaluoya ; probably throughout India 

also. Larva on Malvaceae. 
Bactra trucidenta, MejT. — Plains of India. Larva in stems of Cypenis 

Pohjchrosisfetialis, Meyr. MS. — Pusa. Larva in flower-head of Leucas sp. 

Polychrosis celUfera , Meyr. — Colombo ; Pusa.* Larva on leaves of Eugenia 

Lobesia ceoJopa, Meyr. — India, Ceylon, Burma. Larva on flowers of 

Cajanus indicus, Lantana camara, Leucas cephalotes. 
Lobesia genialis, MejT. — Ceylon, Soirth India. Larva on flowers of 

Lantajia camara. 
Argyrophce citharistis, Meyr. — India, Burma. Larva in flower- head of 

Leucas sp. 
Argyrcploce iUepida, Butl. — India, Ceylon. Larva in fruits of Nephelium 

litchi, Feronia elephantum, Cassia fistula, C. Occident alts, Tamarindus 

indica, Mgle marmelos, Sesbania aculeata, S. grandiflora. Acacia 

arabica, Citrus aurantium. 
Argyroploce.aprobola, MejT.^India, Ceylon. Larva on leaves of mango, 

litchi, rose, Cassia tora, PolyallJiia longifolia, Lantana camara, also 

eating rose buds and Dahlia (?) flowers. 
Argyrophce cenckropis, Meyr. MS. — Pusa. Larva in fruits of Cordia 

Argyrophce ebenina, Meyr. — Karwar. Larva on leaves of Diospyros. 
Argyropjhce erotias, Meyr. — India, Ceylon. Larva boring mango shoots 

[!]. webbing leaves of mango, Loranthus, Cynoghssum, &XiALantana 

Argyrophce leucaspis, Meyr. — India, Ceylon. Larva rolling litchi leaves. 
Argyrophce paiagra7nma,Me\i. — Pusa ; Ganhati. Larva boring bamboo 

Argyrophce poetica, Meyr. — Ceylon; Pahiis ; Pusa. Larva rolling leaves 

of Polyalthia longifolia. 
Argyrophce rhyncliias, Meyr. — Ceylon. Larva in pods of Canavalia 

in Mauritius. 
Argyrophce semiculta, Meyr. — India, Cejdon. Larva rolling terminal 

leaves of Alseodaphne semeccnyijolia . 


Argyroplocc tonsorkt, Meyr. — Ceylon. Larva in fruit of Banitujtimia 

Laspeyresia kcenigana, Fb. — Plains of India and Burma. Larva on 

leaves of Melia azadirachla ; also on Jasminum sanibnc (?) 
Laspeyresia hemidoxa, Meyr. — Khasi Hills ; Malabar. Larva boring 

shoots of pepper vine. 
Laspeyresia leucostonia, Meyr. — Ceylon ; South India ; Assam. Larva 

rolling leaves of tea. 
Laspeyresia capparidana, Zell. — Pu^a. Larva boring stem of Cnpparis 

Laspeyresia mamertina, Meyr. MS. — Pusa. Larva on leaves of Loranthus. 
Laspeyresia ptychora, Meyr. — India ; Ceylon. Larva in pods of Vigna 

sinensis in Rhodesia. 
Laspeyresia pycnochra, Meyr. MS. — Coimbatore. Larva in pods of 

agath i (Sesbania gra nd i flora ) . 
Laspeyresia malesana, Meyr. MS. — Coimbatore. — Larva in pods of 

Parkinsonia and Cassia corymbosa. 
Laspeyresia dcedalota, Meyi'. — Pusa. Larva on flowers of Cassia fistula. 
Laspeyresia jaculatrix, Meyr. — Plains of India. Larva on leaves of 

Dalbergia sissu. 
Laspeyresia tricentra, Meyr. — Plains of India and Ceylon. Larva boring 

shoots of Crotalaria juncea. 
Laspeyresia pseudonectis, Meyr. — Plains of India. Larva boring shoots 

of Crotalaria juncea, Phaseolus niango and Dolichos lablab. 
Laspeyresia torodelta, Meyr. — Plains of South India. Larva boring youn" 

shoots of Dolichos lablab. 
Laspeyresia pomoneUa, Liim. Kashmir (?). Larva in fruits of apple, 

pear, etc., in Europe and America. 
Laspeyresia ptdveruki, Mep-. — Himalayas ; Khasis ; Bred from sal {Sliorca 

robusta) logs. *• 

Pammene isocampta, Meyi". — Peradeni3^a. Associated with Lecaniuin- sp. 
Pammene theristis, Meyr. — Ceylon ; Kumaon. Larva at roots of Sal 

(Shorea robusta) seedlings. 

(No life-hi.stories of any Indian species are known.) 

Sitotroga cerealella, Ohv. — Throughout India, Burma, Ceyloa. Larva 

on grain, bamboo seeds. 
Telphtsa mehnnzona, Meyr. — Pufa, Larva mining leaves of Euphorbia 



Arislotelia ingmvata, Meyr.— Pusa ; Pesliawar. Larva forming gall in 

twig of Tamarix. 
Idiofhantis cldridota, MejT. — Peradcniya. Reared from Psyllid galls on 

Istrianis crcnirojxt, MejT. — Dharwar. Larva oa leaves of Butea fron- 

E'physlens chcrsa'a, Meyr. {oscho})hora , Meyr.).— Plains of India, Ceylon. 

Larva iu dry vegetable refuse. 
Epitliedis- shidiosa, Meyr. — Peradeniya ; North India. Larva on dried 

plants and on stored rice. 
Phthorimaa heliopa, Lower. — Plains of India, Burma, Ceylon. Larva 

boring in stem of tobacco. 
Phtli(nimcEa blapsigona, Meyr. — Madras ; Central Provinces. Larva in 

buds of briujal. 
Phthmmcea (yperculella, Zell. — Throughout India (? except Punjab and 

Assam). Larva in potato tubers. 
Phthorimaa ergasima, Meyr.— Pusa. Larva mining brinjal leaves. 
Stmnopteryx nerteria, Meyr. — India, Burma, Ceylon. Larva on ground- 
nut, Cajamis indicus, Psoralea corylifolia. 
Platyedra gosstjpiella, Saunders.— India, Burma, Ceylon. Larva in 

cotton seecls, less commonly on Hibiscus abelmoschus, Abutilon 

indicum, hollyhock, Thespesia poptilnea, Hibiscii^s esculentus and 

H. cannabinus. 
Gelechia tamariciella, Zell. — Plains of North India. Larva on Tamarix. 
Stegasta variana, Meyr. — India, Ceylon. Larva on leaves of Cassia tora 

and Jasmimnn sambac. 
Onebala blandiella, Wlk. — India, Burma, Ceylon. Larva rolUng leaves 

of dead-nettle. 
ZalitMa diluticornis, Wlsm.— India, Ceylon. Larva on dry leaves and 

Thyrsostoma glaucitis, Meyi.— India, Ceylon. Attached to mango. 
Dactylethra Candida, Stainton. — Calcutta ; South India. Larva in gall 

on stem of wild mdigo (? Tephrosia jnirpurea). 
Lecithocera crypsilychna, Meyr.— Bassein Fort (Bombay). Larva on 

leaves of Ipmncea arvensis. 
Lecithocera effera, Meyr. — Counbatore. Larva on leaves of Ipomcea 

Brachmia engrapta. Meyi'. — Lahore ; Coimbatore. Larva on leaves of 

sweet potato (Ipomcea batatas). 
Brachmia aroircea, Meyr. — India, Burma, Ceylon. Larva rolling rice 

Brachmia idiastis, Meyi-.— Pusa. Larva rolhng Panicum leaves. 


Brachmia insulsa, Meyr. — Plains of India. Larva on potato leaves. 

Brachmia xerophaga, Me)^. — Madras ; Orissa. Larva in nest of Stegodt/- 
phus sarasinwum (a social spider). 

Helcystogramma liibisci, Staiaton. — India, Ceylon. Larva rolling leaves 
of Hibiscus escidentus. 

Autosticha milJicema, Meyr.^Peradeniya. Larva in helicifonn case on 
moss-covered rocks. 

Autosticha chernetis, Meyr. — Peradeniya. Larva in galleries on moss- 
covered rocks. 

Autosticha exeriiplaris. Meyr. — Coimbatore. Bred from refrse in fork 
of tamarind tree. 

Autosticha protypa, Meyr. — Ceylon. Larva in galleries on lichen. 

Paraspistes palpigera, Wlsm.— South India, Burma, Ceylon. Larva La 
pods of Cassia corymbosa, C. flora, Crctalaria, and indigo. 

Hypelictis albiscripta, Meyr. — North Kanara. Pupa amongst Salix 

Slrobisin amethystias, Meyr. — Peradeniya. Larva in fungus-bed of 

Termites' ne t. 
Trichoiaphe (jeochrota, Meyr.— Bassein Fort (Bombay). Larva on 

unidentified plant. 
Dichomeris ianthes, Meyr. — Plains of India and Ceylon. Larva on indigo, 

lucerne, Cyamopsis. 
Dichomeris evidantis, Meyr. — Pusa. Larva rolling leaves of Dalbergia 

Anarsia acerata, Meyr. — South Ii;dia. Larva on Cajamis indicus. ■ 
Anarsia altercata, Meyr.- — Pusa. Pupa on Sesbania sp. 
Anarsia didymopa, Meyr. — Pusa. Pupa on Capparis horrida. 
Anarsia ephipjnas, Meyr. — Plains of India. Larva on indigo, groundnut, 

soy-bean, moth, urid, mung. Acacia sp. 
Anarsia epotias, Meyr. — Pusa. Larva on Tamarix twigs. 
Anarsia exallacta, Mejrr. — Pusa. Larva on Cajanus indicus. 
Anarsia idiopiila, Meyr. — Pusa. Larva on leaves of Cassia fistula. 
Anarsia melanoplecta, Meyr. — Plains of India. Larva boring in mango 

Anarsia omoptila, MejT. — Coimbatore. Larva on leaves of Cajanus 

Anarsia sagittaria, Meyr. — Pusa. Larva boring tf p-shoots of Zizyphus 

Anarsia sagmatica, Meyr. — Pusa. Larva rolling Loranthus leaf, 
Anarsia veruta, Meyr.- — Pusa. Pupa on Inga dulcis leaf. 


Chelaiia phacelola. Meyr. — Peracleiiiya. Bred from Psyllid galls on 

Ma Hot us fJiilip'p inensis. 
C'helaria rhicnota, Meyr. — South India. Larva on mango flowers. 
Chelaria scopvlosa, .Meyr. — Karwar. Larva boring shoot o. Careya 

Chelaria spathota, Meyr. — India. Larva on mango leaves. 
■CEcia OBcophila, Staudinger. — India. Larva probably ' on domestic 


(Nothing is known of the early stages of this Family.) 


Anatrachyntis simplex, AVlsm. — India, Burma. Larva in cotton seeds and 

dry vegetable refuse generally. 
Anatrachyntis jalcatella, Stainton. India, Ceylon. Larva in lac, on 

cotton shoots infested with scales, in rotten pomegranate. Probably 

a refuse feeder. 
Anataradis plumigera, Meyr. — Pusa ; Coimbatore. Larva in gall in stem 

of Indigojera Unifolia. 
Pyroderces albilineelki. van Deventer. — Ceylon ; South India. Larva in 

pods of indigo and Cassia corymbosa. 
Pyroderces semicoccinea, Stainton.-^India. Bred from stems of Cajanus 

indicus (larva a refuse-feeder '.). 
Pyroderces promacha. Meyr. — Plains of India. Bred from stem of Cajanns 

indmis (larva a refuse-feeder ?). 
Pyroderces calUstrepta, Meyr. — North Bihar. Larva mining teak leaves. 
Limnoscia imtacypha, Meyr. — Peradeniya. Pupa between spun leaves. 
Liinncecia peronodes. Meyr. — Pusa. Larva on bamboo (? predaceous 

on Coccids). 
Cosmopteryx miinetis, MejT. — India, Ceylon. Larva mining leaves of 

Cyperus rotundus. 
Cosmopteryx bambitsa; Meji. — Pusa. Larva mining bamboo leaves. 
Cosmopteryx fliceogastra , Meyr. — Pusa ; Coimbatore. Larva mining 

bean leaves. 
Cholotis crypsiloga, Meyr. — Coimbatore. Larva on Acacia. 
Cholotis pachnodes, Meyr. — Pusa. Larva on Tamarix twigs. 
Aganopiila phanarcha, Meyr. — Ceylon. Bred from galls on undetermined 

Microcolona citroplecta, Meyr. — Coorg ; Pusa. Larva on Eugenia jam- 

bolana ? 
Batrachedra arenosella, AVlk. — India, Ceylon. Larva amongst seeds of 


Batracheilra silvatica, Meyr. — Almora. Bred from tw'gs of Finns longi- 
folia (? larva predaceous on Ripersia). 


Endrosis lacteclla, Schiffermiiller.^ — India (Hills). Larva on dry vegetable 

Borkhausenia pseudosprelella, Stainton. — Hills of India and Ceylon. 

Larva on seeds, dried plants, skins, etc. 
Macrobathra nomwa, Meyr. — Coimbatore. Bred from dry refuse in fork 

of tamarind tree. 
Tonka barrowi, Bingham. Maymyo. Larva on Bonibax mahbaricum. 
Tonica niviferana, Wlk. — India, Ceylon. Larva boring in shoots of 

Bombax malabaricum. 
Tonica leraselki, Wlk. — Sikkim ; Karwar. Bred from pupa on bamboo 

Tonica zizyphi, Stainton.-^India, Ceylon. Larva in folded leaves of 

Citrus and Murraya (? also on Zizyphus). 
CryptolecJiia arvalis, Meyr. — South India. Larva between spun leaves 

of Carey a arborea. 
Porthmologa paraclina, Meyr. — Surat ; Pusa. Larva on Zizyphus jiijiiba. 
Pseudodoxia cretata, Meyr. — Ceylon. Larva in case on lichens. 
Pseudodoxia limiilus, Rogenhofer. — Ceylon. Larva in case on lichens. 
Pseudodoxia paUmpsesla, Meyr. — Hazaribagh. Larva in case on mango 

Pseudi.doxia jiicroplma, Meyr. — Ceylon (Hills). Larva in case on 

Pseudodoxia sepositella, Wlk. — Ceylon. Larva in case on lichens. 
Pronialactis cornigera, Meyr. — Almora ; Chamba. Bred from log of 

Pinus longi folia. 
Pronialactis semantris, Meyr. — Himalayas ; Assam. Bred from logs of 

Shorea robusta and Eugenia jambolana . 
Aristeis ihwaitesH, Meyr. — Ceylon. Larva in case on Eugenia caryophyl- 


Physoptila scenica, Meyr.- — South India. Larva in shoots of Careya 


Ptochoryctis simblcuta, Meyr. — Sylhet. Larva in case on tea. eating 

Antiikyra vineata, Meyr. — Peradeniya. Larva in case on lichens. 
Odites atmopa, Meyr. — Kandy ; Pusa. Larva on leaves of ilelia azadi- 


VOL. Ill c 


Odites bamhusa, Wlsm. — Ootacamund. Larva rolling bamboo leaves. 
Odites hedercc, Wlsm, — Ootacamund. Larva on ivy leaves. 
Odites welilitis, Meyr. MS. — Coimbatore. Pupa on field-beans. 
Odites spoliatrix, Meyr. — Plains of India. Larva in nest of a social 

spider (Stegodyphvs sarasinoriim). 
Procomeiis trochala, Meyr. — North Bihar. Larva on dry leaves and 

stems (once found boring sugarcane). 
Nephanfis serinopa, Meyr. — Ceylon ; Southern India ; Bengal ; Lower 

Burma. Larva on leaves of coconut and palmyra palms. 

Stenomid^. ' 
Synch(dara rhombota. Meyr. — Assam. Larva on leaves and bark of tea. 
Stenoma iclincca, Meyr. — North Kanara. Larva on leaves of Sytnplocos 

(No early stages of any Indian species are known.) 


(No early stages of any Indian species are known.) 


Antisfila argostoma, Meyr.- — Pusa. Larva mining leaves of Yitis trifolia. 
Antisfila aristarcha, Meyr. — Karwar. Larva mining leaves of Vitis sp. 

Heliodinid^. j 

Stathmopoda hemitorna, Meyr. — South India. Bred from refuse in fork 

of tamarind tree. 
Stathmopoda theoris, Meyr. — Plains of India and Ceylon. Larva on 

dry vegetable refuse ; also reared from lac. 
Stathnopoda sycopliaga, Meyr. — Pusa. Larva in fruits of Ficus glomerata. 
Stathmopoda basiplectra, Meyr. — Hardwar ; Siwaliks. Larva in seeds of 

Alhizzia lebhek ; also reared from lac. 
Staihmopoda prcealhata, Meyr. — North Bihar. Bred from fallen fruits 

of Ficus hengalensis. 
Staihmopoda sycasfis, Meyr. — Peshawar. Larva in ripe fruits of Ficus 

Stathmopoda ovigera, Meyr. — Plains of India and Ceylon. Larva pre- 

daceous on Pulvinaria on Ficus glomerata. 


Stathmopoda adidatrix, Meyr. — Alniora. Bred from twigs of Pvmts 
longi folia. 

CEdematopoda renusta, Me}T. — Jabbalpur. Bred from colonies of lac 

CEdematopoda cypris, Meyr. — Kandy. Bred from colony of lac insect. 

CEdemalopoda jlainmijera, Meyr. — Pusa. Larva boring mango shoots. 

(EdenuUopoda clcrodendronella, Stainton. — Calcutta ; Bihar. Larva web- 
bing top-leaves of Clerodendron infortunatum and Anisomeles ovata. 

Eretmocera impadella, Wlk. — Plains of India, Burma, Ceylon. Larva 
webbing top-leaves of Amarantvs. 

Glyph iPTERYGiD.E. 

Hihrograplui caminodes, Meyr. — Ceylon. Larva in roots of cardamom 

and wild Zingiberaceous plants. 
Imma mylias, Meyr. — Ceylon ; South India. Reared from pupa on 

tamarind bark. 
Phycodes minor, Moore. — India, Ceylon, Burma. Larva rolling leaves 

of Ficus spp. 
Phycodes radiata, Ochsenlieimer. — India, Ceylon. Larva rolling leaves 

of Ficus spp. 
Simaethis ophosema, Lower. — India. Larva on bamboo. 
Simaethis ortJiogona, Meyr. — India, Burma, Ceylon. Larva on Slrchtus sp. 
Simaethis (cgyptiaca, Zeller. — Simla ; North Bihar. Larva webbing 

tender leaves of Ficus glomerata. 
Simaethis fabriciana, Linn. — Himalayas ; Kashmir. Larva on Vriica and 

Parietaria in Europe. 
Brenthia coronigera, Meyr. — Pusa. • Larva on leaves of Cordia myxa. 
Choreutis bjerkandrelh, Thunberg. — North India. Larva on Blumea 

balsamijera (?) ; on t'ardmts, Innla, etc., in Europe. 

Blastobasis spermologa, Meyr. — Ceylon ; South India ; Pusa. Larva in 

tea-seed and in fallen fruits of Ficus glomerata. 
Blastobasis decolor, Meyr. — India, Ceylon. Larva in fallen fruit of 

Ficus glomerata. 
Blastobasis crassifica, Meyr. — India, Ceylon. Larva in pods of Crotahria 

Blastobasis transcripta, Meyr. — Alniora. Larva on twigs of Pimis 

hngi folia (? predaceous on Ripersia). 
Exinotis calnchlora, Meyr. — India, Ceylon. Larva in flower-heads of 
• Leucas sp. 



Prosintis florivora, Meyr. — Madulsima ; Piisa. Larva on flowers of mango. 
Holcx)cera pidverea, Meyr. ^-Plains of India. Larva on lac and lac insects. 


(The early stages of no Indian species are known.) 

(Tte early stages of no Indian species are known.) 

Argyresthia iofkura, Mejn:. — Aluiora. Larva on twigs of Pimis longi- 

folia (? feeding in shoots). 
Prays citri, Milliere. — India, Ceylon. Larva on flowers, shoots and fruits 

of Citrus spp. 
Hyjjonomeuta malinellus, Zeller. — Poona (?). Larva on Pyrus in Europe. 
Hyponotneida la/pidella, Wlsm. — Dharmsala. Larva on wild Salvia. 
Atteva fabridella, Swederus. — South India ; Bombay ; Central India. 

Larva on Ailanthns exceha. 
Atteva 7iiveigutta, W;k. — North-East India. Larva on Ailanthus excelsa. 
Mtherastis crrculata. MejT. — Travancore. Larva on Engenm jamhohna. 
Comocritis jneria, Meyr. — Ceylon : Assam. Larva on bark of Hevea 

bra sinensis and tea. 
Ethmia assamensis. Butler. — Himalayas; Larva on (?) Ehretia 

Anticrates hicijera. Meyr. — North Kanara. Larva on Sideroxyhn ioinen- . 


(The early stages of no Indian species are known.) 


Lithocolletis triarcJta, Meyr. — Pusa. Larva mining cotton leaf. 
Lithocolletis virgulata, Meyr. — Karwar ; Pusa. Larva mining leaf of 

Bxtea frondosa. 
Lithocolletis conista. Meyr. — Pusa. Larva mining leaf of Triiimfetta 

Lithocolletis iteina, Meyr. — Pusa. Larva mining Salix leaf. 
Lithocolletis darisona, Meyr. — Peradeniya. Larva mining leaf of Urena 

Lithocolletis bnnhinicv. Stainton. — Calcutta. Larva niiuing leaf of 

Bcmhinia juirjnrrea. 
Lithocolletis dorinda, Meyr. — Pusa. Larva mining Dcsmodium. leaf. 


LithocoUetis ganodes, Meyr. — Parachinar. Larva mining apple leaf. 
LithocoUetis incurvala, Meyr. — Karwar. Larva mining leaf of Straus 

lanthes callosus. 
LithocoUetis neodoxa, Meyr. — Piisa. Larva mining leaf of Cajamts 

Phrixosceles jjlexigrapfui, Meyr. — Pusa ; Coimbatore. Larva mining green 

pods of Cajanus indicus. 
Eficephalu ckalybacma, Meyr. — India, Burma, Ceylon. Larva in flower 

buds of Cwsalpinia pulcherrinia. 
Epicephala albifrons, Stainton. — India. Larva in fruits of Phyllantlnis 

Acrocercops pentaJocha, Meyr.- — Karwar. Larva mining mango leaf. 

Acrocercops ordinatella, MejT.^ — Ceylon; Sonth India ; ? Burma. Larva 
mining leaves of Litsea sp., Alseodaphne semecarpifolia and camphor. 

Acrocercops supplex, Meyr.— Pusa. Larva mining leaf of Terininalia 
catappa . 

Acrocercops quadrijasciata, Stainton. — Calcutta. Larva mining leaf of 
Urena lobata. 

Acrocercops prosacta, Meyr. — Pusa. Larva mining sweet-potato leaf. 

Acrocercops phceospora, Meyr. — Belgaum ; Pusa. Larva mining leaf of 

Eugenia jambolana. 
Acrocercops terminalice, Stainton. — Calcutta. Larva mining leaf of 

Terminalia catappa. 
Acrocercops cathednea. Meyr. — India. Larva mining leaf of Achyranthes 

Acrocercops ortliostacta, Meyr. — Pusa. Larva mining leaf of *S'(V7(/ cordi- 

Acrocercops austeropa, Meyr. — North Kanara. Larva mining leaf of 

Bauhinia pmrpurea and B. variegata. 

Acrocercops resplendens, Stainton. — North India. Apparently attacl.ed 

to Ficus religiosa (?) 
Acrocercops tricyma, Meyr. — Pusa : Khasis. Larva mining leaf of Blumea 

Acrocercops aninla, Meyr. — India. Lai-va mining Cynoglossum leaf. 
Acrocercops isonoma, Meyr. — Pusa. Larva mining mango leaf. 
Acrocercops isodeUa, Me)T. — Ceylon ; South India. Larva mining leaf 

of Colehroolea oppositifolia. 
Acrocercn-ps gemoniella, Stainton. — Plains of India. Larva minmg leaves 

of Semecarjms, Anacardivm, Achras sapota and (1) sugarcane. 
Acrocercops harringtoniella, van Deventer. — North Kanara. Lan^a 

minmg leaves of Barrvi^onia spicala and Careya arborea. 


Acrocercops hjsibuthra, Meyr. — Pusa. Larra mining leaf of Cordia 

Acrocercops fhraclojm, Meyr. — Pusa. Larva mining leaf of Ficus infec- 

Acrocercops geometra, Meyr. — Pusa ; Coimbatore. Larva mining leaf of 

Cordia myxa. 
Acrocercops hyphantica, Meyr. — Pusa. Larva mining leaf of Ccesalpinia 

Acrocercops hierocostna, Meyr. — Pusa. Larva mining litchi leaf. 
Acrocercops auricilla, Stainton. — Calcutta : Pusa. Larva mining leaf of 

Sivietenia mahagon i. 
Acrocercops telestis,M.eji. — Pusa ; Coimbatore ; Moulmein. Larva mining 

leaves of Trewia nudiflora, Gmelina arborea and Eugenia jambolana. 
Acrocercopjs desiccata, Meyr. — Peradeniya ; Pusa. Larva mining leaf of 

Ficxis glomerata. 
Acrocercops vstulatella, Stainton. — Calcutta ; Peradeniya. Larva mining 

young ebony leaves. 
Acrocercops syngramma, Meyr. — Plains of India. Larva mining mango 

Acrocercops labyrinthica , Meyr. — Pusa. Larva mining Trema leaf. 
Acrocercops aUactopa, Meyr. — Karwar. Larva mining leaf of Eugenia 

Acrocercops bifrenis, Meyr. — Belgaiim. I^arva mining leaves of two 

unidentified plants. 
Acrocercops brochogramma , Meyr. — Peradeniya. Bred from leaves of 

Hibiscus sp. 
Acrocercops crystallopa, Meyr. — Karwar. Larva mining leaf of Memecy- 

lon amplexicaule. 
Acrocercops cylicola, Meyr. — Karwar. Larva mining leaf of CoJcbrookea 

Acrocercojjs dialoniai, Meyr. — North Kauara. Larva mining leaf of 

unidentified plant. 
Acrocercoj)s ela])hopa, Meyr. — Karwar. Bred from Total creeper. 
Acrocercops eriojAaca, MejT. — Pusa. Larva mining in leaf of Termi- 

nalia catajjpa. 
Acrocercops extenuata, Meyr. — Karwar. Larva mining leaves of un- 
identified slirub. 
Acrocercops hemiglypta, Meyr. — Karwar. Larva mining leaves of un- 
identified plant. 
Acrocercops loxias, Me}T:.- — Jodlipur. Bred from Eugenia jamhol-ana. 
Acrocercops macroclina, Meyr. — Karwar. Larva mining leaf of Wagatea 



Acrocercops pharopeda, Meyr. — Karwar. Larva mining leaf of unidenti- 
fied creeper. 
Acrocercops scandulota, Meyr. — South India. Larva mining leaf of 

Helicteres isora. 
Acrocercops scenias, Meyr. — Karwar. Larva mining leaves of Changana 

Acrocercops scriptulata, Meyr. — Karwar. Larva mining leaves of .■^ Ter- 

minalia panicnlata . 
Acrocercops tenera, MejT. — Peradeniya. Larva mining leaf of ScJileickera 

Acrocercops triscahna, Me}T. — Karwar. Larva mining leaf of Wagatea 

Acrocercops vanula, Meyr. — Karwar. Larva mining leaf of Tenninalia 

foment osa. 
Liocrobyla paraschista, Meji:. — North Kanara ; Pusa. Larva mining leaves 

of Cajanus indicus, Butea frondosa and Desmodium gangeticmn. 
Stmnphastis plectica, Meyr. — Plains of India. Larva mining leaves of 

Sebasiiana chamcelea and Jatropha gossgpifolia. 
Parectopa coccinea, Wlsm. — Ootacamund. Larva rolling myrtle loaves. 
Parectopa labrodes, Meyr. MS. — Pusa. Larva mining Desmodium leaves. 
Cyphosticha ccerulea, Meyr. — Pusa ; Coimbatore. Larva mining leaves 

of Dolichos lahlah and Cajanus indicus. 
Gracillaria acidvia, Meyr. — Pusa. Larva mining leaf of PhgUanthus 

Gracillaria oclopunclata, Turner. — India. Larva rolling leaves of Dal- 

bergia sissu. 
Gracillaria zacJirysa, Meyr. — North-West India to Assam. Larva mininw 

and folding apple leaves. 
Gracillaria theivora, Meyi-. — India, Ceylon. Larva mining and rolling 

tea leaves. 
Gracillaria soyella, van Deventer. — Ceylon ; Plains of India. Larva 

rolling leaves of Cajanus indicus and Atylosia candollei ; in leaves 

of Soya hispida in Java. 
Gracillaria iselcea, Meyr. — Peradeniya. Larva on Sjjondias mangij'erce. 
Gracillaria ?? cnffeifoliella, Nietner. — Ceylon. Larva mining coffee 



Epimarptis philocoma, Meyr. — Karwar ; Khasis. Larva in web on 

unidentified plant. 
Idioglossa triacma, Meyr. — Khasis ; Pusa. Larva on leaves of Commdina 




(The early stages of no Indian species are known.) 

Acrolepia manganeutis, Meyr. — India, Ceylon. Larva on stored yams. 
PJutella tnaculipennis, Curtis. — Throughout India, Burma, Ceylon. 

Larva on cabbage, cauliflower, radish, mustard, candy-tuft and 

other cniciferous j)lants. 

Leucoptera sphenograpta, Meyi-. — Plains of North India. Larva mining 

leaf of DaJbergia sissu. 
PhyUocnistis chysophthahna, Meyr. — North Kanara. Larva mining leaf 

of Cinnammnum^ zeylanicum. 
PhyUocnistis cirrhojihanes, Meyr. — North Kanara. Larva mining leaf 

of Aheo(la])Jme semeccayifolia. 
PhyUocnistis citreUa, Stamton. — India, Ceylon ; ? Bumia. Larva-mining 

leaves of Cifnis spp., J^!gle mannelos, Murraya koenigii, and Jasminum 

PhyUocnistis habrochroa, Meyr. — North Kanara. Larva mining leaves 

of '■Cheli." 
PhyUocnistis heUcodes, Me}rr. — Pusa. Larva mming leaf of PolyaUhia 

1 on gi folia. 
PhyUocnistis selenopa, Meyr. — Peradeniya. Larva mining leaf of Melia 

PhyUocnistis synglypta, Meyr.' — Dharwar. Larva mining leaf of small 

unidentified shrab. 
PhyUocnistis tojxircha, Me^T.- — Coimbatore. Larva minmg leaf of grape- 
BedeUia sommdenteUa, Zeller. — Peshawar : North Coorg. Larva mines 

leaves of Convolndns, Ipomoea, etc. 
Crobylophora dariceUa, Meyr. — India, Burma, Ceylon. Larva mining 

leaf of Phimbago. 
Biicctdafrix cralercicnia, Meyr.- — Pusa. Larva mining leaf of Bombax 

Bwciilatrix exedra, Meyr. — India. Reared at Pusa from unidentified 

Buccvlatrix hxoptila, Meyi-.- — Attur (Madras). Larva on leaves of 

Caravonica cotton. 
Buccidatrix mcndax, Meyr.- — Pusa. Pupa on leaf of Dalbergia sissu. 
Bucndatrix verax, Meyi-. — Pusa. Larva en leaf of Trewia nudiflora. 


Petasobalhia sirina, MejT. — North Bihar. Larva on top-shoots of 

Opogona chalinota, Meyr. — India, Ceylon. Larva in dry stems of Polij- 

podivin quercijolimn. 
Opogona flavofasciata, Stainton. — India, Burma, Ceylon. Larva in 

fungus-comb of termites' nest. 
Opogona jyracincia, Meyr. — Coimbatore. Associated with a termite. 
Opogona lachanitis, Meyr. — Plains of India, Ceylon. Larva in fungus- 
comb of termites' nest. 
Opogona Jxnniceps, Felder. — Ceylon. Larva on coconut. 
Erechthias zebrina, Butler. — India, Ceylon. Larva probably a refuse 

Pylcelis mimosce, Stainton. — Plains of India and Ceylon. Larva in 

seeds of Acacia arahica, Cassia fishda and C. corymbosa. 
Decadarchis dissimidans, Meyr. — Ceylon. Larva on dead bark and wood. 
Tischeria ptarmica, Meyr. — Puri. Larva mining in leaf of Zizyplms 

Opostcga myxodes, Meyr. — Pusa. Larva mining leaf of Cordia niyxa. 


Melasina energa, Meyr. — Ceylon. Larva in tube in ground, feeding on 

dead leaves. 
Melasina grannlaris, Meyr. — Peradeniya. Larva in tube, feeding on 

Melasina campeslris, Meyr. — Pusa. Larva in tube in ground, feeding 

on dead leaves. 
MyrmecozeJa leontina, Mej^r. — Ivuki ; North Bihar. Larva in tube in 

ground, feeding on dead leaves 1 
Myrmecozela tineoides, Wlsm. — Plains of India. Larva on dry tobacco 

leaves 1 
Myrmecozela ? corticina, Mcjt. — PuSa. Larva boring bark of Ficus 

MacJiceropteris halistrepta, Meyr. — Plains of India and Ceylon. Larva 

in tube in ground, feeding on dead leaves ? 
Hypophrictis inceptrix, Meyr. — India, Ceylon. Larva in flat case, in 

nest of Cremaslogaster. 
Hypophrictis 'i plana, Meyr. MS. — Pusa. Larva in flat case, on mango 

Hypophrictis sp. — Pusa. Larva in flat case, in nest of Polyrhachis. 
Scardia sistrala, Meyr. — India, Ceylon. Larva boring into fungus 

{Polyporus and Fames). 
Ewrotala miclrai'i^ Mevr — A^sani. Bred from log of Shorea robusla. 


Hapsifern rugoseUa, Staintou. — India, Ceylon. Larva boring in dead 

Hapsifera seclusella, Wlk. — India, Ceylon. Larva in farmyard manure. 
Setomorpha wsectella, Fb. — Thronghout India, Ceylon, ? Burma. Larva 

on dead animal and vegetable matter. 
Latypica albofascieUa, Stainton. — Plains of India. Larva boring bark 

of Finis bengalensis. 
Atahyria bucephala, Snellen. — India. Larva boring in fungus. 
Elegistis cunicularis, Meyr. — Ceylon. Larva tunnelling in dead wood. 
Lepidoscia globigera, Me\T. — Ceylon (Hills). Larva in case, on lichens. 
Tinea opsigona, Meyr. — Plains of India, Ceylon. Larva on animal 

horns n 
Tinea frvgivora, Meyr. — Coimbatore ; Burma. Larva in dry fruits of 

Tinea peUionella, Linn. — Throughout India, Ceylon. ? Burma. Larva 

in case, on woollen cloth, feathers, hair, etc. 
Tinea pachjspila, Meyr. — Ceylon : Travancore. Larva in case, on 

flaimel, fur, etc. 
Tinea fuscipuncteUa, Haworth. — India. Larva in case, on dried fruit, 

in birds' nests,'etc. 
Macrceola inquisitrix, Meyr. — Pusa. Larva in case, on dead insects, etc. 
Tineola bissellieUa, Hummel. — Peshawar. Larva on hair, wool, etc. 
Trichopihaga ah-uptellu, Wollaston. — Throughout India. Larva on 

Crypsithyris hypnota, Meyr. — Peradeniya. Larva in case, on lichens. 
Crypsithyris longicornis, Stainton. — Calcutta ; Pusa. Larva in case,. 

feeding on lichens i 
Cryp'sithyris mesodyas, Meyr. — Peradeniya. Larva in case, on hchens, 
Monopis dicycla, MejT. — Ceylon; Calcutta. Larva on woollen cloth. 
Monopis heniicitra, Meyr. — Ceylon ; South India. Larva in Mantid egg- 
Monopis monacheUa, Hubner. — Throughout India, Burma, Ceylon. 

Larva amongst rubbish, in birds' nests, in skins, etc. 

(There is only one doubtfully Indian species whose early stages are 

(No eaily .stages of any Indian species are known.) 

peoceedings of the third entomcli.ogical meeting 857 

Nejdicula aiyijrodom, Meyr. — Pusa. Larva mining leaf of Desiiiodium sp. 
Nepticula isochaka, Meyr. — Pusa. Bred from cocoons on leaves of 

Phylhntlivs emhlica. 
NepticvlaliochaJca, Meyr. — Pusa. Larva mining leaf oi Ci/perus rolun- 



(Only one species of this Family has been discovered in India and 
its early stages are cpiite unknown.) 


Last year Major Eraser very kindly sent me a note-book coutaining "^''' *^'*'Cher 
a large number of coloured drawings of the early stages of Indian Butter- 
flies. In some cases the complete life-history is shown and in many 
cases I think that we have no published information on these early 



By K. KuNHi Kannan, M.A., F.E.S., Senior Assistant Entomologist. 

This j)est was discovered for the first time m the Nilgiris by a 
European planter in 1915. It was sent in for identification by 
Mr. Anstead. When it was determined as Orlhezia insignis, it was 
decided to test the effect of its attack on Lantana. In the course of 
observations, the life-history was studied of which the following are the 
more important details. The insect moults three times, the mterval 
between successive moults being roughly about two weeks. In about 
two to two and a half months the iascct begins to reproduce, the total 
number of young produced varying from 80 to 110. The total period 
from hatching to death is about four and a half months. 

The insect is not much attended by ants and the honey-dew is more 
of a solid nature and little in quantity. Transmission exp)eriments on 
the lines described in the Bidletin on Scale Insects of Coffee (Dept. of 
Agri., Mysore) failed to induce the species of ants experimented with to 
caiiy the insect to their nests. The insect retards the growth of Lantana 
and finally kills it. One bush on which it was introduced, measuring 
f.tout three feet high and four feet in diameter, was killed in three years. 



Mr. Fletcher, 

Hr. Ramakrishna 

Mr. Eunhi Eannan. 
Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Ramachandra 

Mr. Ramakrishna 

Mr. Fletcher. 

There is reason to believe that when bushes are thick aud adjoining, 
the effect will be accelerated. The insects failed repeatedly to thrive on 
coffee and tea-plants in pots. In more natural conditions it may catch 
on as it has done elsewhere. 

Orthezia insignis is not a very desirable insect to introduce even to 
reduce Lantarut. 

It is highly undesirable to bring in such insects. It is not found in 
India and we must be carefid not to introduce it. 

It was not introduced. 

No ; I know that it was not deliberately brought in to India. What 
I meant was that it is not desirable to spread it about in India. 

At Bangalore they were working out the life-history of Orthezia. 
I had the opportunity of going to Barwood Estate in the Nilgiris m 1917 
and saw the planter there. He told me that in 1915 he saw that this 
scale had wiped out a hedge of Lantana. He sent specimens to Mr. 
Anstead, who sent them on to Dr. Coleman at Bangalore. Dr. Coleman 
advised its immediate destruction, saying that it had a number of host- 
plants and was very dangerous. It was reported that the insect had been 
destroyed, but I found it still present in numbers on the Lantana bushes 
in 1917. 

It is a very undesirable thing and even for experimental jjurposes it 
should not be introduced. 

It is a pity that theSe things are not reported at the time. Even for 
destruction of Lantana this Scale-insect is not very efficient. I remember 
seeing it on Lantana around Diyatalawa when I was in Ceylon about 
twelve years ago ; and there it occurred in a patchy sort of way and, 
although it did check back the bushes actually attacked, it did not occur 
sufficiently generally to do any real good in checking Lantana. 


Bij K. KuNHi Kannan, M.A.. F.E.S, Senior Assistant Entomologist, 

The function of the H-shaped chitinous plate in Bruclius has remained 
obscure ever since it was noticed first by Riley. There has been even 
some m sapprehension that it was used by the Bruchid larva for excava- 
tion into the seed. It has. however, been jn-oved that it has no direct 
share in boring. The structure stands on a movable fold on the prothorax 
and is thrust against the egg-shell which in B. clnnensis is fixed on to the 


seeds. This leaning of the process against t^e egg-shell is necessary, 
firstly because the larva has no functional legs and therefore cannot get 
a grip on the seeds to use the mandibles, secondly because the 
larva is so short and thick-set that it has no neck to bend the head, 
80 that the bending of the head has to be effected by fixing the 
H-shaped structure at various angles. When it is fixed forward the 
mandibles work on the hind end of the hole. When fixed behind the 
head is freer and the mandibles work on the front side of the hole. 
For deeper excavations the process • is fixed along the rim of the hole 
at a point from which the head works on either side. The structure 
appears to vary a good deal in dift'erent species of store— as well as free- 
living forms and, before a study of the various forms is made and 
correlated with the habits of the species concerned, the account of the 
function of the structure in the genus cannot be said to be complete. 
Attempts in this direction are being made in Mysore. 


Bij E. A. D"Ab«eu. F.Z.S., Cnralor of the Centred Museum, Nagpvr. 
While makmg a representative collection of the avifauna of the Central 
Provinces for the Nagpur Museum, I made it a point to record the con- 
tents of the entire alimentary canal of almost every specimen secured. 
Six hundred birds were thus examined and a list of the contents of their 
stomachs has been published in No. II of the Records of the Nagpur 
Museum. I now intend to give a list of the insects taken by the various 
birds and also a list of the birds examined which included insects in their 


Forficulidce. — Fourteen species of birds had taken these insects, 
namely, the Pied Myna, a flycatcher, a chat, two wagtails, the Hawk- 
Cuckoo, a water-hen {A. fhoenicurvs), two plovers, two sandpipers and a 
spoonbill. The Black Ibis and the Spotted Owlet pa took of these insects 
more freely. The Earwig taken from TickelFs Blue Flycatcher was 
Labidura riparia. 

Bla':id(B. — Cockroaches were noticed in the stomach of a Grey 
Hornbill and repeatedly in those of the Yellow-fronted Pied Wood- 

Mawh'(7a;.— Mantids were taken from seven birds inc'uding Dicrurus 
aler and Acrocephalus stentoreus. Of identified species HumberlieVa 
indica was taken by Sylvia jerdoni, Hierodtila weslicoodi by th • Grey 


Hornbill. P ed Crested Cuckoo and Jungle Owlet; and Sclnzocephahis 
bicornis by the Cattle Egret. 

Acrididce. — Locusts and short-horned grass-hoppers are, as is well 
known, eaten by most insectivorous birds. They were taken by all or 
mosi of the species of Babblers. Warblers, Slirikes, Wagtails, smaller 
Ow's ; by some of the Drongos, Thrushes, Chats, Pipits ; Cuckoos ; 
Harriers ; Herons ; Egrets ; Ibises ; by the Roller ; Bee-eater ; Pitta ; 
Buzzard Eagle and Kestrel ; and to a lesser extent by a water-hen and 
Jungle fowl. 

As a destroyer of grass-hoppers, I think the Cattle Egret would 
come a good first, although much of his hunting is done near tanks. 
A second place would perhaps be given to the Buzzard Eagle, the Harriers, 
the Kestrel, the Roller, the smaller Owls, the Common Myna and the 
Black Drongo. 

Tetrigince. ■ The Tetrigince were all taken by water-haunting birds, 
e.g., the Wliistling Thrush, the Swallow, four WagtaUs and two Egrets. 

Tryxttlince. Tryxalis turrita or allied forms were taken by the 
White-eyed Buzzard Eagle and the Cattle Egret. 

Epncromia dor.'^alis by Dis.'^emnr'is paradiseus and Ghucidium radia- 

Oedi'podince. Oedaleus (Gaslrimargus) niannoratus was taken by 
the Roller, Jungle Owlet, Montagu's Harrier and the Black Ibis ; other 
Ocdipodinffi were noticed in the Swallow. Sirkeer Cuckoo and grey Jungle 

P y rgomorphince. Atmctomorpha crenidata and species of Chioiogonus 
were taken in quantity by the Buzzard-Eagle and Cattle Egret. Chroto- 
gonus tracliypterus w5s identified from the Roller. Dicnirus ater and 
Pelrofliila cyaneus also accounted 'or Chrologonus. 

Acridinw. Acridinw were observed in 21 species of birds. The 
genus Calanlofs was taken by the Kestrel and Jungle Owlet. The 
species Cyrtacanthacris ranacea by the Sirkeer Cuckoo, Coucal, Montagu's 
Harrier, Kestrel and Cattle Egret. Teratodvs monticollis by the Coucal, 
and species of Oxya by the Common Myna and the Indian Wren Warbler. 

LocnRiida. Locustids were taken by the Bulbul {M. hamorrJwus), 
two- Warblers, two Shrikes and the Cattle Egret. Conocephalus indicus 
was found in Lanivs lahiora. 

GryllidcB. Crickets, excluding mole-crickets, were eaten by the 
following birds : — C4rey Wagtail, CTrey-headed Wagtail, Indian Pitta, 
Crested Swift, Buzzard Eagle, Spotted Owlet, Common Sandpiper, 
Spoonbill, Black Ibis. Cattle Egret and Pond Heron. Tridactylince were 
taken by MolaciUa mdanopc ; Gryllodes sp. by the Pitta, Black Ibis, 
. Cattle Egret and Pond Heron ; Brackytrypes sp. by the Spotted Owlet 


and Black Ibis and LiognjUus himaculatvs by the Black Ibis. Mole-* 
crickets {Gri/lloldlpa africana) were taken by the Pied Myna, Indian 
Pitta, Spotted Owlet, Brown Crake, Common Sandpiper, Cattle Egret 
and to a great extent by the Black Ibis. 

Neuroi tera. 

Termit'ulw- Termites were taken by the following birds and the 
first four appear to be more partial to them : — Acridotheres tristis, Gallo- 
■perdix sjiadicea, Ctirsoritis coromandelicvs, Sarrogrammns indiciis, Cyornis 
ticJcelli, Anthvs compestris. Mirajra erythroplera, Bracliyflernus auraniivs, 
Gallus sonnerali, Perdicula asiatica, Tvrnix fvgnax, and Dicnmis ater. 
Winged individuals were only taken by the Drongo. 

Odonata. Adult Dragon-flies were taken by but four species of 
birds : — the Malabar Whistling Thrush, two Bee-eaters and a Hobby. 
Adult Agrionids by the Black-naped Flycatcher, Grey Wagtail and Pond 

Dragonfly nymphs of the family Anisoptera were taken by 
most water-frequenting birds as listed below, viz., Grey Wagtail, Blue- 
headed Wagtail. Spur-winged Plover, Wood Sandpiper, Greenshank, 
Ruff, Common Snipe, Pintail Snipe, White Ibis, Spoonbill, White-necked 
Stork, Eastern Purple Heron, Large Egret, Cattle Egret, Pond Heron, 
Brahminy Duck, Little Grebe. 

Agrionid nymphs were taken by the following : — Wood Sandpiper, 
Marsh Sandpiper, Cattle Egret, Little Grebe. 

Epkemeridce. Ephemerid nymphs were taken by Gallmago cceleslis 


Chrysopince. A species of Chrysopa was taken by Franklin's Nightjar 
and a Chrysopa larva by the Little Ringed Plover. 

Hymenoptera (ants excluded), chiefly of small size, were found in 
the stomachs of the following birds : — MadilolopJms haplonolus, Dvmelia 
hyperythra , Alcippe phwocephnla , Dicnirvs ater, D. longicavdatiis, Dis- 
seimmis paradisciis, Hypolais rawa, Prinia socialis, P. inornata, Lanins 
nigriceps, Tephrodornis pondicerimws. Grmwalus macii. Acridotheres 
tristis, Alseonax latirostris, Terpsiphone paradisi, Phipidiira albifronlata, 
Petrophila cinclorJiyncha, Hinmdo nepalensis, Motacilla personata, M. 
cilreola, An'hus rujulus, Merops viridis, Lophoceros birostris, Macrop'eryx 
coronata, Caprinmlgus monlicola, Athene brama, Pernis cristatus and 
Falco snhbuteo. 


Ichneumons, Cuckoo Wasps (Chrysis fuscifennis) and Pompilids, 
including Salnis flaws, were taken by the Racket-tailed Drongo and 
other Fossores hy Alci-pfe fha'oiefhala. Polistes hebrceiis was also taken 
by Disse7mnus paradiseus and Emnenes conica by a Grey Hornbill. 

Afidce. Bees were taken by Merojis riridis, Dicnmis longkaxidahis, 
Pernis cristatvs and Macrofteryx coronata. Apis florea, A. dorsala, 
and AnihofJiora confvsa were all taken by Merops viridis, and Apis 
florea by Macropteryx coronata. 

Formicidw. Ants were found in the stomachs of 42 species of birds, 
chiefly C^rows, Babblers, Warblers, Shrikes, Drongos, Wagtails, Chats, 
Thrushes, Swallows, Flycatchers, Larks and Pipits. They were taken 
to a greater extent by all the Wood-peckers, the Wryneck, the Eed 
Spur-fowl, the Common Myna and the Pied Bush Chat. 

Ponerince. These ants were observed in Hirvndo nepalensis, and 
Lobopelta ocellifera was observed in erylhronotvs and Pavo cris- 

Myrmecince. Creniastogaster suhnvda was taken by Argya caudata, 
Brachypternns aiirantius, lynx torqvilla and other myrmecine species by 
Cyornis svperciliaris, Dicrurvs ater, Hirundo nepalensis, Alavda gidgida 
and Platalea leucorcdia. 

Camponoiince. Camponottis comprcssiis was taken by Corvits splen- 
dens, Argya malcohni, Crateropus canorus, Sylvia jerdoni, Temenuchus 
pagodanim, Acridotheres tristis, Siphia parva, Cyornis tickelli, Pratincola 
caprata, Petrophila cyaneus, Pitta hrachyura, BracJiyptermis aiirantius, 
Galloperdix spadicea, Ammirornis phcenicurus. Ibis melanocepJiala and 
Psetidotantalns lencomelanus ; C. irriians was taken by Cyornis super- 
ciliaris, Gecinus striolalvs and Brcwhypterniis auraniins ; other species of 
Camponotus were taken by Dissemurvs pardiseus and Sylvia afpnis. 

OEcophylla smaragdina was taken by Stvrnia malabarica, Cyornis 
tickelli and Brachyptcrnus aurantiiis, and PolyracJiis by Dinnetia hype- 


Coleoptera, either in .the adult, larval, or pupal stages, were found 
in the stomachs of 108 species of birds. 

Cicindelidce. Tiger-beetles were taken by but four birds, namely, 
jEgialitis dubia, Inocotis papillosus, Ardeola grayi and Podicipes 

Carabida'. Carabida3 were found in the following birds : — Dicrurvs 
ater Lanivs erythronotus, Cyornis tickelli, Hinmdo nepalensis, Mofacilla 
pcrsonaia, Antlms rujulus, Pitta braclnjura, Coracias indica, Macropteryx 
coronata, Amaurornis akool, Totanvs liypolevcns, Inocotis papillosvs, 
Pseudotantahis leucocephalus and Podicipes albipennis. Of identified 


species Scarites indus was taken by Coracias iiulica ; S. semirugosus by 
Inocotis ■papillosus ; Clivina striata by Pseudotantalus leucocephalus ; 
Malcenus sp. by Dicrurus ater and Coracias itidica ; Plaiymetopus (?) 
erebius by /. papillosus ; Chlamius hamifer by Gyornis tickelU ; Ch. margi- 
nifer by /. papillosus and P. leucocephalus ; Ch. circmndalus, Ch. 
rugulosus, Ch. nigricans, Ch. chalcothorax, Pheropsophu.% cardoni, Ph. 
catoirei and Ph. occipitalis by Inocotis papillosus. 

Haliplidce. Haliplus angustifrons was taken by Nyroca ferruginea 
and Podicipes alhipennis. 

Dytiscidw. Dytiscids were taken by Macropteryx coronata, jEgiaUtis 
dubia, Totanus glareola, T. slagnatilis, Gallinago coslestis, Ibis melanoce- 
phala, Inocotis papillosus, Platalea Icucorodia, Ardeola grayi, Pseudc- 
tantalus leucocephalus, Dissura episcopus and Podicpes albipennis. 

Laccophilus anticatus was taken by T. glareola and P. albipennis ; 
Cybister confusus by D. episcopus and P. leucocephalus ; Cybister Iripunc- 
tatus by Ibis melanocephala ; species of Cybister were also taken by P. 
leucorodia and P. leucocephalus ; Hypophorus ater and Eretes sticticus 
were taken by P. leucorodia and the larvae of Hydalicus and Cybister by 
Ardeola grayi. 

StaphylinidcB. Pcederus sp. was taken by MotaciUa maderaspatensis 
and other species by M. personata and Macropteryx coronata. 

Silphidce. A Silphid grub was noticed in the stomach of MotaciUa 

CucujidcB. A specimen was noticed in Disseninrus paridis us. 

CryptophagidcB. These beetles were taken by Hirmido rustica. 

CoccinellidcB. Chilomenes sexmaculata was found in Aegithina tiphia 
and Molpastes hcemorrhous ; Thea cincta. in Sylvia afp.nis ; Scymnns sp. 
in Prin a socialis, Cottle sinensis and Macropteryx coronata. 

DermestidcB. A grub was identified from the stomach of Inocotis 

Byrrhidce. A specimen had been taken by Liopicus mahrattensis. 

Hydrophilidce. Berosus decrescens was found in MotaciUa melanope ; 
Hydrophilus olivaceus in Ibis inelanocephala, Inocotis papillosus, Platalea 
leucorodia, Dissura episcopus ; and other Hydrophilids were seen in 
Totanus hypoleucus, T. stagnatilis, Pavoncilla pugnax and Podicipes 

Cantharidw. A firefly was found in the stomach of Hcrodius alba, 
but it was most probably first eaten by a frog. 

Cleridce. Necrobia rufipes was found in Ortholomus sutorius. 

BuprestidcB. Buprestids had been taken by Dendrocitta ruja, Argya 
nmlcomi, Aegithina tiphia, Chloropsis jerdoni, Lanius nigriceps, Graucahis 

VOL. Ill • D 


macii, Tememichiis -pagodanim. LopJioceros hirostris and Glaucidivin 
radiatvm . 

.Elateridat. CHck-beeties occurred in Lanvs Jahlora, Tememichus 
fagodarum, Bhifidvra pecloraUs, Hinindo nepalensis, Motacilla citrcola. 
Pitta hracJiyura, Inocotis pafillosvs and Platalea levcorodia. Lacon sp. 
occurred in Amavrornis pJiceni'cvrus. and Elaterid grubs were found in 
Acndolheres tristis, Cvctdiis canonis, Centropus sinensis, Sarcogranimvs 
indicus and Gallinago coelestis. 

Teneb ionidce. Platynotvs perjoraixis was found in Lanius lahtma ! 
^.patrvm depressxtm in Oriohis kundoo and Thamnohia c mba/iensis •' 
flther species of Opatrum in Pelrophila njamis. Pitta hradiyvra and a 
lan^a in Inocotis fapiUofvs. Fhytinota impcUtd was seen frequently 
in Peirophila cyanvs and Inocotis papiUosvs and other Tenebrionids in 
Mixornis rvpricapilhis. Lavins victriceps, Motacilln meJcmope and Bnhidcvs 

Anthicid OB These small beetles were seen in Motacilla melanope. 

Lariadcc. Brvchvs sp. was taken by Araclvnechthra zeylanica and 
Perdicvla asiclica ; Sper- < pliacjvs sp. by Cyanecida svecica ; other Bru- 
chids by Pyctorhis sinensis, Ilypolais rama and Macropieryx coronata. 

Chrysctnelida: . Thee eet'es were found in 22 species of birds. 
CassidincB were noticed in the Swallow, as well as Nodostoma sp. and 
Cocassida pvdi vvda. Scelodonta sp. was noticed in Dunietia hyperyfhra _ 
and Crypt ocephahis seliestedti in Prinia inornata and Hirundo rustica. 
Flea beetles, CJicctocncma sp.. had been eaten by Cisticola ciirsitans, 
P inia socialis, HypoJais mma, Motacilln madeiaspatensis, M. cilreola, 
M. melanopie and Podicipes albipennis. 

Cer mhytidce. Longicorn grubs had been taken by Liopicus mah- 
ratiensis and lyncjipicvs Jiardiwickii; and a single i^mall Lorgicorn was 
found in Podicipes albipennis. 

Cvrcvlionidce. WeevUs had been eaten by 28 species of birds. 
Species of Apion aloiie were found in 18 stomachs, chiefly Babblers. 
Warblers, Swallows, Wagtails and Sandpi' ers. 

Species of Tanymecits were found in Dicrurvs ater, Giaucalus macii. 
Ibis mclanocephela and Platalea leucorodia ; Myllocerus in Acroccphalus 
dumetorvm. and Lims IracJiynlmms in Graucalns macii. 

Scaralcvidcc. Coprids were noticed in 23 species of birds, chiefly 
Drongos, Shrikes, Mynas, Thrushes, Swallows, Wagtails, Bee-eaters, 
Nightjars, Owls, the Hobby, Plovers, Sandpipers, Water-hens, the 
Spoonbill and the Cattle Egret. 

Ontlwfhagus sp. was noticed in Acridotheres tristis, Pitta hrachyura, 
Cap'inivlgvs mcnticola, Amawornis phanicurus. Sarcogrammus indicus, 
and Platalea levcorodia ; Gymnopleurus sp. in Glaucidium radiatum and 


A. phoeniciirus ; Heliocopris sp. iii Bubo bengahmis ; Trox sp. iti Capri- 
rtudgus montieola and Rhyssemus sp. in Amauroniis a/cool. The Dynastid, 
Heteronychus lioderes, was taken by Inocotis papillosus and Bubulcus 
corommidxis. Melolontliids were noticed in Glaucidiimi radiatum and 
Melolonthid larviB were noticed twice in Inocotis papillosus ; in one 
instance as many as 101 specimens were taken. 


Caterpillars had been eaten by 58 species of birds. These were 
the Tree-pie, 2 species of Tits, 4 Babblers, the lora, Chloropsis, 
one Bulbul, 2 Drongos, 6 Warblers, 1 Creeper, 6 Shrikes, 3 Mynas, an 
Oriole, a Flycatcher, 2 Chats, the Baya. 4 Wagtails, 2 Pipits, 3 Smibirds, 
the Pitta, 4 Woodpeckers, 5 Cuckoos, 1 Owl, 1 Dove (a single instance), 
the Stouc-ciirlew, Greenshank, Spoonbill, Pond Heron and Grebe. Hairy 
caterpillars were taken by Lanius nigriceps, Cuculus canorus, Hierococc>/:c 
varius and Taccocua leschenaulli. Of identified families Arctiadce. were 
taken by Cuculus canorus ; Lymantriadw by Hierococcyx varius ; Pyralidxe 
by Campophaga sykesi, Oriolus melanocephala, Cicculus canorus and 
Cislicola cursitans ; Cossidce by Liopicus mahrattensis and Brachypternus 
aurantius ; Noctuidce by Macldolophus haplmiotus, Dicrurus ater, Cycn-nis 
iickelli, Graucalus macii, Cyanecula suecica (Agrotis sp.), AntJius rufulus. 
Pitta hrachyura and .Brachypternus aurantius ; Gemnetridw by Alcippe 
phcEOcephala, Dicrurus ater, Cisticola cursitans, Tephrodornis pondi- 
Cfrianus, Campophaga sykesi, Cuculus canorus and Glaucidium radiatum. 
A Lycsenid caterpillar was taken by (Edicnemus scolopax. Adult Lepidop- 
tera were found in only a few cases. Phylloscopus ajjinis and Capri- 
niulgus montieola had taken moths which could not be identified. Noc- 
tuids were noticed in Prinia socialis and Caprimulgus montieola ; PyraUds 
in Perecrocotus erythropygius ; Geometrids in Campophaga sykesi ; 
Arctiadae in Alseonax latirostris and Sphingidse in Dicrurus ater and 
Coccystes jacobinus. A Drongo was seen taking a Tasar moth on the 

Pupae had been eaten by Chloropsis jerdoni, Salpornis spilonotus and 
Coccystes jacobinus, and batches of insect eggs were found ux Parus 
atriceps, Argya malcolmi, Aegithina tiphia, Sturnopastor contra, Motacilla 
melanope, Anthus rufulus, Caprimulgus montieola and Taccocua lescJie- 


Diptera were taken by 34 species of birds, chiefly Warblers, 
Flycatchers, Swallows, Wagtails, the Bee-eater, Cattle Egret and a few 
others. Maggots were repeatedly found in quantity in Corvus splendens 



and other dipterous larvae iii three Wagtails, two Thrushes and the Black 

Mycetophilnlce. Fungus-gnats had been taken by Mthopyga seheriae. 

Stratiomyiaclce. Sargus sp. was taken by Ibis tnelanocephala. 

Tnhanidce,. Chrysops dispar was taken by Tephrodornis pondicerianus 
and Bhipidvra pectoralis ; Tabanus rubidus by Bubulcus coromandus ; 
other Tabanids were taken by Motacilki. nmderaspatensis and B. coro- 

Chloropidce. These flies were taken by Hirundo rustica. 

Diopsidce. These were taken by Podicipes albipennis. 

Trypetidw. Trypetidce were taken by CopsycJms saularis and the 
larvaj by Prinia socialis and C. smdaris. 

Ortalidce. These flies were noticed in Podicipes albipennis. 

AtitJwmyiadce. Ardeola grayi partook of these flies freely. 

Miiscidce. Pycnosoma favicejys was taken by Terpsiphone paradisi 
and other blue-bottles by Alseonax latirostris, Culicicapa ceylonens'is 
and Merops riridis. Musca domesfica. is eaten by Motacilla rnaderas- 
patensis and Bubulcvs coratnandus and other Muscids were found in 
most of the riycatchers (A. latirostris, C. ceylonensis, T. paradisi, R. 
pectorali.^) and Biihilcvs coromainhts. Muscid larvae are much taken 
off carrion by Crows. 

Tachinidce. Tachimdce were taken by Terpsiphone paradisi. 

Hippoboscida. A specimen was noticed in the stomach of Astur 


Peniatomidw. Pentatomids seem a favourite diet with birds. Halys 
<ientati(S was taken by Tephrodornis pondicerianus, Brachypternus auran- 
iiits and Lophoceros birostris ; Eiisarcocm-is sp. by Cisticola cursitans ; 
Coptoscma indicvm by Prinia socialis ; Cydnvs sp. by Macropteryx 
coronata : Geotomvs sp. by Hirundo erythropygia and M. coronata, and 
other Pentatomids by the following birds, — Dendrocitta rufa, Argya 
malcolmi, Dvmetia hyperythra, Pyctorhis sinensis, Aegithina tiphia, 
Diss(mvriis paradiseus, Orthotmnus sutorius, Lanius nigriceps. Pericrocotus 
roscus, Graucalus macii, Sturnia malabarica, Temenuchus pagodarum, 
Sturnopastor contra, Petrophila cincloryncha, Motacilla maderaspatensis, 
M. melanope, M. borealis, Anthus rufulus, Glaucidium radiatum, Franco- 
linus pondicerianus, Amaurornis akool, Platalea leumrodia, Herodias alba 
and Biibnlciis coromandus. 

Coreidcc. These bugs were noticed in Orthotomus sutorius and Pitta 

L'ljga'idce. Lygceus hosjKs wa^s taken by Francolinus pondicerianus 
and other Lygseidie by Frankiinia gracilis and Motacilla maderaspatensis. 


Pyrrhocmidce. Dysdoxus ciru/ulatus was taken by Molpastes hmnwr- 
rlious and other bugs of this family by Inocolis papillosus. 

Hydmmetridce. Gerris sp. was taken by Myiophoneus horsfieldi and 
Podicipes albipennis and other Hydrometrids by Motacilla melanope. 

Reduviida. Edomocoris cordiger was taken by Inocotis papillosus 
and other Reduviids by Anthus cnmpestris. 

Cimicida'. A bed-bug was found in the stomach of Acridotheres 

Nepidce. Laccotrephes ruber was taken by Ibis melanocephala and 
D-issiira episCopns, and Ranatra fiUformis by Podicipes albipennis. 

Naucoridce. Heleocoris sp. was taken by Inocotis papillosus. 

Belostamidcp. Belostoma'^ndica was taken by Botaurus stellaris, and 
Sphc^rodema annidatmn by Grus antigone. 

NofonectidcE. Enithares sp. was taken by Myophoneus horsfieldi 
and Platalea leucorodia, Anisops sp. by Platalea leucorodia ; Notonectids 
were also taken by Pseudotantalus leucocephalus, Ardeola grayi and 
'Spatula clypeata. 

CwixidcE. These were taken by Motacilla citreola. 

FidgoridcE. Fulgorids were observed in the stomachs of Phylloscopus 
affinis, Cotile sinensis and Anthus maculatus. 

MembracidcB. Membracids were eaten by Phylloscopus affinis, 
Prima inornata, Hirundo rustica, H. nepalensis and Brachypternus auran- 

Cercopidce. Cercopids were taken by Acanthopneuste viridanus. 

Jassidce. Jassids were noticed in Maxiornis rubricapillus, Terpsi- 
phoneparadisi, Piprisoma squalidum, and Macropferyx coronata. 

Aphididcc. Aphids were taken by Pyctorhis sinensis, Hirundo nepalen- 
sis, Motacilla citreola, Aethopyga seherice and Liopicus mahrattensis. 

Spiders had been taken by 34 species of birds, a False-scorpion (Cher- 
netidce) by Salpornis spilonotus and the mite Trombidum grandissimum 
by Ccrrvus macrorhynchus. Of ticks Hyalomma cegyptium was found in 
Corvus splendens and C. macrorhynchus and Bouphilus australis in Acri- 
dotheres ginginianus. 

Insectivorous or partially insectivorous birds inhabiting the Central 
Provinces which were examined. 

1. Corvus splendens — Indian Crow. 

2. Dendrocitta ritfa — Indian Tree Pie. 

3. Parus atriceps — Indian Grey Tit. 

4. Machlolophus haplo^iotus — Southern Yellow Tit. 


5. Argya caudata — Coiuoion Babbler. 

6. Argya malcolmi — Large Grey Babbler. 

7. Crateropus canorus — Jungle Babbler. 

8. Dumetia hyperythra — Rufou.s-bellied Babbler. 

9. Pyctorhis sinensis — Yellow-eyed Babbler. 

10. Alcippe pJiceocephala — Nilgiri Babbler. 

11. Mixornis rubricapilhis — Yellow-breasted Babbler. 

12. Myiophoneus horsfieldi — Malabar Whistling Tlirusb. 

13. AegitMna tipliia — Common lora. 

14. CJdoropsis jerdoni — Jerdon's Cbloropsis. 

15. Molpastes hmnonhous — Madras Red-vented Bulbul. 

16. Sitta castaneiventris — Chestnut-bellied Nuthatch. 

17. Dicrurus ater — Black Drongo. 

18. Dicninis longicaudatus — Indian Ashy Drongo. 

19. Dissenmrus pamdiseus — Larger Racket- tailed Drongo. 

20. S(dporim spihnota — Spotted-grey Creeper. 

21. Acroceplialus stentoreus — Indian Great Reed Warbler. 

22. A. dtmetoram — Blyth's Reed Warbler. 

23. Orthotomus sutomis — Indian Tailor Bird. 

24. Cisticola cursitans — Rufous Fantail- Warbler. 

25. Franldinia gracilis — Franklin's Wren- Warbler. 

26. Hypolais rama— Sykes's Tree-Warbler. 

27. Sijlria jerdoni— EasteTn Orphean Warbler. 

28. Sylvia affinis — Indian Lesser White-throated Warbler. 

29. Pkylloscopus affinis—TickeWB Willow- Warbler. 

30. Acanthopneuste viridanus — Greenish Yellow- Warbler. 

31. Prinia socialis — Ashy Wren Warbler. 

32. P. inomata— Indian Wren Warbler. 

33. Lanius lahtora^lndian C4rey Shrike. 

34. L. nigriceps — Black-headed Shrike. 

35. L. erytlwonotus — Rufous-backed Shrike. 

36. TepJirodornis pondicerianus — Common AVood-shrike. 

37. Pericrocotus roseus — Rosy Minivet. 
38; P. percgrimis — Small Minivet. 

39. P. enjtkropygius — Wliite-bellied Minivet. 

40. Campopluiga mehnoschisia — Dark-grey Cuckoo-shrike. 

41. C. sykesi — Black-headed C\ickoo-shrike. 

42. Graxicalus inacii — Large CHickoo-shrike. 

43. Oriolus Jcundoo — Indian Oriole. 

44. 0. melanocephalus — Indian Black-headed Oriole. 

45. Sturnus menzhieri — Common Indian Starling. 

46. Sturniamalabarira — Grey-headed Myna. 


47. Temenuchus pagodaruni — Black-lieaded Myna. 

48. Acridolheres tristis— Common Myaa. 

49. Slurnopastor contra — Pied Myna. 

50. Siphia parva — European Red-breasted Flycatcher. 

51. Cyornis superciliaris — -White-browed Blue Flycatcher. 

52. Cyornis tickelU — Tickell's Blue Flycatcher. 

53. Alseonax latirostris — Brown Flycatcher. 

54. Cidicicapa ceylonensis — Grey-headed Flycatcher. 

55. Te.rpsiphone paradisi — Indian Paradise Flycatcher. 

56. Hypotkymis azurea — Indian Black-naped Flycatcher. 

57. Rhipidura albifrontata — White-browed Fantail Flycatcher. 

58. It. pedoraUs — White-spotted Fantail Flycatcher. 

59. Pratincola caprata — Common Pied Bush Chat. 

60. P. maura — Indian Bush Chat. 

61. Cercomela fusca — Brown Rock Chat. 

62. Cyanecula suecica — Indian Blue Throat. 

63. Thamnohia cambaiensis — Brown-backed Indian Robin. 

64. Copsychus saularis — Magpie Robin. 

65. Geocichla cyanonotus — White-throated Ground Thrash. 

66. Petrophila cinclorhyncha — Blue-headed Rock Thrash. 

67. P. cyaneus — Western Blue Rock Thrash. 

68. Ploceus baya — The Baya. 

69. Cotile sinensis — Indian Sand Martin. 

70. Hirundo rustica — The Swallow. 

71. H. nepalensis — Hodgson's Striated Swallow. 

72. H. eri/thropyy ia — Sykes's Striated Swallow. 

73. Motacilla afta— White Wagtail. 

74. M. personata — ^Masked Wagtail. 

75. M. maderaspatensis — Large Pied Wagtail. 

76. M. melanope — Grey Wagtail. 

77. M. borenlis — Grey-headed Wagtail. 

78. Motacilla beema — Indian Blue-headed Wagtail. 

79. M. citreola^Y eWow-headed Wagtail. 

80. AntJius maculatus — Indian Tree-Pipit. 

81. A. rufuliis — -Indian Pipit. 

82. A. campestris — Tawny Pipit. 

83. Mirafra erythroptera — Red-winged Bush Lark. 

84. Galerita deva — Sykes's Crested Lark. 

85. Ammmnanes phcenicura — Rufous-tailed Finch Lark, 

86. Aethopyga seherice — Himalayan Yellow-backed Sun Bird. 

87. AracJinecJithra asialica — Purple Sun Bird. 
;88. A. zeyhnica — -Purple-rumped Sun Bird. 


89. Pvprisoma squalidvm — Thick-billed Flower Pecker. 

90. Pitta brachyura — Indian Pitta. 

91. Gecinus striolatus — Little Scaly- billed Green Woodpecker, 

92. Liopicus malirattensis — Yellow- fronted Pied Woodpecker, 

93. lyvgipicus hardivickii — Indian Pigmy Woodpecker. 

94. Bracliyplenius aurantius — Golden-backed Woodpecker. 

95. Chrysocolaptes festivus — Black-backed Woodpecker. 

96. lynx iorquilla — Common Wryneck. 

97. Comcias indica — Indian Roller. 

98. Merops viridis — Common Indian Bee-Eater. 

99. Lophoceros birostris — Common Grey Hornbill. 

100. Macropteryx cormiata — Indian Crested Swift. 

101. Caprinndgus monticola — Franklin's Nightjar. 

102. Cuculus canorus — The Cuckoo. 

103. C. poliocephalus — Small Cuckoo. 

104. Hierococcyx varius — Common Hawk Cuckoo. 

105. Coccystes jacobinvs — Pied Crested Cuckoo. 

106. Taccocua leschenaidti — Siikeer Cuckoo. 

107. Centropus sinensis — The Coucal. 

108. Bubo bengaJensis — Rock Homed Owl. 

109. Athene brama — Spotted Owlet. 

110. Glaucidium radiatum — Jungle Owlet. 

111. Ninox scutulata — Brown Hawk-Owl. 

112. Butastur teesa — White-eyed Buzzard-Eagle. 

113. Circus cinemceus — Montagu's Harrier. 

114. Aslur badius— The Shikra. 

115. Pernis cristatus — Crested Honey-Buzzard. 

116. Falco svbbuteo—The Hobby. 

117. Tinnuncidus alaudarius — The Kestrel. 

118. lurtur suratensis — Spotted Dove. 

119. Pavo cristatus — Common Peafowl. 

120. Gallus sonnerati — Grey Jungle Fowl. 

121. GalJoperdix spadicea — Red Spur Fowl. 

122. Perdicida asiatica — Jungle Bush Quail. 

125. Amaurornis akool — Brown Crake. 

126. A. phcenicunis — Wliite-breasted Water Hen. 

127. Gallinula cJiloropus — The Moorhen. 

128. Crrus antigone — The Sarus. 

129. (Edicnemus scolopax — Stone Curlew. 

130. Cursorivs coromandelicvs — Indian Courser. 

131. Sarcogronnnus indicvs — Red- wattled Lapwing. 

132. Hoplop)terus ventralis — Spur-winged Plover. 


133. Mgialitis dubia — Little Ringed Plover. 

134. Himanlopns candidus — Black-winged Stilt. 

135. Totanus hypoleucus — Common Sandpiper. 

136. T. glareola — Wood Sandpiper. 

137. T. ochropus — Green Sandpiper. 

138. T. stagixililis — Marsh Sandpiper. 

139. T. fuscus — Spotted Redshank. 

140. T. glottis — Greenshank. 

141. Pavoncella pugnax — The Ruff. 

142. Tringa temmincki — Temmincks's Stint. 

143. Gallinago coelestis — Conanion Snipe. 

144. G. gaUinula — Jack Snipe. 

145. Ibis melanocephala — White Ibis. 

146. Inocotis papillosus — Black Ibis. 

147. Platalea leucorodia — The Spoonbill. 

148. Dissura episcopus — White-necked Stork. 

149. Psevdotantalus leococej)h(du.s — Painted Stork. 

150. Ardea manillensis — Eastern Purple Heron. 

151. Herodins alba — Large Egret. 

152. Biibulcus cormnandus — Cattle Egret. 

153. Ardeola grayi — Pond Heron. 

154. Ardetta cinnamomea — Chestnut Bittern. 

155. Botaurvs stellaris — The Bittern. 

156. Casarcarvtila — Brahminy Duck. 

157. Nettopus cormnandelianus — Cotton Teal. 

158. Nettium crecca — Common Teal. 

159. Spatula clypeata — The Shoveller. 

160. Nyroca ferruginea — White-eyed Duck. 

161 . Podicipes albipennis — Indian Little Grebe. 

In this paper Mr. D'Abreu has given us a careful enumeration of Mr, Fletcher, 
the actual insects found in all the birds which occur commonly in the 
Central Provinces. Work of this sort is tedious and difficult and there 
is a great deal of room for more work on the same lines, all over India. 
The only similar work done jjreviously was that done by Mr. Mason and 
published in Volume III of our Entomological Memoirs. I notice that 
Mr. D'Abreu has found no butterflies (or at least no identifiable remains) 
in any of his birds. The question of the attack on butterflies by birds 
is one in which we reqiure further records, especially in connection with 
the subject of mimicry, warning coloration, directive markings and so on. 
All exact records of this sort are very usefid and become more so as they 



Bij R. Senior- White, F.E.S. 

Meyrick, J. Bom. N. H. S., XVII, 416, (1906) ; Antram. Ind. 
Tea Assoc. Bull 5, (1907) ; Green, Trans. Ill Con. Trop. 
Ag. Vol. I, 631, (1914) ; Rev: App. Ent. IV, 389, (1916) ; 
Cey. Dep. Ag. RpL, 1916, p. 9; Rev. App. Ent. V, 497, 
(1917) ; Ind. Tea Assoc. Q. J. 1918, pt. I, p. 8. 


Green originally gave the food as lichens and algse on rubber bark, 
though Meyrick in his original description notes that the sjDecimens 
sent hiiu were also eating the bark itself. Antram and Andrews in North- 
East India record it as eating tea-bark, whilst Green in his paper before 
the Third Congresi? of Tropical Agriculture and later references refer to 
it as eating rubber-bark. 

Myself I have found it only on rubber-bark. If in eating this a 
hchenons j^atch is met with, this also is consumed, but only in so far 
as this lies in the line taken, which is not diverted for the sake of the 

On iTibber the burrows m the bark are seldom found below 5 feet 
fi;om ground-level, and continue upwards to 20-30 feet from the ground. 
I have not seen it eat renewed bark, though this of course is now-a-days 
seldom found over four feet from the ground. I have never heard of 
or seen it on tea in Ceylon. 

The actual burrow is shallow, usually only 2 mm. or so deep, and 
may branch in any direction ; a burrow often " peters out," (no larva 
bemg found at the head of it), without any apparent reason why it should 
have been abandoned. 


No references. Apparently nothing knowTi. I have utterly failed to 
find it myself. 


In Ceylon the colour of the larva is nearly crimson, the yellow colour 
described by Antram being that of the pre-pupa only. The dark contents 
of the intestines often show through the crimson. The abdommal 
prolegs are doubtfull}' functional— they are not used in progressing on a 
smooth surface such as a table, when the abdomen is slightly arched and 
only the anal suckers assist the true legs. Beneath the web the larva 


is very active, its movements causing a sort of wave to travel along the 
frass covering the burrow. Larvae have no power of swinging by silk 
threads if they fall out of the burrow. 

The pre-pupal larva is yellow, and active if disturbed. It is some 
considerable time, up to a month, in this stage before finally pupating, 
during which time it is mostly found in the pupal pit, but not always. 
This pupal pit is an oval depression eaten below the bottom of the burrow 
to a depth of 2 to 3 mm., the bottom of the pit being thus about 5 mm. 
from the outer surface of the bark, and very close to the lactiferous layer. 
The pvTpal pit is about 1.5 mm. by 5 mm. along the major and 
minor axes. The pupa lies free within with the last larval skin free 
behind it. The pit is ceiled by a stiff brown silk membrane tightly 
stretched across it be'ow the main webbing of the burrow, which is 
usually considerably elevated at this point, making the location of the 
pupa easy. On younger trees (up to ten years old or so), where they are 
often still visible, pupation frequently occurs in the branch scars, possibly 
because, except at these points, the lactiferous layer is too near the sur- 
face to permit of the excavation of the pupal pit. Pupae in these scars 
are more difficult of discovery aS the outer webbing is not always so 
noticeably raised above them. 

The pupa itself is 7 mm. long (male) to 9 mm. long (female) : ochreous, 
incompletely obtect, the wing cases somewhat free above. In the labo- 
ratory emergence usually occurs during the afternoon. 


I have not found larvre before January, at which time they are obvi- 
ously quite young. Their growth is slow, and they mature and pupate 
from the third week in July onwards for about a month, being earliest 
(as far as this estate is concerned) in an area near the Southern boimdary 
where the infestation is annually heavy, and latest on an outlying divi- 
sion two miles to the North where so far it has been slight. The middle 
of September .sees the last imagines out. Pupal period 26 days. 

I have never taken imagines Save in August and September, and I 
have not found any hibernating pupae. It is unlikely that so, delicate 
a moth in large areas of pure robber which afford no shelter can remain 
alive until December for oviposition, which makes the non-discovery of 
the egg the more remarkable, as it must be in this stage that the insect 
spends the four intervening months till January. 


According to Antram emergence in Nortli-East India takes place ia 
April-May. The pupal period there would appear to be about the same, 
as larv'se are reported by Andrews as doing damage " towards the end of 
the cold weather." It would be interesting to know during what month 
young larvae are first found in this area, so that the relative times in each 
stage in North-East India and Ceylon can be compared. 

Assuming that the period September-January is passed in Ceylon 
in the egg stage, what is the factor controlling hatching ? It cannot 
be rain, as that may occur, heavily, during any portion of this time, the 
North-East monsoon, neither can it be the cessation of rain, which does 
not occur until February ; possibly it is cold, which only occurs in January. 


The insect on emergence can expand the wmgs without takmg up 
the more or less vertical position necessary in most Lepidoptera. The 
pupa remains in the pupal chamber, the long axis of which is more usually 
parallel to the ground, thus bringing the emerging moth out on a line 
parallel to the ground, but this hardly seems a satisfactory explanation 
for so singular a power as this. 

I have taken one imago at light. 

All the imagines I have taken and bred have been exactly similar. 
The form figured by Antram on Fig. 2 of his plate is unkno\vn to me. 

The fairly noticeable swellings over the pupation pits are often seen 
torn open from one side and the larva or pupa missmg. This I think is 
the work of squirrels, which are conmion among rubber, whereas birds 
are comparatively rare. Sometimes spiders, often with eggs, are found 
in the pupal pits, whilst I have also found occasionally small beetles, 
(? Coccinelhdg), and an ovate mite with large scorpioid claws, but I am 
not decided as to whether these are not only chance visitors to empty 
opened pits. Spiders certainly make use of the pits for nests long after 
they are empty. Of internal parasites, I have actually bred none, but 
have fairly frer^uently found the inner cover of the pupal pit pierced 
by a round hole in the centre as if for the exit of a Hymenopteron, the 
remains of the pupa bemg found within the pit. Lastly, at the end 
of October 1918 I found a pupa which contained a white soft-bodied 
maggot, completely filling the pupal skin, which shelled off whilst I was 
removing it, thus preventing the rearing of the parasite. 


I am of the opinion that on rubber the insect is more imj)ortant 
mycologically than entomologically. During the North-East monsoon 
the old webs are ahnost completely stripped from the trees, leaving 
exposed the inner cortical ti.siSues, whilst the pupal pits collect water and 
form good nidi for fungal spores. 

This is extraordinarily troublesome. It is with the greatest difficulty 
I have ascertained the exact pupal period. If the inner lid of the pupal 
chamber is lifted to ascertain the statcof the contained insect and this 
is found to be still pre-pupal, it is ahnost a certainty that the next visit 
will reveal an empty chamber, the larva having left or fallen a victim to 
a predator, whilst pre-pupal larvse removed to the laboratory nearly 
always fail to turn. However, if within 24 hours or so of turning, the 
change can sometimes be successfully accomphshed, and the imagines 
bred. ' 

Points on wJiicIi further information is required. 

1. There appears to be nothing whatever known of the egg stage. 

2. Where is the insect from September to December ? 

3. Is Antram's figure 2 the same or another species ? 

4. A mycological investigation of the wounds caused in the bark. 

This is quite an interesting; account of a Microlepidopteron of which Mr. Fletcher. 
personally I have no first-hand knowledge. As regards Mr. Senior- 
White's third c]uestion, however, I can say something, as I have examined 
the specimen (unique in the Indian Tea Association's Collection) from 
which was drawn the second figure in Mr. Antram's Bulletin on the Bark- 
eating Borers of Tea. Mr. Antram States that it is a variety of Comoc- 
rilis pieria. The specimen is now in very poor condition but it seems 
to me quite distmct from C. pieria and seems to belong to an undescribed 


By T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S., Imperial 
Entomologist, and C. C. Ghosh, B.A., Assistant to the Imperial Ento- 

(Plates 131—138). 
The importance of rearing insects needs little emphasis here. The 
identification of insects being based as a rule on adult characters, in the 
case of an immature form found doing damage it is usually necessary 


to rear it iiito au adult in order to know what it is. And a knowledge 
of early stages and life-histories (in the fullest sense of the word) of any 
insect pest is a necesi^ity in any consideration of control methods. 

The necessity for such knowledge, however, is by no means equivalent 
to its acquisition, and those who have attempted the rearing of large 
numbers of insects under tropical conditions will doubtless agree that 
such rearing is decidedly an art only to be acquired by dint of much 
trouble and patience, often accompanied by numerous set-backs and 

In order to assist those who wish to rear insects in India, therefore, 
we have in the following paper jotted down a few notes based on our own 
experience m the hope that it may be of some use to others. 

The main condition of success in rearing all insects is to provide them 
as far as possible with absolutely natural conditions of life. A caterpillar, 
for example, under natural conditions lives in the open air on a growing 
plant, whose leaves remain constantly fresh ; when it is full-fed it may 
burrow uito the ground and pupate under the soil which remains at an 
ojjtimum degree of moisture. If we catch that caterpillar and shut it 
up in a cardboard box or glass bottle with some leaves of its food-plant, 
the leaves will wither and dry up, or their contained moisture may be 
condensed on the sides of the glass bottle, and the caterpillar is at once 
placed under unhealthy and unnatural conditions of existence and food ; 
similarly, if it pupates in earth in a box, the earth may dry up or become 
too moist, with the result that the pupa dries up also or is killed off by 
mould. The above may be an exceptional case. It is really wonderful 
under what adverse conditions many caterpillars will live and (apparently) 
thrive. But in any case it is necessary as a first condition of success 
that, to ensure successful rearing, insects should be provided with :— 

(1) fresh food, 

(2) fresh air, or at least sufficient air, 

(3) correct conditions of moisture, 

(4) sanitary surroundings. 

Growing flants, if they can be utilized in this way, provide the most 
natural and therefore most satisfactory means of rearing all insects 
feeding on such plants. The plants may be grown ux pots or other 
receptacles containing earth and the potted plants with the insects 
living on them may be enclosed in cages. Or the plants may be grown 
in large cages- provided with a sufficiency of soil. Or, in the case of plants 
growing out of doors, the plants themselves may be covered over with a 
cage pressed down into the soil around them, or they may be "sleeved," 
i.e., the plant or a branch is covered with a single or double-ended bag 

Pafjc S77. 

PLATE 131. 


made of muslin or mosquito-netting wliose open end is tied around the 
stem of the plant (or whose ends are tied around a branch ou either side 
of the place where tile insects are feeding) so that the insect under reariui; 
is allowed to feed under fairly natural conditions but cannot escape out- 
side of tlie " sleeve."" '" Sleeving." however, is not very satisfactory 
in a country such as India, as such " sleeves "' quickly rot and are very 
liable to tear or may be torn open by birds or other animals or even 
removed altogether by human bipeds. 

Generally, therefore, it is necessary to rear insects such as caterpillars 
on cut portions of their foodplants placed within closed receptacles and 
in such cases the effect of a hot climnte at once makes itself felt. Cut 
portions of plants, which ia a cool climate would remam tolerably fresh 
for a day or more, wilt almost immediately in the hot weather whilst 
during the monsoon the plant-food and excrement of the insects under 
rearing form verj^ favourable media for the rapid growth of moulds. 
Especial care therefore is required to keep the breeding cages (of what- 
ever construction) c^uite clean by removing all excreta and uneaten leaves 
at least once a day, if not oftener. Otherwise, mould will quickly appear 
on these and the insects are likely to be affected. 

For casual rearing on a small scale a small meat-safe makes a con- 
venient cage, the necessary foodplant being kept fresh by havin^ its 
stalk inserted in a jar of water. Or a collapsible meat-safe (of the type 
made of mosquito-netting stretched over bamboo rings) may be placed 
over the jar or bottle containing the foodplant and tied s&urely around 
the neck of the jar, the upper end being suspended by a string from any 
convenient support. If the stalk of the foodplant does not fill the neck 
of the jar, the latter should be packed with a thick wad of cotton-wool, 
otherwise caterpillars are X'ery liable to crawl down and dro^vn themselves 
in the water. (PI. 131. fig. 1.) 

For more regular rearing of insects, however, it is necessary to provide 
proper apparatus, which comprises : — 
Glass jars and troughs. 
Zinc cages. 
Zinc cylinders. 
Muslin cages. 

Gkiss jars. At Pusa we use glass dishes and glass battery jars (as 
illustrated in PI. 132) in different sizes, from small to large. For 
covers of these cages we use either glass jilates with one side groimd or 
brass plates (PI. 3 32). In dry weather leaves kept in cages letain mois- 
ture for several days and remain fit to serve as food to the insects to which 
they are supplied. In moist weather in the rains, however, whole covers 


are unsuitable and we use brass plates with a large hole in the middle, 
the hole being protected with fine brass wire gauze soldered on to the 
plate (see figure). In these cages the moisture can be regulated almost 
to perfection by the use of these perforated brass covers, the holes in them 
being left, when necessary, either entirely open or partly covered by glass 
or brass sheets placed on the toi3. As a result we have hardly any 
trouble from mould in the rearing cages. For those insects which pupate 
underground, such as Noctuid larvee, a layer of moist earth is provided 
at the bottom of the cage and they can without further attention go into 
the earth and pupate there. The earth keeps moist for very long periods. 
Therefore it is not necessary to disturb the insects at all. 

The glass dishes and jars are used as small aquaria for insects which 
feed on aquatic leaves, for example, Nonagria pallida and Nymphula 
whose caterpillars feed on floating leaves of Nelunibmm, or Galerucella 
singhara feeding on floating leaves of Trapa. When used as aquaria 
the cages are covered with muslin. For larger aquaria we use glass 
troughs shown in figiu-e 2, on Plate 131. 

There are some insects which can be included among the leaf eaters 
but which live underground as a rule, only coming up, usually at night, 
to collect food, such as caterpillars of Agrotis and nymphs of the Large 
Brown Cricket [Bracliijtrypes portentosvs). For them the glass jars are 
filled with moist earth and leaves or cut plants placed on the surface of 
the earth. 

There is another class of insects which form silken tubes underground, 
the tubes serving as galleries in which they live. For them also the glass 
jars and troughs are used with success. The caterpillars of Ancylolomia 
chrysographella not only require earth to form galleries but also living 
plants, rice or grasses, on the leaves of which they feed. The caterpOlars 
of Melasma, Laiiioria. Mynnecozela., Machwropteris and others require 
earth in which they can form galleries and are fed with leaves and grasses 
placed on the surface of the earth. 

Zinc Cages. Grasshoppers have been reared successfully in these 
glass jars. But on account of their saltatorial habits they are somewhat 
cramped for space in these cages. They are best placed on potted plants 
in the large zinc breeding cages illustrated in PI. 133. fig. 1. These cages 
measure 24 inches in height and 12 inches across each side and are 
provided with a hinged door. The door and the wall opjjosite to it 
are of wire gauze with about 16 meshes to the inch. The other two 
walls are of glass. The entire framework and the roof and floor are 
made out of galvanized iron sheet. We also use simOar cages of a 
smaller size measuring 12 inches in height about 8 inches across each 

PLATE 132. 

Glass Dish (left) and Battery Jar (right) with whole (right) and perforated (left) metal covers. 

P(iyc siy. 

PLATE 133. 


side. When required for small parasites, etc., thin muslin or silk gauze 
is gummed over the wire gauze. | 

Zinc Cylinders. For Nymphila depnnctalis the glass jars proved too 
small. The caterpillars require rice plants growing in water, so that 
they can float and swim in water and crawl upon the plants. For them 
the zinc cylinder illustrated in PI. 131, fig. 1 was used. These 
cylinders are either with or without a bottom. Those with a bottom 
can be used as aquaria. In the case of Nymphula depunctalis 
caterpillars, one with a bottom was used. Living rice plants were 
transferred into it with a quantity of earth and it was partly filled 
with water. A long stick, stood in the middle, supported the muslin 
which formed the covering. The zinc cylmders without a bottom 
can be pressed into the ground over living plants and when the 
plants are low the wire gauze cover illustrated in figure '2 serves 
the purpose well. For taller plants the covers shown in PI. 133, 
fig. 2 are used. The cylinders are made out of thin galvanized 
iron sheets and are 2 feet in diameter. All round the top on the outside 
there is a channel about an inch in depth and breadth which can be filled 
with kerosenized water to prevent access of ants or escape of creeping 
insects. On the inside the top is provided with a sloping piece intended 
to prevent escape of insects. This can, however, be done away 

The cage illustrated in PI. 135, fig. 1 is made by pinning thin muslin 
on a w ooden frame. The bottom is made of wooden board. The door 
is on one side and is fitted with a long muslin sleeve. This is a very 
useful cage and serves many purposes better, than the zinc breeding cages. 
Moths and flies kept in it do not dash against hard surfaces as in cages 
having glass or wire gauze sides in their flight or attempts at escape. 
Therefore in such cases the risk of injury to them is very small. Also 
the sleeved door is more advantageous than the hinged door of zinc 
cages. There is hardly any possibility of insects escaping through it 
during manipulation. 

Having provided ourselves with the principal apparatus required, 
we can now proceed to consider the various groups into which insects 
may be classified according to their feeding habits and hence according 
to the manner in which it is necessary to rear them. In this way insects 
may be classified as : — 

(1) Scavengers of dead — 

(a) animal matter, 
(6) vegetable matter. 

(2) Predators on other animals. 

VOL. Ill E 


(3) Parasites of other animals — 

(a) external parasites, 

(b) internal patasites. 

(4) Feeders on living plants : — 

(«) leaf-eaters, 

(b) leaf-miners, 

(c) gall-makers — 

(1) in leaves, 

(2) in petioles, 

(3) in stems ; 

(d) borers — 

(1) in stems, 

(2) in roots, 

(3) in flowers, 

(4) in fruits, 

(5) in seeds , 

(e) root-feeders, 
(/) sap-suckers. 

(5) Aquatic insects. 

Scavengers oj dead animal matter, sucli as many Sarcophagids, Muscids, 
Phorids and other Diptera, and Scarabseids, Silphids and other Coleoptera, 
require moist conditions and should be provided with moist food and moist 
earth. They are easily reared as a rule if their appropriate food is placed 
on a little earth. 

A few Lepidopterous and Coleopterous feeders on dead animal matter 
(such as TrichopJiaga on furs, Tinea and Antlirenus on woollens, and Nee- 
robia on dried meat) are also easily reared in the presence of their particular 
food, but require fairly dry conditions. 

Scavengers of dead vegetable matter, such as those beetles which live 
in dry grain or wood, depend little on external conditions and can be 
reared out easily. But those which feed in rotting vegetable matter, 
such as Nitidulids, require to be kept under moist conditions. 

Predators. Among the predators which bite, the Mantids, Carabids, 
Coccinellids, as also the Phorids and Syrphids and those which suck, 
the Myrmeleonids, Ascalaphids, Chrysopids. Pentatomids and Reduviids, 
require an ample supply of food and are indifferent to dry or moist condi- 
tions. The Carabids, however, pupate undergroimd and require a supply 
of moist earth. The larvae of stinging predators, Eumenids, Sphegids, 
etc., and in fact all Hymenojjterous larvae except probably those of 
Tenthredinidd which behave like caterpillars, require a good deal of 


PLATE 134. 

Fig. 1. Zinc cylinder. 

Fig. 2.— Cover for zinc cylinder. 

I'oni: SSL 

PLATE 136. 


«are and delicate handling although they are not affected very much by a 
little dryness or moistness of conditions in which they are kept. 

E.iiernal Parasi'es on other animals, such as the lice and bugs found 
on vertebrate and the dipterous parasites of birds and bats, require to 
be reared on their special hosts as a rule. Fleas, however, do not undergo 
their transformations on their hosts and are easily reared under dry 

Internal Parasites of vertebrates, such as (Estrids, when full-fed 
larvoe are obtained en expulsion from their hosts, can be reared easily 
if they are kept in moi«t earth and not allowed to dry up. The same 
procedure is followed with Tachinid parasites of insects. 

When internal parasites emerge from eggs, larvae or pupae which 
happen to be under rearing in the glass jars, they are easily observed 
and collected. When perforated covers are used for the jars in which 
minute parasites are expected the wire gauze of the covers should either 
be very fine or be protected with silk gauze or muslin. 

When it is intended to rear out parasites especially we use the cage 
shown in PI. 13.5, fig. 2. It is made of wood. Paraisites appear in the 
tubes when they can be collected. The door is on the end opposite to 
that in which tubes are fitted. Another pattern is the one shown in 
figure 3 and this kind of cage has been largely used for the introduction of 
the boUworm parasite in the Punjab. It is made of wood and has two 
covers, one of wire gauze and the other of glass or wood. The glass 
remains above the wire gauze. When parasites come up through the 
wire gauze they are visible through the glass. When too much green 
stuff is placed inside the box, a quantity of moisture collects under the 
glass. The parasites are caught in the drops of moisture and are 
drowned. Without the glass cover the box works fairly well when it is 
intended to let out the parasites, a wooden cover being used in this case. 
The leaf-eaters form the most numerous group of those insects which 
feed upon living plants. Some of them feed openly on leaves, biting 
them from the top or margin, or gnawing holes in their surface. It is 
unnecessary to quote examples as this form of feeding is quite common. 
Some roll individual leaves and feed while living inside the rolled leaves, 
for instance, Sylepta on cotton, Eubleinma on brinjal and Margarodes 
(Glijphodes) indica on cucurbitaceous plants. There are others which 
bind several leaves together and feed similarly whUe living inside them, 
for instance, Chapra mathias on rice, Phycita infusella on cotton and 
Encosnia critica on Cajanus indicus. Among the leaf-eaters we can 
include those which nibble the leaf surface like the Epilachna grubs. 
All these require a supply of fresh leaves. The ideal condition would be 
to keep them on living plants growing in soil and covered with cage ; or 



on plants growing in pots which can be introduced into breeding cages 
when necessary. This however is only possible when one deals with a 
few kinds of insects and with only a few specimens of each kind. Even 
then some are such voracious eaters, for instance, the Sphingid cater- 
pillars, that it is difficult to keep only a few individuals supplied with 
sufficient jJotted plants. Besides it is not always possible to foresee what 
insects may require to be fed and to have sufficient plants ready for them 
beforehand. Therefore it is absolutely necessary to use some kind of 
handy cages in which the insects can be kept confined and fed with leaves. 
Such cages are essential when we want to study individual larvae very 

Leaf-feeders kept in cages require to be given a constant and regular 
supply of fresh leaves, which should be fresh and neither dried up nor 
wet when given. If leaves are of necessity gathered in a wet condition, 
they are best dried by placing them in the centre of a dry towel or cloth 
and whirling this around l)y the corners, so that the moisture is driven 
out by centrifugal action without bruising the leaves. 

Care must also be taken that no predaceous insects or other animals 
are introduced with the leaves. 

When only a few insects are under rearing in one cage, it is well to 
count them when fresh food is given, to make sure that none are removed 
and thrown away with the old food when it is removed. 

Young caterpillars especially are very delicate animals and should 
not be handled if it can be avoided. They also require tender leaves of 
their foodplant as a rule. 

Leaf-miners, among which can be included also those which mine 
under the epidermis of the green bark like that of cotton. For a few- 
examples we can name Acrocercops, Rhytichcenus and Eugnamptus on 
mango leaves, Phyllocnidis on lemon leaves, Hispa on rice leaves and 
Trachys on jute leaves. It should be remembered that in the case of all 
these, as in the case of the majority of miners of this description, the 
laivce complete their larval life in the same mine and cannot form a fresh 
one even when they are provided with suitable leaves. They live inside 
and feed on moist tissue. Therefore it is essential that when the leaves 
containing them are plucked from the j^lants they should be kept moist 
as long as possible. For this pm'pose the glass dishes and jars are in- 
valuable. In S'me cases the use of wet blotting paper is necessary or a 
layer of moist earth may be placed at the bottom of the cage. There are 
a few miners which can migrate to fresh leaves and form fresh mines in 
them, for instance, the caterpillars of Phthmmcea e.gasima and the 
grubs of Platypria andrewesi. Rearing them is easy, as they can be 
supplied with fresh leaves as long as necessary. 

>'a,gt 5S3. 


Gall- formers on leaves, ' for instance, Psyllids and C'ecidoniyiads, 
require the same care and treatment as leaf-miners: 

Gall-formers in the fetioles of leaves, like Clitea picta on Mgle marmelos. 
The petioles should be prevented from drying. The use of glass dishes 
is essential. If necessary, moist earth or wet blotting paper should be • 
used and by the use of perforated brass covers growth of mould can be 
entirely checked. 

Gall-formers in stems, such as the Cecidomyiads in C'ucurbitaceous 
plants and Buprestids and Curculiouids. In order to be able to rear them 
the galls should be kept moist. Like the leaf-miners they cannot be 
transferred into fresh stems. 

Borers in livigs and green stems, for instance, the larvse of Clilume'ia 
transversa and Alcides frenafus in mango twigs. Ckilo and Sesamia in maize, 
rice and allied plants, Scirpophaga in sugarcane, Ni/pserJia in soybean and 
Phaseolus stems. Many examples can be quoted from among the Bup- 
restids, Cerambycids, Curculionids, Noctuids, Pyralids and Flies which 
are among the worst pests of plants. Among them some like Scirpo- 
phaga and most Buprestids do not fare well if transferred to fresh stems 
and they are better reared in the stems in which they occiir. Ol course 
the stems should be prevented from drying and glass jars are useful 
for the purpose. The others can easily be transferred into fresh stems 
and the best method is to bore holes at the ends o'^ the pieces of stems 
intended to be given as food w'th the pointed end of a pair of forceps 
or with a gimlet. The larvse are put into these holes and they bore in 
well. In some cases however the larvse leave these holes and cannot 
find their way back and in order to make them stay there, the following 
plan may be adopted. A longitudinal slice is cut but not detached 
from the stem and a portion of the interior of the stem below this slice 
is scooped out with a knife to afford enough room for the larva to be put 
in. The larva is placed there and the slice. closed and secured with 
thread. (PI. 136, fig, 1,) 

For larger borers in woody stems or dry wood, such as the longicorn 
grubs we find in mango, orange, jak and many other trees, large pieces 
of stems should be taken aiid holes bored in them with augers. The 
iarvse are put in these holes, the mouths of which are best plugged with 
a piece of wood or cork. In the case of those which work in fresh moist 
stems it is desirable to keep the stems moist as long as possible. We do 
this by keeping the pieces of stems covered with moist saw-dust. Be- 
sides keeping the stems moist the sawdust serves another useful piu-pose. 
When the larvse happen to bore out of the stems they find themselves 
among sawdust and are not at all inconvenienced even if immediate 
.attention is not forthcoming. In some cases they are actually observed 


to bore through the layer of sawdust. Ajiparently the sawdust serves 
partly as food. These borers are such slow growers that they tax the 
rearers' patience sometimes. There is hardly a case in which one has 
to wait for less than a year before the adult is obtained. Two or three 
years are not uncommon. Examination of the stems in which the borer 
larvaj are placed should be made with great discretion. Frequent exami- 
nation causes disturbance which the larvse cannot endure. Then during 
examination the stems should be split or opened with the greatest care 
and patience as the exact whereabouts of the insect is unlcnown and it is 
likely to be injured. It may have formed its pupal cell and may be 
pupating or may have pulsated. Disturbance at this time is often 
injurious and in the majority of cases leads to the death of the insect. 
Some of the borers in drywood, especially the Buprestids, cannot endure 
transference and have to be reared in the wood in which they occur. 

Root-borers, such as Hepialids, require the same treatment as stem- 
borers. Among this class may be included borers such as Cylas formi- 
carius in sweet potato tubers ; such can be reared out easily. 

Borers into flower-huds or larvae which eat petals of flowers, requh'e a 
supply of fresh flower-buds and flowers and can be reared easily. 

Of the insects affecting fruits, the fruitfly larvae require a supply of 
moist earth to pupate in and, as in the case of all Diptera, the ijujiae 
should be kept moist and not allowed to dry up. A layer of moist earth 
should be kept at the bottom of the glass jars or troughs and the fruits 
containing the maggots should be placed on the earth. The maggots 
when full-fed ^^^ll go into the earth and pupate there. When the fruits 
are succulent like p\impkin and give out a large quantity of water on 
decomposition it is better to use an extra large quantity of dry (not 
moist) earth. The dry earth absorbs the water and becomes moist. 
Otherwise the excess of moisture may cause the pupse to rot. In rearing 
these flies it may be necessary to dispense with glass or metal covers for 
the jars and keep them covered with muslin. 

Many larvse bore into fruits for the seeds which they eat. Common 
examples are Etiella boring Khesari (Lathyrus sativus) and other pods, 
Heliothis armigera, ExeJastis and Catochrysops boring arhar pods, and 
VirachoJa boring pomegranates. Such larvae require a supply of green 
pods and fruits and are easily reared. Briwhids do not require any fresh 
food to be supplied and are reared in the pods or rather seeds in which 
they occur. 

Root-eaters, e.g., Melolonthid, Elaterkl, Curcuhonid and Chrysomelid 
larvae, live underground and are best kept in glass jars with amj^le moist 
earth and provided with roots, principally of The roots supplied 
must be fresh. 


Althougli called root-eaters the food of many of these insects is not 
definitely known. Many Melolouthid grabs, for instance those of 
Anomala polita, have been reared wholly on farmyard manure, while 
others are laiown definitely to attack living plants, e.g.. Anomala bengalen- 
sis on sugarcane. Probably many of them depend on a variety of food. 
In the case of cater])illars and termites of course there is no cause for 
doubt. The food of Tijralids and Asilid larvae, which are ordinarily 
taken to be root-eaters, is not definitely known in India. Gnjllotalpa 
africana is definitely Imown to be both herbivorous and predacious. 
Of the Elaterid larvae some are certainly predaceous, e.g., Agrypnus 
fuscipes, others may be both predaceous and herbivorous. 

Whatever their food the larvae which live imderground in nature must 
be kept in moist earth, and as the larval life of most of them is very long, 
it is an advantage if the earth in the rearing cage can be kept moist for 
long periods without being required to be changed. Numerous Melo- 
louthid grubs are reared at Pusa every year. They live for about a year 
and are kept in glass jars and dishes and, if glass covers are used, it be- 
comes hardly necessary to change the earth even once. Metal covers 
are unsuitable for the purpose as they allow evaporation to go on. Wlien 
it is not necessary to change the earth there is very little disturbance 
of the insects. 

As the food of most of these underground larvae is unknown, attempts 
to rear them from their young stage frequently fail. It is therefore 
advisable to collect the larvae in the advanced state of growth and then 
their rearing is almost always successful. ^V^len the food is known and 
a supply of it can be kept up, they can be reared without much difficulty 
provided the earth in which they are made to live remains always moist. 
One Agrypnus fuscipes larva lived in the Insectary for over two years. 
It was fed with caterpillars and Melolonthid and Scarabaeid grubs. 
Similarly GryUotalpa africana was reared fi'om the egg stage, being fed 
with five fly maggots only for about 5J months. 

Sucking insects, which live by sucking the sap from hving plants — 
the plant — sucking Heteroptera, Homoptera and Phytophthires — require 
hving plants. We usually grow plants in pots and, when convenient, 
keep the potted plants on which the insects feed in zinc breeding cages 
(PI. 133, fig. 1) or cover the plants with muslin or silli gauze. Some of 
them are however amenable to feeding m glass jars with portions of their 
foodplants from which they c^n obtain enough juice. Leptocorisa 
varicornis has been reared on ears of Setaria italica, Riplortns on pods of 
Cajanns indicus, Nezara viridula on pods of Cajanus indicus and Phaseolus 
radiatus and Aspongojms on succulent stems of pumpkin. When they 
get abundant juice they can be reared in this manner. In fact some of 


them ill nature have adapted themselves to this habit, for instance, 
mealy-bugs {Pstvdococcvs nipce) and Tingid bugs (Recaredus sp.) on seed 
potatoes in store. 

Indiicirig oviposition. In order to observe and note details of life- 
history it is often necessary to rear out adults or collect them from the 
fields and make them lay eggs in confinement. All insects will not 
oviposit easily under such conditions. They require the conditions in 
which they lay eggs in nature or at least conditions as far as possible 
similar. Almost all plant-feeding insects require livmg jilants in order 
to oviposit. Sometimes when gravid females are obtamed from outside 
they deposit eggs even when kept confined in a small jjill-box, because 
then egg-laying is a necessity with them. Special means have to be 
adojjted to get eggs from different insects. It is not possible to give 
here our whole experience. We can only refer to a few cases?. 

It is generally difficult to induce butterflies to oviposit in confine- 
ment. They require living plants and a large amount of space to fly 
about in and may have to be fed with .sugar or honey syrup. We keep 
them in the side-cages of the Insectary which give them sufficient room 
to fly about. Potted jilants are supplied. Feeding is done according 
to the following method. The syrup is placed in a glass crucible or 
watch-glass. The butterfly is held in one hand between the thumb and 
forefinger with the wings turned over its back and with a pin in the other 
hand the proboscis is stretched out and its end dipped in the syrup. 

For moths the large-isized zinc breeding cages (PI. 133. fig. 1) are 
used, potted plants being placed in them when necessary. These cages 
also serve for bugs, sawflies and many kinds of beetles. Ant-lions can 
be made to ovipcsit in these cages on a layer of fine dry sand placed on 
the bottom. 

For giasshoppers we use the side-cages of the Insectary. Into one 
of these cages one pair of HieroglypJms hanian was introduced in 1905. 
Since then we have been cariymg on the progeny of this pair. Every 
year young nymphs hatch out about June. They are fed and develop, 
deposit eggs in the earth of the cage in October and November and then 
die. The eggs in due course hatch about Jime agahi. 

In order to be able to observe the details of oviposition in the case of 
giasthoppers and other insects which thrust their eggs into the ground, 
they should be p!aced in a cage with four glass sides and provided on the 
bottom with a block of wood two or th'ree inches high and in size about 
half-an-inch less in breadth and width than the internal breadth and 
width of the cage. This wooden block is covered with a very thin layer 
of earth which however fills the quarter-inch space left all around 
between the block and the glass sides of the cage. The grasshoppers, 


finding insufficient depth of soil on top of the block for oviposition, are 
then forced to oviposit against the glass through which their motions 
may be watched. The space between glass and wooden block may be 
varied with the size of the grasshopper under rearing. 

For Heliocopris hucephalus a small cage is unsuitable. The beetles 
were therefore placed in a large side cage in the Insectary. They at once 
bored into the earth. Fresh cowdung was placed on the surface of the 
earth and was taken down by the beetles through tortuous galleries up 
to a depth of about 4 feet. Oviposition was successful and a brood was' 
reared out. 

It is easy to get soil-living termites to establish colonies in glass jars. 
The jars are filled with moist earth which is somewhat pressed down and 
an artificial hole is made in the earth by forcing a pencil or stick into it. 
From among the winged termites which ajipear at the time of their annual 
flight a pair, consisting of a male and a female, is picked out and placed 
in this hole. Very soon they lay eggs and workers and soldiers appear 
in due course and are observed to form tunnels. Many colonies of 
Odontotermes assmulhi were established in this mamier in the course of 
the last five years. In the jars the development of the colonies cannot 
be properly trafled. For this purpose the tile cage illustrated in PI. 136, 
fig. 2 was devised. It was made by a local potter. It has three chambers 
with two partition walls in the middle. But the chambers communicate 
with one another by means of holes in the partition walls. Besides 
these chambers there is a cavity at one end meant to serve as a reservoir 
for water. The idea was that the water kept in this reservoir would 
slowly soak and keep the tile moist. In actual practice however it was 
found that the water from this reservoir soaked so rapidly and so much 
that the chambers became too clamp for the termites. Therefore water 
is kept in a separate vessel and a wetted wick of cotton lint is used so 
that one end of the wick is dipped in the water and the other end rests 
on the tile. By this means just sufficient water is soaked up by the tile 
to keep it moist. The face of the tile is well smoothed by being rubbed 
on a flat stone. The chambers are covered by glass plates through 
which the insects inside are visible. In order to produce darkness in the 
chambers, on top of the glass plates are placed other glass plates on which 
black paper has been pasted. When it is necessary to observe the insects 
the upper plates are lifted up. A pair of the winged termites, usually 
those which have shed their wmge, are placed in one chamber in the 
tile and are allowed to occupy whichever chamber they prefer. The 
majority of those tried established colonies in the first chamber, i.e., 
the one next to the source of water and none selected the third chamber. 
Colonies of Odontotermes assmuthi have lived in these tiled cages for about 


four montlis and have then dwindled and died. Some of the colonies 
in glass jars were buried underground in the compound inside the jars ; 
one of these hved for a year. The tile cages we use measure about 12 
inches in length and about 4 inches in breadth. The thiclmess from face 
to back is about one mch. The inside dimensions of the chambers are 
about 3 X 3 X J inches. 

Colonies of Microtermes ohesi were similarly established in glass jars 
and also in the tile cages. But they seemed to be more delicate than 
■Odontotermes assumuthi and died quickly. 

Some general hints on rearing. It is advisable to examuie the cages 
every day in the morning or better still, both morning and" evening and 
take out the insects which have emerged. Butterflies and moths are 
better taken out as soon as their wings have hardened or they may spoil 
the scales on the wings by fluttering in the cage. Flies are better left 
for a day or two ; if killed too soon their wings collapse and shrivel. 
Beetles should be left for two or three days or their colour does not develop 
properly. Bugs and grasshoppers should also be left in the cages for 
two or three days to allow them to harden their wings and develop 

In the case of large specimens, for instance, Sphingid rfoths, Saturniad 
moths, larger butterflies, etc., it may be necessary to transfer the pupee 
from small rearing cages to zinc breeding cages so that the imagines on 
emergence may crawl up the wire gauze wall and hang and develop- 
their wings properly. Otherwise the result is a specimen with crumpled 
undeveloped wings. If the rearing cage be large a few long sticks stuck 
into the earth or stood against the Walls may serve the purpose. 

Cannibals. The rearer will find by experience that some insects, 
which are normally plant-feeders, develop into voracious cannibals when 
kept in close proximity to their fellows under conditions of confinement. 
If, on counting them, caterpillars are found to have disappeared without 
visible reason, cannibalism may reasonably be suspected. Such larvse 
must of course be reared separately. 

Records. A very important part of rearing is the proper recording 
of full descriptions and accounts of all the stages of all insects under 
rearing. These may either be Cage-slips kept on separate uniformly- 
sized sheets of paper placed under, or at least with, each cage or may be 
kept in a register or note-book. In any case, each separate lot of insects 
reared should be provided with a separate number corresponding to the 
Cage-slip or entry in the register, and the reared specimens should have 
this number entered on their labels, so that, in after time, there is no 
possible doubt as to the actual specimens to which the records refer. 

Page SS9. 


PLATE 137. 

Fig. 1.— The Pusa Inssctary. 

Fig. 2.— Details of double door to Insectary. 


No time or trouble that can be taken to make these records complete 
and accurate in all respects can possibly be wasted. 

If drawings of the various stages, and of any details of them, can be 
made, so much the better ; and all such drawings also should be fully 
identified with the number of the Cage-slip or entry in the register. 

Preservation of Early Stages. Another important point in rearing 
is the preservation of material of the early stages. Caterpillars may be 
blown and most other larvae preserved in spirit. Empty pupa-cases 
and cocoons should be preserved pinned with the individual specimens 
which have emerged from them. Pupae, even of the same species, often 
vary considerably in the two sexes and therefore it is important to see 
that the pupal shell of each individual imago is correctly paired off 
with it. How often one sees series of bred specimens in collections and 
how seldom are they accomjDanied with even theii' empty pupa-cases. 
Yefit is certain that a close study of pupal structure will often throw 
very valuable light on the affinities of the insects concerned ; and, to 
carry out work on these hnes in India, it is essential to preserve all the 
material possible in order that it may be available for study. 

Quality and Quantify. One advantage of rearing insects is the ob- 
taining of perfect specimens of the adults for the collection. Another 
advantage, which is often lost sight of in India, is the ease with which 
not only good but long series of an insect may be obtained. Especially 
when an unknown insect, found doing damage in its lai-val stage, is 
under rearing, endeavour should be made to rear and preserve a long 
series of adults in order that amply sufficient material may be available 
for determination of the species concerned. 

Inseclaries. The foregoing remarks have been made more especially 
for the general collector who has no special facilities for rearing other 
than those afforded by an ordinary room or verandah. 

It may, however, be useful to add here a description of an Insectary,. 
or building specially designed for and devoted to the rearing of msects, 
such as we have at Pusa. 

The Insectary (PI. 137, fig. 1) is a masonry building having 
one large hall 40 feet long, 24 feet broad and 16 feet high. On the 
south side it has a verandah about 40 feet long and 10 feet wide with 
a tiled roof. Agauist the walls on the east and west there are four 
cages on each side. These side cages measure 6 feet x 5 feet each 
and have brick walls up to a height of about 5| feet from the 
bottom. Above the brick walls right up to the roof wire gauze is fitted 
into wooden frames and encloses the cage completely. The roof 
slopes from the wall of the main building outwards and is made of 
glass which is protected from hail by wire-netting over it. Each cage 


is filled with earth up to the height of the brick walls. The earth 
is watered as necessary and remains moist throughout the year. At 
first only two of these cages had cemented bottoms. Termites, crickets 
and even beetles often appeared in the other cages which had no cemented 
bottom and therefore commmiicated with the soil below. All the cages 
have now been provided with cemented bottoms. They do not communi- 
cate with one another but each has a panelled door fitted with glass panes 
and opening into the hall. 

Insects are sent in to Pusa from various places in India and as some 
of them may not occur in the neighbourhood of Pusa or in Northern 
India, the Pusa lusectary, in which they are intended to be reared, is 
built on a plan which prevents their escape from confinement even if 
they escape from the rearing cages. The doors and windows are pro- 
tected with wire-screen havmg about 12 meshes to the inch. This is 
not fine enough for very small insects. But no case of introduction of 
an undesirable insect into the locality has happened during the last 
fourteen years. With the same object in view the outer doors are pro- 
vided with double flaps, the outer pair of which is of wire gauze 
(PI. 137, fig. 2) ; one pair of these flaps can be shut before the other 
pair is opened ; thus the entrance of any insect from outside or 
the escape of any from inSide can be checked. This is satisfactory 
so far as flymg insects or large creeping ones are concerned but 
is no protection against small creeping ones. In fact, ants are a 
trouble throughout the hot weather and the rains. In order to prevent 
them an ant-channel of re-inforced concrete was added all round 
the wall at a height of about a foot from the ground. The channel is 
about one inch deep and is kept filled with water mixed with phenyle 
or crude oil emulsion. In order to prevent leaves and grasses being 
blown into the channel and aft'ording bridges for ants to cross over it was 
necessary to have a shade of galvanized zinc sheet (see PI. 137, fig. 1) 
over it. The ant-channel works satisfactorily. But as the floor was 
of bricks set on edge and not of concrete, ants were able to come up 
anywhere in the floor from below the foundation. In order to 
prevent this the floor has recently been concreted. Still, however, we 
have not been able to get rid of ants altogether. The walls, not 
bemg plastered from outside, ants have found enough room to 
estabhsh nests in them. 

When future insectaries are built, in order to make tlieni really ant- 
proof the following arrangements illustrated in PI. 138, fig. 1 might be 
tried. All round the building at about the ground level there should 
be a cemented pucca drain which may be a shallow one. This will prevent 
water settling at the fomidation and also ants from establishing nests 

I'ltgi: S90. 

PLATE 138. 

"Wcvler Cbcv>">r>el 

Fig. 1.— Plan for foundation of an Insectary in order to make it ant-proof. 

Fig. 2. -Ant-preventing stand. 


there. At a height of about six inches from the ground-level the entire 
floor including the walls should have in one complete sheet a la3^er of 
reinforced concrete not less than two inches thick. This will prevent 
termites as well as ants from coming up from below. Above the layer 
of cement concrete all round the wall on the outside there should be an 
ant-channel of reinforced concrete, the channel being about 1| inches 
deep and about 2 inches wide. About 2 inches above the channel a 
brick should project out of the wall and act as a shade over the channel. 
The walls of the insectary should be plastered both inside and outside, 
thus leaving no room for flying c^ueen ants to establish nests in them. 

The plinth of the building may be about 3 feet from the ground- 
level. The floor should be cemented. The space between the floor 
and the layer of concrete below may be filled with dry sand. This will 
afford additional protection against ants and termites and make the 
floor proof against damp. 

Inside the building the furniture should be plain tables and shelves 
for rearing cages, etc. It is desirable to have removable tables and shelves 
which can be taken out and cleaned if silver fish get access and prove 
troublesome. If water-troughs, etc., are required, they should be of 
reinforced concrete or at least with cemented walls. If brick walls are 
left unplastered and with s%irki or cement pointing dust settles in the 
chinks and converts them into^favourite breeding places of MacrceoJa 
inqnisitrix. Chinks in the walls and tables afford hiding places for the 
silver fish also. Therefore they should be avoided as much as possible. 

Ants and silver fish are really jjests of the insectary. The former get 
into rearing cages and attack the insects. The latter nibble away dates 
and records from the cage-slips. Therefore it is necessary to keep both 
away from the insectary as far as possible. 

As regards the structure of the building, there should be large windows 
and as many of them as possible. They should all be protected with 
wire gauze, say of not less than 16 meshes to the inch and provided with 
flaps on the outside which can be shut when necessary, for instance, 
against driving rain. WTien ample ventilation is ensured by the provi- 
sion of as many large windows as possible — a condition which is jDreseut 
in the Pusa insectary — the temperature inside the insectary does not 
vary to a great extent from that prevailing outside. Therefore the insects 
kept in the insectary are not affected to a great extent by the artificial 
conditions incident to rearing indoors. When this condition is secured 
the observations recorded in the insectary ajjproximate.very closely to 
those recorded outside. This has been verified in the case of numerous 
hibernating and sestivating insects and all stages of tliem. viz.. egcfs, 


larvae, pupae and adults, which have been kept under observation both 
in the insectary and outside in the fields. In the Plains of India it is 
not necessary to have the conditions of a green-house or glass-house for 
rearing insects. Nor should there be any discrepancy between observa- 
tions carried on in the insectary and those under actual field conditions. 
Wlien however no separate insectary is built it is preferable to carry 
on rearing in the verandah of a house. The verandah can be enclosed 
with wire gauze and in order to prevent ants the legs of rearing tables 
can be placed on ant-proof stands as shown in PI. 138. fig. 2. The stands 
may be of wood or stone and the channels in them should be kept filled 
with water or phenyle water to prevent ants crossing the water or mos- 
quitos breeding in it. 


By C. F. C. Beeson, M.A., I.F.S., Forest Zoologist. 
(Pis. 139— UO.) 

When the study of the wood-borers of valuable forest trees was 
commenced a few years ago at Dehra Dun, it soon became evident that 
one could not isolate the important species and investigate their life 
histories as separate items of research. The borer fauna of a forest tree 
is a complex association of species from several families of Coleoi>teia, 
€.g., Anthxibidae, Scolytidae and Platypodidae, Curculionida?, Ceramby- 
cidas, Lamiadae, Buprestidae and Bostrychidae, with occasional species 
of Cossidae, Arbelidae and Hepialidae. The proportions in which the 
species occur in a particular tree are influenced jDrimarily by the time of 
year at which the tree dies and the time of occurrence of the swarming ' 
periods of the beetles, that breed in it. It is possible, for example, 
for the available bark space of a dying or recently dead tree to be occupied 
by surface breeders such as bark beetles, Buprestids, small Longicorns, 
etc., to such an extent that heartwood borers and shothole borers are 
unable to effect an entrance and establish their galleries. Or it is possible 
for a large Longicorn to arrive first on the scene and monopolize the 
eapwood to the exclusion of small shothole and pinhole borers, etc. 

As a check on field work it was decided to breed out the borer fauna 
on a large scale in the insectary at Dehra Dun, and to correlate the emer- 
gence records so obtained. The usual procedure followed is to fell 
selected trees in forest divisions at intervals throughout the year, and to 
cut off lengths from the felled trees at one month or two month intervals 
and rail the logs to Dehra. 

Page S9i. 

PLATE 139. 

Types of breeding cages used for wood-borers in the Forest Zoologist's Insectary. 

Pocjc SOS. 

PLATE 140. 

Galvanized iron cages in which the air and weed humidiiy can be regula'.ed. 


The first year's work sliowed that the breeding cages used were un- 
suitable for the purpose. At that time the only cages available were 
of the usual cubical shape with glass and wire gauze sides and a large 
door at one side. Their principal defects were the rapid desiccation 
produced in the log and the difEcidty of preventing the escape of minute 
insects when manipulating the emerged material through the large side- 

Special patterns of cages were therefore devised for this puriiose. 
Plate 139 shows various types of cages tested before satisfactory 
results were obtained. The cages in the two upper rows are of deodar 
wood mth a square of \sdre gauze let into the roof and a hinged door 
forming one side. The cages in the fourth and fifth rows are of too7i wood 
with a square of wire gauze in the roof, a sliding door at one end. and a 
smaU hinged door iii front. The cages in the bottom row are similar in 
principle but of different design and dimensions to accommodate logs of 
diff'erent sizes. In all these types the capture of the emerged insects is 
effected by attraction to light. At first large test-tubes and glass 
bottomed boxes were used, but it was found that, although insects readily 
entered these traps, they were also able to leave them and return to the 
cage. Glass retort-shaped bulbs were therefore substituted for tubes 
and have been used ever since with complete, success. 

The wooden cages used, however, did not eliminate the difficulty 
of desiccation resulting from the long periods (one to two years) for which 
the logs must be kept. Even ^^^th logs 4 feet long and 3 or 4 feet girth 
much more heartwood moisture was lost in the insectary than would be 
lost by the tree lying in the shade of the forest and exposed to rainfall. 
Waxing the ends reduced the loss, but insufficiently. The evaporation 
of moisture also caused considerable warping and cracking of the wood 
work of the cages (some of the cages in the photograph show this). 

We have therefore adopted galvanized iron cages as the standard 
design. These are illustrated in the 3rd row of Plate 139 and on a larger 
scale in Plate 140. The dimensions vary. Those shown are 18x12x12 
inches but we also use larger sizes capable of holding fairly representative 
sections of the tree trunk. The door frame is made of seasoned shisham 
and all the contact joints of the door and the frame are lined with felt 
or velvet. The neck of the attraction bulb is held in a velvet lined 
cylinder in wooden blocks screwed on either side of the iron sheet forming 
the door. These cages are quite satisfactory, as they allow the regulation 
of the rate of evaporation by means of desiccators and humectators 
to suit all classes of timber, and conditioiis of atmospheric humidity. 
Some have recently been fitted with hygrometers. 


No trouble is experienced from moulds. In any case mould grows 
only on the cut surfaces of the log just as it does on felled logs in the 

For work on a larger scale outdoor cages are available (11' x 6V X 11' 
and 6i'.<6|'x 11') ; these are constructed of wire gauze v.V" mesh and 
angle-iron frame-work. Cages with brick walls and glass roofs are also 
used. They are fitted with automatic emergence traps on the principle 
of the window screen for house flies. 

The cages of the types described give only emergence records. 

The exact length of the life-cycle is obtained by direct inoculation 
of logs with eggs of the borer under investigation. In order to determine 
the lengths of the various stages, full-fed larvse of known ages are extracted 
from infected logs and transferred to tubes with moistened wood dust. 
The atmosphere of the pupal chamber is saturated and these conditions 
are easily reproduced in the tubes and maintained by waxing the corks. 
The tubes are kept in the dark at temperatures corresponding to insec- 
tary or outdoor conditions and the changes of the insects observed. No 
saprophytic moulds grow in these tubes, but parasitic fungi such as 
Bolnjtifi ba^siana readily develop and permit one to eliminate the diseased 
larvse at an early date. From experimental observation in tubes one can 
determine the length of the pre-pupal period, date of pupation, date of 
transformation, and length of the immature beetle period. When the 
beetle is mature it emerges by eating its way through the cork. 

Interpretation of Emergence records. 

The correlation of the emergence records of wood-borers is obviously 
best conducted by graphical methods but before one can construct curves 
it is necessary to eliminate certain errors. 

Theoretically the daily emergences recorded in the breeding cage 
notes are correct ; in practice errors arise from careless examination 
or unavoidable neglect of the cages and other sources. Plotting the daily 
emergence figures as recorded may therefore give misleading results. 
Two methods of correction are employed, geometrical and mathematical. 

The first method may be used for smoothing off accidental irregida- 
rities in the curves of a single series of observations. The accumulated 
daily totals are plotted and a ciurve drawn with reference to the points ; 
the curve values are substituted for the observed values and the theore- 
tical daily values calculated by difference. 

In comparing the data for difl'erent series {of the same species) of the 
same quality but of different weight, the observed values are reduced to a 
common standard by the method of the weighted mean. A clearer 
comparison is obtained by combining the daily values in groups of 5 or 7 ; 


i t is found that this method of grouping also facilitates comparison with 
rainfall and temperature values. 

Descriplion of -plates. 

Plate 13!). Various types o£ cages used for wood borers. 

Plati' 140. Galvanised iron cages in which the air and wood humidity can bo 

By Major F. C. Fraser, I.M.S. 

Dragonflies are so obviously sun-loving insects that it comes as a 
surprise to find that there are certain species which adopt nocturnal 

Mr. Morton, WTiting to me from Edinburgh in 1917 mentioned that 
some of the Odonata, more especially the larger Aeshnines onlj^ appeared 
on the wing after dusk, when as a rule, they flew for quite a short period, 
usually for about 15 to 20 minutes. A similar habit is commonly, adopted 
by some of the Sphingidse but until the receipt of the letter (]Uoted I was 
not aware that it was applicable to dragonflies, my experience being 
that these insects usually retire fairly early in the day and that few are 
found on the wing after 3 p.m. 

Mr. Morton's letter induced me to make a few trial excursions at dusk 
in the hope of securing some night-flying Indian species and as a result 
I was able to take five of such, three of which may be said to be purely 
night-flyers, whilst the other two, although seen on the wing throughout 
the day, continue their activities until long after dusk, in fact until they 
are no longer discernible in the darkness. 

Four of the species belong to the subfamily Libellulinae whilst the 
fifth is a Gynacantha. All thus belong to the suborder Anisoptera and 
I know of no Zygopterous species which adopts such habits. 

The following are some notes made on the five species mentioned 
above : — 

1. Brachylhemis contammata. 
This is one of our commonest Indian dragonflies and is seen on the 
wing from dawn until long after dusk, apparently employing the later 
hours for pairing as well as feeding. Both sexes may be seen hawk- 
ing for food throughout the day apparently oblivious to one another's 
presence, the females usually being in excess of the males, a quite con- 
trary fact as compared with most other dragonflies ; but after dark 
several males may be seen mobbing solitary females. 


2. Bradinopyga (joninata. 

This insect is about the only true example of cryptic colouring in 
Indian dragonflies. Itself the colour of stone or cement, it usually 
selects such materials to rest upon during the day. In Madras I have 
seen it settled on the plastered sides of wells, in Elephanta Island and 
Poona it is often seen resting on granite rocks in which places it is well- 
nigh invisible. At dusk it leaves these situations and hawks freely in 
the open. Before dusk it may commonly be seen hunting for mosc^uitos 
in the darkened verandahs of bungalows. In the latter situations they 
have a habit of coming to rest in large numbers on the ropes of chicks, 
20 to 30 sitting in close alignment and sleeping there throughout the 

3. Tholymis tiUanja. 

In Bombay lilkirga appears on the wing soon after 6 p.m. and fi-om 
then onward till long after dusk a continuous stream of the insects may 
be seen pursuing each other round the borders of tanks. The males are 
the first, on the wing and by reason of the opalescent patch on the hind- 
wings, which has a distinctly luminous effect not unlike phosphorescent 
paint, it is easily distinguished. 

The females appear later and, as they have not the same distinctive 
mark as the male, they are seen with difficulty. The luminous mark 
is obviously a recognition mark of sexual importance and is the only 
example I know of among the Order although it has a close analogy in 
the white recognition marks found in the males of several species of 
jungle-haimting Zygoptera. 

4. Zi/xomma petiolalvni. 
This dragonfly resembles one of the New World Aeshnines in that it 
limits its flight to a very short period during the 24 hours. The duration 
of this is usually for about 20 minutes after sundown. In Poona I have 
seen it first appear at any time between 6-30 and 7 p.m. and as suddenly 
disappear shortly after 7 p.m. I have taken it after dark by striking 
at its shadow as seen silhouetted against the light reflected from the 
surface of water. The insect may be beaten up from dense jungle during 
the day and then taken by tracking it to its next resting place. Usually 
it flies only a few yards and then comes to rest. Sometimes it may be 
seen flying during the day over densely-shaded pools in deep jungle 
or not uncommonly it is seen hawking mosc^uitos in the depths of a deep 
well. There is one such well in the Empress Gardens, Poona. where 
jietiolal'um may almost invariably be seen during the day but it must be 
noted that it never leaves these fastnesses until after dusk. (I have 


noticed T. Hllarga flying in similar spots during the day and it is well 
known that night-flying butterflies will take to the wii:g during the day 
in d^rk, shady jungles). 

5. Gynacantha baijaderu. 

This very local insect appears on the wing only after night has set 
in for good. At such times specimens may only be taken by watching 
for their silhouette against the evening sky and as they have a rapid, 
skipping flight, this is done with difficulty. It is more easily cajjtured 
by beating it up during the day from its resting-places in deep jungle 
and then observing where it comes to rest again. Usually its flight then 
is but for a short distance, some 20 yards or so, but on account of the 
invisibility of its wings and the foliage-green colouring of its body, it is 
not easily recognizable amongst the foliage. The wings of the last 
three species are remarkable for the fineness of their neuration and delicacy 
of structure and I note that other Gynacanthce resemble them in this 
respect so that it may well be that the species of this genus are all night- 

The food of all consists of mosquitos although I have occasionally 
seen them making a meal off the smaller moths. If the mouth of any one 
be examined directly after capture it will be found stuft'ed with an im- 
mense number of mosquitos ; very probably the insect makes the most 
of its time and then retires to finish the meal at leisure. 

Major Fraser's observations are not onh^ interesting but economically Mr. Fletcher. 
important because, as he notes, these night-flying dragonflies seem to 
feed principally on mosquitos. I expect that most of us have seen 
dragonflies on the wing at dusk but have merely put them down as belated 
individuals capturing their suppers. These species are not at all easy 
to catch as a rule but I have no doubt that, now that attention has been 
directed to them, we shall be able to make considerable increases to the 
list of night-flying species. Certainly we have several at Pusa including 
at least one large species, which I have as yet been unable to catch. 


By Major F. C. Fraser, I.M.S. 
In Madras it would probably be impossible to examine any single 
plant of C^jcas which has not suffered from the depredations of a small 
caterpillar, the larva of a Lycsenid, Catochrysops sirabo. In the Horti- 
cultural Gardens, Mount Road, I noticed that every plant was eaten and 
at one time of the year when Cycas throws up its young crown of leaves, 



tlie ova and larv* of this pest may be seen in hiindreds. eating tlieir way 
into tlie foliage. 

In 1911 I made some interesting micro-pliotograplis of t^ese insects 
at work but regret that they are not at hand, having been packed away 
for the " duration of the war." 

Apparently two species of Cutoclirysofs feed upon Cycas, as de Niceville 
mentions that he fed C. pandava on it in Calcutta, but my own observa- 
tions have only been on straho. 

I cannot give, with reliability, from memory, the dates when the 
plant puts on its new crown of leaves, but in Madras this takes place 
twice annually and one of these periods happens to coincide with one of 
the broods of straho. At such a time several of the butterflies may be 
seen hovering around any of the plants and if the young, tender lea\'es be 
examined, they will be found swarming with ova and young larvae. 
The latter eat their way rapidly into the substance of the juicy .stems and 
many are quite hidden in the cavities so formed. 

If the larvae are in great numbers, as they usually are. the whole of 
the crown of the plant is entirely destroyed and as straho will or can only 
feed on the young parts, only the fiist-comers reach maturity, the last 
perishing from starvation ; they are literallj' eaten out of house and home, 
the adults not being above making a meal oft' the smaller ones, as the 
supply of food runs out. 

In Madras, the crown of leaves which coincides with the advent of 
straho is entirely destroyed, only a few shrivelled and stunted stems 
remaining which look as if they had been blasted with fire and, were it 
not for the fortunate circumstance that it throws up a second crown 
and thus dodges the parasite, the whole of the plants would be wiped 
out in a single generation. As it is, the growth of the plant annually- 
is exactly halved and I have found it possible by examining a plant- in 
my own compound to trace the alternate attacked and unattached 
crowns, the history of which is written on the trunlc of the plant. 

C. straho has at least two or three broods in the year, the food of the 
odd broods being several species of leguminous plants, but I believe the 
main brood depends for its livelihood on Cycas and it ought to be possible 
by protecting this plant during the period it is putting on its new foliage 
to check the spread of the jiest. 

By Major F. C. Feasee, I.M.S. 
The important economic part played by spiders as checks on the 
multiplication of Lepidopterous larvae is well illustrated by the following 
notes made' on the larvse of Acherontia styx in 1907 and again in 1910. 


Several fiill-grown larvae were found feeding on jasmine, all being 
detected by searching for their droppings on the ground beneath the 
bushes, a method of detection of great utility when applied to the larger 
larvae. This led to a search for more juvenile specimens on the foliage 
and, whilst doing so, the presence of a very large number of empty egg- 
shells was noticed. Over a hundred were counted in a short space of 
time and when some of these were examined under a powerful lens, they 
were seen to present a minute ragged hole, about the borders of which 
was a small collection of dried debris. 

Now, the larvae of most of the Sphingidro invariably make their hrst 
meal off the empty egg-shell, so that it was obvious that an early and 
untimely fate had met the former occujjants of the eggs. 

A further search revealed another interesting fact, viz., that there 
were a large number of leaves which bore the basal portion of an egg or 
eggs still adhering to their surface -and each of these presented a small 
hole somewhere in the neighbourhood of its centre. This was easily 
explained by the fact that, when the newly hatched larva has finished 
all the egg-shell it can manage (it rarely manages to nibble off the base 
of the shell, as this lies flush with the surface of the leaf and so is difficult 
for the larva to negotiate), it proceeds to make the following meal from 
the middle of the leaf. These tell-tale punctures in the foliage are an 
easily-seen guide for detecting the young larvae but in the jjresent case 
although some fifty consecutive leaves were examined, all of which were 
holed and on nearly all of which the basal portion of an egg was found, 
only seven young larvae were detected, most of Avhich were only two 
or three days old. 

Wliilst searching for the ova and larvae, an interesting phenomenon 
was observed which served to explain the presence of the derelict egg- 
shells. A small spider was observed standing over an egg which from 
its bright green and translucent colour was evidently occupied by a 
developing larva. The spider stood motionless facing the egg as if it 
were crystal-gazing but on approaching it carefully so as not to disturb 
and frighten it away, and making an examination of the egg with a 
powerfid lens, it was observed that the larva was quickening and could be 
seen moving within the egg-shell. It was actually eating its way out 
and the minute jaws could be seen enlarging t]j.e hole of exit. It was 
obviously these movements which had attracted the spider which now 
stood waiting until such time as the hole would become large enough for 
it to extract the larva from the egg. Some five minutes later it suddenly 
sjjrang upon the egg and in a short space of time seized and dragged the 
mangled corpse of the larva from the egg and thereafter departed with 
its prey. On examining the empty egg, a little moist debris was seen 


clinging around the hole through which the caterpillar had been dragged 
and this accounted for the collection of debris seen in the jDrevious shells. 
This mcident was not an isolated one, for it was seen repeated on several 
occasions and at other times spiders were detected in the act of devouring 
larvae a few days old. The destruction of the Sphingid larvae therefore, 
before even they leave the ova, works out at SG per cent, and probably 
another 10 per cent, are destroyed by the same agency in the first week 
or two of larval life. I do not think the larger larvae suffer much from 
the attacks of spiders but as their number is still further reduced by 
preying Hymenoptera and birds, not much more than one or two per cent, 
can come to maturity. The above-mentioned larvae are not the only- 
species which are attacked in the egg stage for I have noticed that 
the PapUioninEe are also checked in a similar way, P. polytes for instance. 
For some time I was under the mistaken impression that the empty eggs 
were sterile ones but the above observations furnished the key to the 
truth. The deposition of sterOe eggs in nature I imagine must be very 

It may be noted here that spiders never attack those larvae which are 
protected by ants and if one be placed on a bush inhabited by such, 
it will beat a hasty and ignominious retreat, always provided that it is 
able to escape the furious onslaught of the protecting hordes. 


B(/ E. H. HANKIN, M.A., Sc.D.. Cketnical Examiner to Government, 
Uniteil Provinces. 

It is possible that the following remarks on the colouration of a butter- 
fly. Papilio demoleus. may be of interest from the point of view of 
the application of colours for use in camouflage, with especial reference 
to the painting of military aeroplanes so as to secure invisibility when 
seen from below. 

Since it was proved, some years ago, that the decoration of butter- 
flies has nothing to do with sexual attraction, no satisfactory explanation 
has been put forward as to its nature. In some cases there can be no 
doubt that it serves the purpose of concealment. In other instances 
it warns enemies of the unpalatability of its possessor. Neither of these 
explanations will apply to P. dentoieus. 

This butterfly in size and colouring has a superficial resemblance to 
the English Swallow-tail butterfly. In freshly-hatched specimens the 
upper surface of the wing has a chequer pattern of black and primrose- 


yellow. At the inner margin of the hind wing is a spot of dull reddish 
brown. When settled on a flower it keeps its wings fully expanded, 
slightly dihedrally-up and often in quivering movement. It makes no 
attempt, in my experie^ice, to hide its red spot by covering it with the 
hind wings. Hence in this position it is an extremely conspicuous 
object, and in the absence of other evidence, one would be inclined to 
suspect that its colour-pattern was meant to serve as a warning to enemies. 

If its colouring is meant as a warning then this butterfly must either 
be unpalatable or must be regarded as being unpalatable by its enemies. 
But the frequency with which damaged specimens are seen makes it 
very uidikely that it bears this character among the birds in Agra. 

On examining the underside of this butterfly facts are found that 
militate strongly against the idea that its colour-pattern serves as a 
warning. Underneath, the ground colour is not black but dark brown. 
Most of the yellow areas are larger than those of the upper siu:face. 
Hence the general effect is that the colouruig is lighter below than above. 
It may be suggested that this difference is a compensation for the under- 
side being in shadow ; such an explanation woidd be satisfactory if the 
purpose of the colouring was concealment but has very little meaning if, 
as has been suggested, its purpose is display. Further, the hind-wing, 
on its underside, possesses six more or less rectangular areas and an eye- 
spot all of dark ochre-yellow bordered with blue and black. Why, 
it may be asked, should this butterfly have evolved this elaborate pattern 
on the underside of its wings where it is invisible to birds when the insect 
is at rest ? 

Let us now consider the appearance of the insect when in flight. 
When flying slowly it is conspicuous, perhaps as conspicuous as when 
settled. But when in fast flight it is extraordinarily difficult to see. 
It appears to me merely as a grey flash. I have had a good deal of 
practice in observing insects in flight and I know of no other insect that 
so completely loses its distinctive appearance when flying fast. I have 
noticed this peculiarity of P. demoleus both in the present season and last 
year, I have seen it when I was making no attempt to catch the butter- 
fly and when therefore my attention was not distracted by movements 
of the net. 

From the point of view of inconspicuousness when in flight the under- 
side of the wing of P. rlemoleus is perkaps more important than its upper 
surface because when disturbed it flies off with gain of height and travels 
at ten or more feet above the ground. A bird that had swooped down to 
attack a settled demoleus would therefore, as a rule, be below the escaping 
insect and would see the underside of its wings perhaps a little more than 
tj^eir upper surfaces. 


Experts in camouflage will probably be able to form an opinion as 
to how far the inconspicuousness of demohus when in fast flight is due to 
its colouring and how far it is due to its speed. It is in fact a fast- 
flying butterfly. If it is considered possible that the pattern is one that 
makes for invisibility, experiments with low-flying aeroplanes similarly 
coloured might give results of scientific interest and possibly of practical 

A singular change in the colouring of demolcus takes place with age. 
At the beginning of the monsoon season the only specimens seen flying 
are survivors from the previous season. In two or three specimens 
that I have examined in this condition the dark ochre-yellow of the 
under-surface has faded to a tint not markedly different from the yellow 
of the rest of the wing. But, as though in compensation, the yellow of 
the upper surface has greatly deepened. The red spot had faded on the 
under siu-face but not on the upper side. It seems jDrobable that the 
fading of the under surface tends to reduce conspicuousness when the 
insect is hidden and at rest during the cold and dry seasons of the year. 
The hind wings of these old specimens are very frecjuently damaged as 
though from the attacks of birds. 

A second butterfly is found in Agra that is somewhat markedly 
incon,sjDicuous when in flight. Its name is Jmionia lemonias. It differs 
in its flying habits from P. demole>is in that it generally flies at a height 
of about a foot or two above the ground. A bird that was chasing it 
would probably keep on a higher level and would therefore see more of 
the upper sui'face of its wings, especially as when flying it often makes 
short glides with its wings in the horizontal position. It is of interest 
to notice that the upper siu'face of each wing of this butterfly has a large 
eye-spot of blue, black and orange brown that recalls the colouring of 
the spots on the underside of P. denwleus. 

Note. — The substance of the above remarks was communicated to the Comptroller 
ofMunitions Inventions, who forwarded my letter to the Camouflage School in Kensing- 
ton. A report received therefrom stated that the upper wing of the insect (Pupilio 
(hmoleus) was photographed. The pattern was cut out of the resulting print and the 
parts weighed. The weights thus obtained gave the proportions of the component 
colours. The colours were then exactly matched and painted on a spinning wheel in 
the same proportion as occurs in the wing of the butterfly. Both surfaces of the wing 
were treated in this way. On spinning the wheel the resulting colours were for the upper 
surface a moderately dark olive green and for the lower an earth colour. Spinning 
these two colours together, as would occur when the insects wings are blurred in flying, 
was found to result in a khaki colour. 

" It is also noteworthy," the report states, " that this colour almost e.xactly matches 
one of the colours found most useful in the concealment of low-flying aeroplanes from 
overhead observation." 

Dr. Hankin's paper is an excellent example of the fact that even the 
coumionest of insects repay study. Papilio demoleits is an abundant 


species, indeed a pest, in most parts of India. When disturbed, its flight 
is extremely swift, as you all know, and it certainly is difficult to follow 
with the eye then. How iai that is clue to the mere rapidity of the flight 
and how far it is due to the blending of the colours of the wings, I should 
not like to say. Possibly some of us may be able to make observations 
on it in the near future. 

Another point brought out bj'' Dr. Hankin's paper is the manner in 
which entomological observations may prove of great utility iu other 
fields. In the present case it has been suggested that, if the coloims of 
the underside, especially of the hind-wing, in Pafilio demolevs make 
for invisibility diu'ing rapid flight, such a scheme of colour might be 
applied to military aeroplanes in order to reduce their visibility when 
flying low. How far such a thing is practicable and how far a colour- 
scheme which might reduce visibility against a glaring Indian sky would 
produce the same result under European conditions, I cannot say, but 
Dr. Hankin's remarks are certainly suggestive. 


By Edward B. Poulton, D.Sc, F.R.S., Fellow of Jesus College, Oxjord, 
and Hope Professor of Zoology in the University. 

The investigation here suggested is of great interest and importance 
and at the same time very easy to carry out. AH that is required is to 
breed the butterflies from indiscriminately collected larvae in each locality 
and send the specimens to me at the University Museum, Oxford, so that 
they may be sexed and recorded. Additional value will be given to the 
investigation by obtaining as full and accurate a record as possible of 
the relative proportions to each other and to their mimics in the same 
locality of the two models, Papilio hector, L., and P. aristolochice, F. 
If it be found impossible to breed the forms of polyles, interesting results 
may be gained, although of much less value, by the indiscriminate collec- 
tion of the butterflies, f)articularly if all or as nearly as j^ossible all the 
specimens seen on any given occasion are taken. 

A short abstract of the results already obtained will show the great 
need for further investigations. 

Ceylon. Mr. J. C. F. Fryer has recorded in Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., 
Lond,, Series B. Vol. 204 (14th November 1913), p. 249, the results of 
breeding from 1-55 indiscriminately collected wild larvae, viz., 66 males, 
40 male-like fehiales (eyrus. Hubn.), 24 romulus, F., females mimicking 
P. hector, and 2.3 polytes, L., females mimicking P. aristohchiw. It is 
suggested that these results may be significant. 


" In Ceylon, tlierefore. if the above statistics are reliable, the ratio 
between the mimetic and non-mimetic females is one which might be 
expected if it be assumed that there is no selection in favour of either 
of these forms of female ; under these conditions the population is 
stable in composition and may remain so indefinitely. 

" On the whole question, however, no final conclusions can yet be 
drawn, for, in the first place, the numbers obtained from the statistics 
may quite possibly be a coincidence, while in the second the effects of the 
phenomena discovered in connection with the fertility and mating of 
the species are quite unknown. Possibly the conclusion which can be 
drawn with the greatest confidence is that the extraordinary mimicry 
in the female sex is at present of little importance to the population of 
the butterfly in Ceylon. {Ibid. p. 2.50). " 

I have not at present been able to set beside Mr. Fryer's ratios those 
derived from breeding in other areas but the following evidence, Cjuoted 
in all cases from the Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond.. goes far to disprove the general 
application of the conclusions set forth in the above-quoted paragraphs. 

West slopes of Ashamboo Hills, North-West of Cape Comorin. In this 
locality in the extreme south of India, J. Williams Hockin collected 
(1905-16) 30 males, 1 cynis female, 12 poh/tes females, 21 ronwlus female, 
1 female intermediate between the last two. Of the 12 jwlytes, 4 were 
stichius with no white in the hindwing cell, 4 polytes with conspicuous 
white, and 4 intermediate. The female intermediate between polytes 
and romulus was an interesting form, indistinguishable from some of the 
forms of theseiis, Cramer, from Borneo. As regards the models Mr. 
Hockin considered hector decidedly commoner than aristolochiw and 
indeed the commonest Papilio in the district, aristolocliice being second, 
and jiolytes third " but several lengths behind."" (1917, Ixxx-lxxxiii.) 

The Ceylonese polytes females, although in a closely adjacent area, 
are very different in that the stichius form is almost unlvnown while the 
hind- wing cell of the great majority is conspicuously white-marked. 
a fact which, it can hardly be doubted, is related to the abundance in 
Ceylon as compared with India of forms of aristolochicB with a white 
cellular spot in the hind wings (Rothsd. and Jord.. Nov. Zool., II, 1895, 
p. 248). 

North Kanara. According to the extensive experience of T. R. Bell, 
largely derived from breeding, the cyrus form is excessively rare ; it 
was in fact only once obtained and then by capture. Of the two mimetic 
forms, both abundant, romulus was perhaps the commoner. (1914, 

Neighbourhood, of Madras City. Out of 45 females taken on two 
days in 1915 by Prof, and Mrs. Fyson, 23 were polytes and 22 romithis ; 


34 males were also captured. Twelve hector were taken aiul, on another 
day, one aristolochice. (1915, xcii-xciv.) 

Singapore Island. In 1916 Dr. E. Hanitscli collected 27 males, 
8 of the cyrus female and 9 of the folytes female together with y> of the 
models of the latter. (1916, Ixxvi-lxxviii.) Later in the same year he 
collected 34 males, 5 cyrus and 9 polytes (1917, xxx-xxxiv.) 

The mainland {Johore) opposite Singapore Island. Dr. R. Hanitsch 
received from his collector 12 males, 3 -polytes female and 1 cyrus female 
(March 1917), and a second example of the cyrus female (July 1917) 
together with 3 males taken on the same day and 8 males somewhat 
earlier. (1917, xxx-xxxi, Ixxxiii-lxxxiv.) 

These results from Singapore and mainland are very different from 
those recorded, by Dr. Seitz who only remembers the pohjlcs female 
in this locality. (1913, p. xxxii.) 

The Hongkong and Macao Districts. The male-like female cyrus 
is, on the e^ideuce of most natm-alists, much the commonest form of the 
mimetic forms ; romulus is unknown and the polytes female rare, as is 
its model, aristolockiw. Of 10 examples from Stonecutter's Island in 
Hongkong Harbour 4 were males and 6 cyrus females. (1913, xxxi- 

I think it will be agreed that the results summarized above are suffi- 
cient to show how important it is to obtain evidence on a more extensive 
scale, and especially to carry out, in as many localities as possible, Mr. 
Fryer's method of breeding from indiscriminately collected larvae. 

I suppose that you all know that Papilio polytes is remarkable in jif_ Fletchei;- 
having three forms of female, all dift'erent from one another. There is 
firstly the form cyrus, which is like the male, secondly the form polytes 
which resembles Papilio aristolochice, and thirdly the form romulus, 
which mimicks the female of Papilio hector. I have here specimens 
[exhibited] of these forms of females and of the two other Papilios. P. 
aristolochicB and P. hectar, which they mimick. 

We at Pusa have tried some breeding experiments with Papilio 
polytes and I have here [eochihited\ specimens of two generations reared 
from a captured female. As you will see. the females reared in this lot 
belong to the forms cyrxis and polytes. We have not bred any romvl-us 
here as yet, although romulus does occur rarely at Pusa. In this connec- 
tion I may note that Papilio hector, the model for the romvlus form, 
does not occur mt Pusa ; I have seen it from Nagpur. where it is rare, 
but from nowheie north of that. 

It will be of considerable scientific interest if any of you can assist 
by rearing Papilio polytes in numbers from known parents and sending 


the resulting specimens either to Pusa or direct to Professor Poulton. 
It is not easy to rear them in numbers ; at least, we have not found it 
possible at Pusa to rear more than two generations, so far. 

If vou will collect specimens of P. jwlyies, taking indiscriminately 
all the examples seen at one time in any one place of P. polytes, P. hector 
and P. aristohchicE, that will also be useful, as giving us an idea of the 
relative proportions of occurrence of the different female forms and of 
the species which they resemble. 

Another Papilio which would well repay breeding in numbers is 
Pafilio memnon which has numerous distinct forms of females, some 
tailed and some tail-less. In Java both tailed and tail-less forms have 
been bred from one batch of eggs, but I do not thinlv that P. memnon 
has ever been reared on any scale in India. 

I am sirre that I am endorsing the feelings of this Meeting in saying 
how grateful we are to Professor Poulton for sending us this paper. 


By B. Prashad, D.Sc.. Officialing Director of Fisheries, Bengal and 
Bihar and Orissa. 
Most people are cpiite unaware of the influence of insects on fisheries 
and fishes and to them the title of this short paper would certaiiily sound 
very strange but it should be distinctly understood that the insect fauna 
of a given area of water exerts not only a potential but a real influence on 
the fishes living in it. For a piscicultm-ist, therefore the knowledge of 
the insect life of his fisheries is of as great an importance as that of the 
vegetation of these waters. From these facts it is quite apparent that 
the problems involved in fisheries are neither simple nor one-sided, and 
require for their solution a very serious research into all types of aquatic 
plants and animals, besides a thorough understanding of the general 
biological conditions of the fisheries in question. In this paper I have 
considered in a general way the relations of insects to fisheries. Scarcity 
of information on the various heads does not allow of a more detailed 
treatment and it is with great diffidence that this incomplete paper is 
presented before the Entomological Conference. But then the object 
of the paper is to show our ignorance of the various problems, and if 
possible, to enlist by so doing the sympathies of the entomologists and 
others for helping us in the solution of these problems. The total number 
of scientific workers in India is very small and it is only through co- 
operation with one another that any real progress can be made under the 
existing circumstances. It will not be out of place to point out here that 
the importance of the investigations like tlie present one is as great to 


the entomologist, the sanitary departments and the general public as 
to the pisciculturist. Every one agrees that the question of public health 
in the tropics, more so than anywhere else, is very seriously involved 
in the discovery of efficient means for the destruction of mosquito larvae. 
Several species of fish have been credited as being efficient agents in this 
connection, but I am sorry to have to say that the most unsystematic 
way in which this work has been carried on. has resulted in making the 
problems more obscure and involved. However, we will have something 
more to say about it further on. 

To a layman the word insect essentially conveys the idea of small 
terrestrial sLx-legged animals that can fly by means of specially developed 
structm'es — the wings. Undoubtedly insects are most numerous on 
land, but then all of them cannot fly as indeed all are not terrestrial. 
A large number are permanently aquatic and a still larger number pass 
the earlier stages of their life-history in water. The very keen struggle 
for existence on land has probably resulted in these insects taking to the 
aquatic medium, where food in the form of planliton and aquatic vege- 
tation is most jilentiful and though hosts of enemies exist to devour the 
helpless eggs, larvse, pupse and even the adult insects, yet the chances 
of escape are far greater in water than on land. The question as to 
whether the ancestors of insects wer*^ terrestrial or aquatic crops up, 
but a discussion of it would be quite out of place here. A point that 
deserves mention in connection with insects that pass the earlier stages 
of their life in water, is that the time spent in the water is comparatively 
short, as indeed is the whole life-cycle. This is largely to be explained 
by the abundanqe of food resulting in rapid growth and prolific breeding 
but there are exceptions, for cases of hibernation for long periods in the 
larval stage are quite well known in the case of large numbers of insects. 
The direct bearing of many of the above detailed fectors is very little 
on J;he fish-life ; still, insects, like plankton, exercise at all times a very 
great influence on the fishes in any area. 

The relations of insects, as indeed of most influences in the sphere of 
life, have to be considered from two different points of view, whether 
they are of any use or they are in any way injurious ? We will consider 
these two sides separately. 

Useful insects. In the distribution of fishes food acts as a very im- 
portant factor, and according to the effects of this ecological factor 
fishes are divided into various groups ; of these groups we are here con- 
cerned with the pelagic and littoral fishes only. Both these types of 
fishes depend largely on the plankton or insects, for their food, and in 
accordance with it show special modifications of the mouth and the alimen- 
tary tract. They frequent only those parts of the streams, lakes or ponds 


where such food is most plentiful. Indeed, the names of the groups 
themselves are given according to the habitat rather than the food eaten 
by the diSerent kinds of fish. As is evident, the fish very seldom could 
get hold of the adult insects owing to the latter flying above the surface 
-of water, but cases are kno\STi where fairly large fishes remain swimming 
near the surface in the evenings and jump out of water to pounce on 
the insects flying near the surface. An important use of this habit is 
made by the anglers who use artificial and fresh flies as baits for these 
fishes and the fish rising to these attractive but deceptive baits get hooked 
and supply the anglers with a nice form of sport. Some of the beetles, 
bugs and other insects that live permanently in the water are either 
too active for the fish or have a very hard chitin and are, therefore, 
usually avoided by fish. Some interesting observations on this latter 
head have been lecorded. The fish were found to learn gradually by 
experience the futility of securing such undesirable tyj^es of food and later 
avoided them altogether. The most important part of the food of fish 
from amongst the insects are the larval stages of some orders of insects. 
These larvae abound in most waters, subsisting on the vegetation, the 
protozoan animals and the small Crustacea, and are in turn eaten in large 
quantities by the fish. The chitinous covering of these larvse is very 
thin and poorly developed, and the comparatively large quantity of fleshy 
substance of their body is very important as food to the fishes when 
compared to the quantities of small Crustacea that must be eaten to get 
an equal quantity of nourishment. Whereas for obtaining enough plank- 
ton fish have to take in large quantities of water and to strain the jilankton 
from it ; they have only to dart a number of times at the comparatively 
large insect-larvae and very soon to obtain equal quantities of food. 
Our information in India regarding most of these points is most scanty. 
In Europe and America where systematic experiments have been carried 
on, larvse of the may-flies (Efheitierida:), dragon-flies {Odonata). some 
of the Neiiropiera, and amongst the two winged-flies {Diptera) those of 
the families of crane-flies {TipulidcB), mosquitos (Culicidw) phantom- 
larvae (Corethm), harlequin-flies (Chironomidw), Dixidw and others, 
have been shown to form a large C|uantity of the food of some fishes. 
In fact, a celebrated Carp-culturist suggested the desirability of increasing 
the mosquito larvae in the carp-ponds by specially devised means for 
increasing this source of the food supply of the fish ; he was naturally 
ignorant of the harm that would accrue if larvse escaped from the fish 
and developed into the adult mosquitos. All thesame the fishes are im- 
portant agents in keeping down the numbers of these objectionable insects. 
A very important economic use has been claimed from the sanitary 
point of view for utilising the fish as destroyers of mosquito larvae. Un- 

P,i(jf' 9119. 

Bftnhex liinatn ( :;;) 


fortunately the habits of the various indigenous fishes have not been 
studied in this connection, and without ascertaining the suitability or 
* otherwise of the various fishes for this work, they have been indiscrimi- 
nately used for this purpose ; very large sums of money have thus been 
tvasted. If the whole problem were scientifically tackled and the most 
useful species in this comiection discovered, the gain would be immense. 
This is, truly, considered to be work for j)ure science, though the fact is 
quite ignored that the work of applied science has very often failed 
owing to lack of information on the various points from the pure 
scientific side. For example, in connection with this problem the habits 
of the more hardy type of small surface- feeding fishes, the structure of 
their mouth, the quality and quantity of the food of these fishes under 
natural conditions, besides the cjuestion of their acclimatisation to new 
surroundings should be thoroughly inquired into, before they are used 
for destro3'ing mosquito larvte. 

2. Haniijul insects. Some of the insects have been shown to be of 
immense use to fish, but others are equally injurious. The large aquatic 
beetles (Coleoptero). some of the beetle larvse, the bugs (Herniptera) and 
some dragon-fly larvse consume large quantities of the plankton, which 
as has been stated already forms the greater joart of the food of some, and thus these insects stand out as very strong competitors with the 
fishes. They are injurious in another way also, in that they destroy large 
numbers of other^-ise healthy fry of various fishes by gnawing and eating 
away their opercula, thus hindering the processes of resjoiration. They 
may exert some other mfluences also but then our information about 
all these is so very meagre. The Fisheries Department is trying its 
best towards the solution of all these problems and would be very grateful 
for any help that it may receive at the hands of entomologists and others. 


By T. Y. Eamakrishxa Ayyar, B.A., F.E.S., F.Z.S., Ag. Gorernment 
Entomologist, Madras. 

(Plate 141.) 

It is well known that species of the Bembecine wasp genus Bembex 
are in the habit of collecting flies and storing them in their nests. There 
are also interesting accounts of -these by observers like Peckham in 
America and Fabre in Europe. But. being the first time I noted an 
Indian species (Bembex lunata) doing this, I have brought this to yom- 
notice just to know whether any others have seen this in this or any other 
species of Bembex. 



Mrs. Hutchinson. 

Mr. Ramakrisbna 


Mr. Fletcher. 

The first time I saw this was at Hillgrove (2,000 feet) on the Nilgiris 
where this wasp was very actively collecting flies of sorts attacking the 
body of a cow. The flies happened to be species of Stojuoxys, Lijperosia, ' 
and Philcematomyia — all biting flies. 

I again noted this phenomenon at Tanjore in the Plains where the 
flies were collected from ca^- bullocks. I was not able in this case to 
identify the flies. I am sorry I was not able to follow the wasps in both 
cases to their nests. 

I believe this appears" to be interesting from a veterinary point of 
view also. 

Does the reader of this paper know whether the wasjjs stupefy the 
flies ? 

I am sorry to say that I could not observe this point. 

Species of Bembex are usually found in sandy places but they are so 
cjuick on the wing that it is generally very difficidt to observe them. 
Bingham, in his Fauna volume, notes that they prey on Dij^tera and 
states that some Indian species do not close their biUTOWs but keep them 
open and supjily their larvae with fresh food. I am not aware, however, 
that the species of Diptera so taken have been definitely determined 


By T. 

Y. Eam.xkrishxa Ayyar. B.A.. F.E.S., F.Z.S. 

EiiloinoloQisl, Madras. 

Ag. Goventmeni. 

(Plate 142.) 

During the months from May to July this gay-coloured Pentatomid 
is found in numbers on Trciria midijolia, an Euphorbiaceous tree growing 
abundantly along the banks of the big tanks adjoining the Agricultural 
College, Coimbatore, South India. Due to the striking colouration and 
its habit of feeding c]uite exposed on the tender leaves and succulent 
fruits of the tree, this bug many a time attracts the attention even of 
the layman. 

So far as I am aware, very little is on record regarding the early stages 
and habits of this bug although the insect has been known to science for 
over a hundred years past. According to Dixon this insect is sparingly 
found in the.Borghat (Bombay) in April-May and appears to play an 
important part in the pollination of the Moon tree {Macaranga roxhwghii). 
Green states that in Ceylon this species is found gregariously twenty or 
thirty together on single branches of trees. Lefi-oy in his Indian Insect 
Lite has a word aboiit the insect's habit of sitting on its eggmass. 

Caritao oceUntiis. 

Fig. 1. Blanch of Trcwia nndlflnra witli bugs nn it, natural size. 

Fis^. 2. Female bug brooding over egg-mass, natural size. 

Fig. 3. Eggs, newly-laid (on left) and ready to liateh {on right), magnified. The 

natural sizes are shown by the smaller figures within the dotted circles. 
Fig. 4. Parasite on eggs, magnified. 
Fig. 5. Larva, first instar, magnified. 
Fig. 6. Larva, second instar, magnified. 
Fig. 7. Larva, third instar, magnified. 
Fig. 8. Larva, fourth instar, m-agnified. 
Fig. 9. Larva, fifth instar, magnified. 

(In figures 4 — 9 the natural sizes are shown in the smaller figures alongside each 
of the magnified illustrations.) 


^*. 4^ 



The following notes form a summary of the observations I have been 
able to make on the life-history and habits of this insect in South 

Dlslribii(io)i. I have noted this insect in Coimbatore, tlie Mysore 
uplands, the Bababudins and on the Western Ghats, commoiJy in 
summer. Besides Trewia I have found this insect occasionally breeding 
on Kigelia pinnala in company with another conspicuous bug, Catacan- 
this i'Dcarnattis, Dr., in the Western ghats and on the Mysore uplands. 

Life-hislory. As is utual with most bugs, the method of coupling is 
in opposition. The sexes remain united for a long time — even as long 
as 36 hours sometimes — and' numerous couples are seen in May- Jime. 
which appears to be the breeding season. 

■ Egg. Egg-laying does not occur soon after the sexes separate but 
it generally takes place from two to four da3's afterwards ; at any rate, 
this was the case in captivity. The eggs are generally laid on the lower 
surface of tender leaves, though they are also found at times deposited 
on fruit clusters. In captivity the act of egg-laying was never noticed 
during the day time. The eggs are laid in groups, the number in each 
group varying from 10 to as many as 150. The eggs in each groujJ are 
closely packed together in parallel rows and each of them is cemented to 
the plant surface. In shape each egg is cylindiical and attached to 
the plant surface by one of the poles of the cylinder ; the height of the 
egg is 1-5 mm. while each measures 0-875 mm. across transversely. The- 
egg surface is smooth and, unlike that of many other Pentatonjids, tiere 
is no separately marked lid or sculptured operculum provided ; but the 
region of the egg cap can be made out as a transparent shining circular 
area on the top pole of the egg. In colour the just-laid egg-cUister is 
glistening yellow-white ; especially the upper pole through which the 
future larva emerges is very glossy ; this colour gradually changes to 
a deep orange as the hatching time approaches. At this latter stage 
the pink eyes of the future nymph are seen through the transparent 
egg-shell as t.wo bright spots. 

This insect is one of the few and interesting exanip'es of insects exhi- 
biting what may be called ' parental care.' The mother-bug sits on the 
eggmass and continues to do so from the time the eggs are deposited 
until after they hatch out into young ones. In some cases I have observed 
the mother remain in the same position some time even after all the young 
larvae have moved away from beneath her body. All this time the parent 
insect does not take any food and while in this posture the slightest 
disturbance makes it vibrate the antemiae in a characteristic manner as 
though in defence, and bring its body closer to that side of the eggmass 

VOL. HI „ 

91 2 rRncKEDI\GS of the TIIIIiD EXTdMdl.OGICAl, ilEETIXG 

where the disturbance is felt. The egg mass in some cases is fairly big 
and the parent is not able to cover the whole mass while it sits over it. 
In one case where I got a groujj of eggs collected from a tree with the 
mother mounting tuard over them, I observed that, while those eggs 
well covered by the parent's body retained their normal colour, those at 
the edge and away from the mother's reach developed a dark tinge and 
eventually in about two days minute black wasps* emerged from the 
eggs instead of bug larva?. Evidently the parent resting on the egg- mass 
serves to some extent as a preventive against the eggs getting parasi- 
tized. f A similar case of parental care is described in the Transactions 
of the Entomological Society for 1904 by Dodd in the case of another 
Pentatoniid. Tedocoris lineola. var. bnnksi, D(.n. 

In from five to seven days the eggs hatch ; all the young ones do not 
emerge together. An interval of several hours intervenes between the 
liatcliing out of the first nymph and the opening of the last few eggs of a 

First inslar. Length 1-5 mm. The tiny larva has at this stage a 
roughly oval shape with the upper surface convex from above. The 
antennas and limbs are comparatively well developed ; the distal joint 
of the antenna is slightly swollen. The rostrum extends a'most to the 
tip of the abdomen along the ventral side. The general colour is orange ; 
eyes bright scarlet ; antenuEe, rostrum and legs transparent brown. In 
about half an hour after emergence the colour of the limbs, thorax and 
the dorsal region of the abdomen changes to a paler hue. Two fairly 
distinct and one faint dark patches appear on the abdomen. All the 
lai'vse coming out of one egg-batch remain feeding gregariously on the 
fruit or the leaf surface for a pretty long time — in some cases even up to ' 
the second or third moult. During the first stage the creature is quite 
helpless, the slightest external disturbance often affecting it very much. 

Second inslar. Length 3 nun. Head, antennae, legs, rcstrum, con- 
nexival spots and transverse bands across abdomen get a shiny bluish 
brown colour. The head and thorax get a metallic greenish tinge, the 
abdomen becomes pinlcish ; the antenna! joints are pinkish proximally, 
connexivum black. Three transverse patches of blue black colour 
are found across the abdomen dorsally ; of these two one is dumb-bell- 
shaped. The general shape of the body becomes changed due to a ten- 
dency on the part of the anterior portion of the body to be di'awn forward. 

* This parasite appears to be same as TrUnoiniis iiidi, Girault, found on Pentatomid 

t This fact has also besn mentioned by Fletcher in his S'>titli Imliiin Insect/, page 34, 
figure 17. 


The rostrum now extends slightly bc3ond the abdomen and can be seen 
from above ; the distal joint of the antenna is slightly swollen. 

At this stage also the larvse are gregarious and not very active ; but 
they often manage to remain together hidden either under a leaf or on 
the unexposed surface of a fruit. - 

The second moult takes place after four days. 

Third inslrtr. Length 5 mm. At this stage the posterior end of the 
thorax shows a tendency to become pointed backwards to form the 
future scutellum. Soon after the second moult the larva has a uniform 
Ijinlcish colour and the rostrum has a whitish tinge. After an hour or 
more the ground-colour now becomes changed to a reddish ochre and the 
metallic sf)ots at the connexivum appear clearly. The rostrum reaches 
beyond the abdomen. The scutellum apj^ears pointed posteriorly at 
the median line. The larvae still feed gregariously but in hiding. In 
another four days the third moult occurs. 

Fourth inslur. Length 8 mm. At this .stage the rostrum is slightly 
shorter and just reaches the tip of the abdomen. Head, thorax, legs and 
rostrum metallic blue ; abdomen above and below reddish ochraceous 
with two transverse and one dumb-bell-shaped patches of dark brown on 
the dorsal surface of the abdomen. The head is drawn forwards and the 
three regions in it are clear ; the rudiments of the wings appear on each 
side of the body as blunt processes of a metallic hue. The scutellum 
is found gradually moving backwards over the abdomen. The larva? 
at this stage begin to separate and remain feeding hiding under leaves. 
In another four days the next stage is assumed after another 

Fifth instar. Length 12 mm. The rostrum at present reaches only 
the third abdominal segment. The wing-jjads and scutellum are distinct 
and have moved backwards well over the abdomen. The latter is bluntly 
pointed behind and reaches the first dumb-bell-shaped transverse band 
on the abdomen ; the wdng-pads extend a little beyond. The prothoracic 
spines now appear and though small are distinct, sharp and pointed back- 
wards. In colour the antennae and rostrum are dark, the region of the 
legs from coxa to tibia reddish ; the tibiae and tarsi of a shining metallic 
green colour. Head, thorax and scutellum shining metallic green. 
The lateral margins of the prothorax o'range. The metallic bands on the 
abdomen are broader and prominent. The abdomen below gets a darker 
tinge especially at the midventral region. 

In a week's time the last moult takes place and the adult condition 
is assumed. The following table of rearing in captivity show the approxi- 

G 2 



mate period occupied by each stage in the development of the insect in 
two cases. 

^g EgiiS lai,l 

Sj^^i 2„d stage 

3r.l stago 

4th sta?.- 

5th stage 



1 Mtll May 

2 20tll Mivy 

lOth May ^ 23ril -May 
24t)l May 29th May 

27tll May 
2nd J\ine 

31st May 
5th June 

4th June 
9th June 

12th June 
18th June 

28 days. 

Thus the adult condition is reached in about a month's time from the 
date of egg-laying. 

The sexes. — There is a good deal of individual variation in the adults!, 
nor can males and females be easily distinguished by any definite colour 
markings. The male is generally smaller in size and has, so far as I have 
observed, a more pronounced colouration. In a number of sjjecimens 
of the adults examined I found that the bluish-black spots on the ventral 
side of the abdomen are generally more in number in the females than in 
the males. 

One very interesting thing about this bug is that it is an annual 
visitor to the locality, coming about May and disappearing in July. 
For the rest of the year I have never found a single specimen anywhere 
in the vicinity of the College. And the season between May-June is 
the shooting and fruiting season of the food plant Trewia. 



Bij T. v. Ramakeishna Ayyae, B.A., F.E.S.. F.Z.S., Adwq Governmenl 
Entonwlofjist, Madras. 

(Plate 143.)" 
Rothschild and Jordan in their classical memoir on the Sphingidsc of 
the World record only two species of the genus Pohjptijchus as found in 
India, the rest of the species, about thirty in number, being recorded as 
African. Of the two P. dentatus is the subject of this paper. Although 
there are two or tlrree previous references to this insect, whatever is on 
record regarding the earlier stages of this insect is very meagre and 
imperfect. Hearsey has devoted .a couple of lines to the larva of this 
insect as found at Barrackpur and he calls it Spierintkiis denticulntv.s 
in the Proceedings of the Entomological Society (1864) Vol. Ill, p. 100. 
Forsayeth in his paper on the Lepidoptera of Mhow in the Transactions 
of the Entomological Society for 1£84, p. 395, refers to this insect and gives 
a very brief and meagre description of a fairly well-grown larva. These 

PufjC 91.5. 

PLATE 143. 


O 2 


are the ouly references to the early stages of this insect. Rothschikl and 
Jordan, speaking of the larval stages of these Ambulicine hawk-moths, 
say that the first stage is not known of any of these larva:>. I believe 
therefore that the early stages of this insect will probably be of interest. 
The following is a brief summary of the different stages in the life-history 
of this Sphingid. 

Food-plant. The early stages of this moth are spent exclusively on 
Cardia subcordata, a plant which appears to be a native of the Asiatic 
Archipelago and not common in India, only being grown here and there 
in gardens. In Coinibatore on a solitary plant of this kind in the estate 
I have found the early stages of this insect, almost all through the year — 
especially from July to March. It is not generally seen during the 
summer months. 

Egg. The eggs are of the usual Sphingid type, fairly big, spherical 
and seedlike in shape. They are found deposited singly both on the 
upper and under surface of the leaves. In captivity the eggs laid by one 
moth numbered over thirty. The egg-surface is smooth and in colour 
it is glistening yellowish white ; it measures 2 mm. across. Very often 
the egg is parasitized by a small dark Chalcidid wasp which has been 
found to be a new species by Giraidt who has given it the name Anastaius 
cohiibatorensis. The egg takes from five to ten days to hatch. iSoon 
after hatching the larva often feeds on the egg-shell. 

The first stage. The just-hatched larva measures %-h nnn. The 
head is very slender and elongated, spherical, smooth, made up of two 
hemi.spheres with a median ventral groove. The prothorax is slightly 
swollen. The usual posterior horn on the anal segment is present, 
measiu-ing 1-2.5 mm. It is very slender and directed straight up verti- 
cally ; the tip of the horn is forked. Just behind the horn are two small 
sharp tubercles which are only clearly seen when observed carefully. 
The general colour of the body is a uniform pale greenish-yellow ; ocelli 
dark, the horn pinkish. The legs and prolegs have the colour of the body. 
The whole body is fringed with numerous minute white tubercles. Within 
a short period of two clays the first moult takes place, and the second 
stage is reached. Very little of the moulted skin is found in the cage 
in captivity ; probably the larva feeds on it. 

The second stage. Length 11 mm. Body is still slender and elongate. 
The striking feature of this stage is the appearance of a vertical cephalic 
process not generally seen in most caterpillars. No trace of it is found 
ui the caterpillars when it hatches out of the egg and it appears only 
after the first moult. This head-process, when closely observed, is made 
up of two elongated pieces very closely approximated together and made 


to appear as one ; it measures 2 mm.; each of these is fringed with minute 
sharp tubercles. The head is wedge-shaped and with the cephaHc process 
appears more or less like that of a goat. The tail-process is prominent 
(3-5 mm. long) and kept almost upright. The whole body is fringed with 
minute tubercles. Those along the mid-dorsal Une form a sort of median 
dorsal ridge. The genei al colour of the body is a pale green. The head 
process is transparent greenish-white and the tail process is pinkish-brown. 
Head pale greenish ; rest of body yellowish-green. Spiracles are seen 
as minute dark spots. There is a median dorsal small dark browoi patch 
on the prothorax. 

During these earher stages the caterpillar exactly resembles the ribs 
of the backside of the Cardia leaf, so much so that it is difficult to make 
out the presence of the larva on the leaf unless closely observed. Before 
the next moult the larva grows to 16 mm. At this stage marked changes 
in the form and colour take place. The head and tail horns elongate 
with the body. The former becomes distinctly difierentiated from the 
body by its pecuhar triangular shape with the dorsal horn. The general 
colour of the body, although still pale yellowish-green, brown and purple 
colour markings appear all over the dorsal surface. The dorsal region 
of the head around the base of the horn is dark ; the rest of the head 
light yellowish-green. The whole of the head process has a dark brown 
colour. The head and the process are covered with numerous minute 
tubercles. The dorsal region of the prothorax has a pinkish median 
stripe which at the posterior boundary of this segment expands into a 
prominent black spot. From behind this area, viz., from the mesothorax 
backwards to the posterior horn on the last abdominal segment, there is a 
series of pinkish-brown spots arranged in pairs along the mid-dorsal 
region. The thoracic legs are purple-brown and the prolegs whitish- 
green. The posterior horn is purplish-brown, 5 5 mm. long, straight and 
covered with minute tubercles. The posterior two or three pairs of 
spiracles are distinctly seen as dark browm spots. At this stage the larva 
moults a second time and assumes the third stage. One week is spent 
in the second stage. 

Third stage. Length IS mm. There is no change in the gencal 
appearance and colour. In front of the head are found two bluish- 
black streaks, one on each side of the clypeus, beginning from the ocellar 
region and extending backwards, both these meeting at the foot of the 
cephalic horn, ocelH and mouth parts olive brown. The spiracles appear 
clearer. When the lai-va moves about the cephalic process is kept erect 
and not directed forwards. At this stage the larva exactly resembles 
the centra] main rib of the back of a Cardia leaf. 
Within another week the third skin is thrown off. 


Fourth stage. Length 20 mm. Tail process 8 mm., head process 
55 mm. The anal process at this stage is comparatively very long, 
deep bluish-black, and fringed with tubercles. General colour of the body 
is light yellowish-green above and pale green at the sides and below. 
Head-process vertical and dark browTi. Along the dorsal region wedge- 
shaped brownish marks appear along middorsal region bounded on each 
lateral side by a long row of prominent yellowish-browir tubercles. The 
body as a whole is fringed with minute white tubercles. At this stage 
the head and tail processes look almost similar in form and colour and it 
is often diificult to say which is head and which is the tail of the larva 
when casually observed. 

In another six days the next moult takes place. 

Fifth stage. Length 30 mm. Tail horn 10 mm., head process 5 mm. 
The tail horn is horizontal and the cephalic process vertical. General 
colour pale yellowish-green with the wedge-shaped brown spots along the 
dorsal region : each of these gives out a short lateral streak. Spiracles 
brown ; legs purple brown. Head and tail process bluish-black. 

The ne.xt moult takes place in another week's' time. 

Sirth stage. Length 40 mm. — Tail horn 10 mm., extending 8 mm. 
beyond the bodv. The head-process is short though prominent. No 
marked changes in form and colour are noticed. The larva grows stouter, 
larger and more cylindrical in shape. It also becomes voracious, feeding 
on the foliage. Tail process bluish-black ; facial streaks, legs and spiracles 
purjjie-brown. In seven or eight days more another skin is thrown off. 

Seventh stage. Length 16 mm. At this stage of the life of the larva 
the head proccbs iajinnllg The posterior horn is still present. It is 
pointed and somewhat curved and extends a little beyond the anal Seg- 
ment. The whole body has a light greyish-green colour. Middorsal 
region along the whole length of the body is divided off from the two 
lateral regions bv a longitudinal row of prominent tubercles on each side 
of this region. These two rows of tubercles begin at the prothoracic 
region and meet at the base of the horn on the anal segment. These 
tubercles have a pinkish colour. In this mid-dorsal region, which is 
of a yellowish-green colour, there is an interrupted band of 
purple on each segment. There is a continxiation of each of these bars 
at the sides drawn antero-posteriorly in a tangentic mamier. The anal 
horn is greyish fringed with numerotis small pink tubercles. Spiracles 
brown. Head and prothorax greyish-green ; legs purple-brown. The 
claspers are edged with purple. 

During this last stage the larva feeds voraciously and grows in size 
lapidly. At the same time colour changes also occur. Just before pupa- 
tion a well-fed larva reaches 80 mm. The body becomes long, cylindrical 



and stout. The anterior region is thinner than the abdominal end, 
which is stouter. The head is more or less triangular. The anal horn 
is prominent and curved. The whole body is fringed with minute whitish 
tubercles. The two longitudinal rows of tubercles on the dorsal surface 
are prominent and the individual tubercles are bigger and really made up 
of two or three smaller tubercles around a bigger one. The general 
colour is green with the difference that the region on the dorsal surface 
between the two longitudinal rows of sjjiracles is bright green while the 
sides and ventral portion of the body have a bluish tinge. Each row of 
tubercles appears as a pinkish line from the prothorax to the anal horn ; 
the latter is pale green and studded with tubercles. Mouth parts brown ; 
legs purplish-brown. Prolegs and claspers with purple 'edges. There 
are .six clear and one or two faint whitish tangent stripes at the sides ; 
the last one meeting the horn is clearer than the rest. 

This stage lasts from twelve to fourteen days. At the end of this 
period the larva stops feeding and descends into the soil to pupate. 

Pupa. The lar\a gres three or four inches into the soil and more if 
the soil is not hard and easily penetrated ; there it makes a cell of earth, 
and after this it changes into the pupa. The pupa inside the earthen 
cocoon is .36 mm. long. It is thick anteriorly, and bluntly pointed behind 
and chocolate )>rown in colour. There is a short forked spine at the 
anal end : — 

The pupal period lasts twehe to fouiteen days. The following is a 
table showing period of pupation in different cases. 

Date of pupation 

Ttli Dcceuilicr 
SOth July . 
2-1 til February 
21st October 
21-81 November 

Date of emergence 

29th December. 
13th August. 
9th March. 
2nd November. 
3rd December. 

The development period thus takes in all about nine to ten weeks, 
the period being occupied as below : — eggs a week, larva 48 to 50 days, 
pupa 12 to 14 days. The period of each stage is found to differ slightly 
according to seasonal variations. 

General remarks.. The larva is easy to rear. I have never caught 
the adults in nature. As stated before, the most interesting feature 
in this caterpillar is the presence of a head-horn in the early stages of the 
caterpillar, a character which is not common in most Sphingidae. 

PLATt 144. 



AtUKhl.slX/i sp. 

Fig. 1. Stem of Italian niillPt showinsr (n) mark left l>y nvi]Kisition, and (i) egg 

in situation 

Fig. 2. Egg ; magnifieil { < 20). 

Fig. 3. Young larva; magnified {x20). 

Fig. 4. Full-grown larva ; magnified ( X 8). 

Fig. 5. Pupa ; magnified ( X 8). 

Fig. 6. Beetle; magnified (x 8). 

Fig. 7. Stem from which imago has emerged, showing (c) exit. 



Btj P. V. Isaac, B.A., Entomological Assistn)it, Agricultural Department, 

(Plate 1-14.) 

I. Introduction. 

Recently a small Erotylid beetle, a species of Languria* attracted 
considerable attention to itself as a pest of Italian millet [Setnria. italica]. 
Without exaggeration it may be said that during certain seasons the beetle 
did more damage to the crop on the College farm, Coimbatore, than all 
other insects combined. 

Apparently the m.sect has not been noticed elsewhere although on 
the above farm they were numerous enough, and found in almost every 
field, the worst infestation being in certain small plots attached to the 

//. General Observations. 
A summary of the general observations is as follows : — 

(1) The first sign of injury is a withermg earhead, the stalk of which 

when pulled smartly breaks at a ring a few inches above the 

(2) The damage is done by a grub which neatly rings the stem from 

mside. The cut, which extends almost up to the eijidermis, 
not only causes the flow of plant sap to discontinue, but 
also makes the stem hable to break in a strong wind. 

(3) The grabs were not found in the stout central stem of every 

clump, nor were they seen to attack certain thick-stcmmsd 
strams of Italian millet. 

(4) A good number of stalks having snapped yielded nothing, while 

others with very little or no sap passing up the ring yielded 
more chaff and less grain or no grain at all. 

. ///. Life cijcle. 

' (.'onsidcring the amount of damage this pest was responsible for. 
it was decided to make a study of its life-history. 

The egg. The egg is 175 mm. long, cigar-.shaped, smooth, shiny, 
and cream-coloured. In about two days, except at the tips, it becomes 

* Since determ'.iifd as a species of Analastui (sec ante, page 316). — -EditMr. 


Just-hatched larva. 2 mm. long, yellow. Head large and provided 
with strong mandibles, and short antenns^. Close to the base of each 
antenna and just posterior to it is a gronp of four small e3^e-spots, one 
below the other. The ultimate segment bears a pair of fleshy pseudopods. 

Mature larva. 8 mm. long : legs very small ; abdomijial segments 
large and distinct. There is a pair of short chitinous spines on the dorsal 
surface of the last segment, directed cephalad. The anal pseudopods 
are prominent. 

Pupa. 7 mm. The newly transformed piq^a is yellow but later on 
it becomes darker and tinged with reddish-brown at the tips of the 
appendages. The eyes at first present the appearance of a group of light 
brown specks but finall}' form into large black dots. A transverse row 
of spines is preseirt on the dorsal aspect of every abdominal segment 
except the last one, which has instead a pair of very strong .sjjines occupy- 
ing a terminal position and curved slightly towards the anterior. The 
dorsal spines become larger and more pronounced as they approach the 
posterior end. A pair of sjiiues directed caudad are present on the ventral 
surface of the seventh abdominal segment. Hairs are found on the 
vertex, on the anterior and posterior margins of the large prothoracic 
shield and also interpersed with the dorsal sjDines. 

The total life cycle is : — egg 5 to 6 days, larva 25 days, and pupa 
14 days. About four days have to elapse after emergence for the beetle 
to leave the shelter of the stem. 

IV. Habits. 

The eggs are laid singly in the stems at some point from one to six 
inches above the soil. This takes place during the second mouth of the 
crop when the stalks are rapidly elongating and the .ears are being put 
out, and eggs are laid only in stems in which the central hollow has beguii 
to appear. The egg is thrust in at some spot just within an inch above 
a node. As elongation of the internode in grasses is confined to the 
portion just above the no^le this region is softer and more vulnerable 
than the portion farther up and is therefore selected for oviposition. 

Oviposition always leaves a mark ; though it is often impossible 
to trace it on tlie stem itself. But on the outer leaf-sheath it remain.* 
distinct as a small dry oval patch, bearing three punctures in a hori»- 
zontal row. The side ones seem to be caused by some lateral Supporting 
structures on the ovipositor. The egg is passed in through the central 
one and this is therefore the only puncture that extends into the stem. 

There is only one egg laid in an internode and it has its long axis in a 
line with that of the stem. Though the egg is laid within an inch above 
a node, due to the rapid elongation of the stem as mentioned above it 


may be seen closer to the upper uode tlian to the lower and also far above 
the level of the impression left by the oviposition on the outer sheath. 

The grub as soon as out of the shell travels about in the hollow and on 
reaching the base feeds a little on the pithy lining of the inner wall. It 
next attends to the ringing of the stem, which is begun on the second or 
third day after hatching and is accomplished in a few hours. The cut 
goes completely round and is so deep that it almost reaches the epidermis. 

The question that arises is " what purpose does this ring serve ?" 
The labour bestowed and the skill displayed premise something more 
than an efliort to supply with humble toil the modest wants of the day. 
In all probability it is intended to prevent the plant-sap from rising up. 

From now the grub is to be found above the ring. It is a moderate 
feeder and does not go about in search of a palatable morsel. Remaining 
above the ring and content with the adjacent tissue, as it grows it finds 
itself in an enlarging chamber. If the grub gets moist it is sure to die. 
This calamity is prevented by the ring which prevents plant-sap from 
rising up and by the accummulation of frass at the ring. 

It may be noted here that a single stem may be infested with more 
than one grab. There may at times be as many as four. But always 
there is onlj' one grub in an internode and it never bores through into an 
adjacent one. 

When full-grown the grub pupates within the stem. If the stem now 
snaps at the ring, as occasionally happens, the mass of frass accumulated 
there, as «ientioned before, acts as a plug and keeps the pupal chamber 
closed and the pupa safe. 

The beetle on emergence has the exoskeleton soft and of an amber 
colour. But very soon the normal hardness and hue is gained and within 
five days after emergence the full-fledged adult cuts a small hole in the 
wall of the stem and creeps o\it. 

The beetles are shy creatures, but a close observer can locate them, 
moving up and down the leaves or stems. They seldom take to flight, 
a habit which makes hand-picking easy when control methods are 

V. Conclusion. 

It may be stated hi conclusion that the beetle has habits well calculated 
to ensure success. Eggs are laid during the second month of the crop 
and they grow into adults in a month and a half. A gAieration is thero. 
fore produced before it is time to harvest the crop. 



By T. V. SuBRAMANYAM, B.A., Assistant to the Government Entomologist, 

(Plate 145.) 

This paper deals with the life-history of a longiconi beetle boring 
into the branches of the moringa plant {Moringa pterijgosperma), the 
drnnistick plant of South India. This? plant is economically very 
important, at least in the Madras Presidency, where its long sticklike 
fiiiits are largely used in the preparation of vegetable curries and are 
considered to be extremely nutritious. The leaves and flowers' are also 
extensively used. The insect has not been identified correctly and has 
been Sent to experts for identification. A, stray grub was seen one day 
boring inside a moringa twig and the adult when reared out at the 
Insectary was foimd to be this beetle. Afterwards a pair of these beetles 
were caiight during copulation and made to lay eggs in captivity and the 
life-history was completely studied. The insect is not a serioiis pest 
but it is seen occasionally scraping away the bark of the plant when an 
adult and boring in moringa twigs during its larval stage. 

The insect, the larva of which is found boring inside the branches of 
the plant, is one of the Lamiadae, a Family of comparatively large-sized 
beetles, generally recognized by their hard and robust bodies and long 
filamentous antennae. The beetle has not been identified yet ; I believe 
it is a species of Monohammus. The adult beetle is half to thcee-fourths 
of an inch long and an eighth of an inch in breadth. The prothorax and 
the wings, which cover the whole body on the dorsal side, are brown 
in colour with dark grey patches here and there. The under-side of the 
body, the vertex of the head, the labrum and the basal segment of the 
mandibles are covered with thick grey pubescence. The head is bent 
down under the prothorax. The mouth-parts are well developed and 
adapted to the bark-eating habits of the insect ; the labrum is orange in 
colour and the mandibles hard and black ; maxillae are well developed. 
The antennae are long and filamentous, arising from the inner curvatures 
of the large black eyes. Each antenna consists of twelve segments 
covered by short, soft, grey hairs.; the basal segment is short and stumpy 
and the first few segments have a row of long black hairs along the inner 
side. The prothorax is long and cylindrical. There are four visible 
abdomhial segments. The legs are yellowish brown covered by grey 
pubescence and end in two claws. 

The insect ha*s not been noted as a serious pest. But just before 1 
left for Bombay I found a whole tree attacked. The injury is recognized 

I'd'jc 922. 

PLATE 145. 

Moriu<l<i stem-borer. <i . eggs in sifii in stem ; J>. egg magnified 7 ; 
c. larva in tunnel in stem; rl. larva magnified 4 ; < . pupa, magnified 
x4 ; /• beetle mignifieci x2.J- 



by the twigs drying at the tip and absence of leaves on them. The attack 
begins at the tip and the gnib bores towards the main stem. Only a few 
beetles have been collected and a few grubs foimd boring into the stem. 
No alternative food-plant has been noted. The beetles were once supplied 
with agaihi branches ; but they never took to this food and began eating 
cnh' when inoringa twigs were given. 

Life-History. There is no sexual difference in the beetles excepting 
that the males arc a little smaller than the females in size. The female 
lays its eggs iiiside the stem of the food-plant. In two or three days the 
egg hatches into a tiny grub which begins at once to bore into the stem 
at its centre ; it remains inside the stem until it becomes full-grown when 
it leaves the stem and pupates outside. In about a week or ten days the 
adult comes out of the pupa. 

Egg. Eggs are laid in hollow cavities, excavated by the mother, 
in the stem. The place in the stem, where the eggs are, is indicated 
by a small mark on the stem where the bark has been scraped off by the 
mother beetle. In the centre of this patch is a small hole which leads into 
the cavity in which the eggs are laid. This cavity is oval in outline and 
generally contains two eggs, although occasionally there may be only 
one. Though only two or at the utmost three eggs are laid by an indivi- 
dual at a time, the total number laid by it will be large as the beetle goes 
on laying eggs for a number of days. The beetle that was under observa- 
tion at the Insectary laid about fifty eggs during the time it was in capti- 
vity — who knows how many it may have laid before it was caught \ 
The eggs are long, cylindrical, and whitish in colour ; they have a slight 
curvature on one side and measure 1 mm. in length. 

On the second day after the eggs are laid the grubs inside are clearly 
seen through the egg-shells and on the third or fourth day the eggs hatch 
into tiny little grubs, so that the egg-period may be roughly said to last 
only two or three days. 


Eggs laid on 

Eggs hatched on 

Egg period 


1st May HUT . . . 

2nd May 1917 . ... 




5th May 1917 . 

7th'May 1917 . 



7th, 8th May 191S . 

9th, 10th Jlay 1917 . 



10th, 11th June 1917 

12th, 13th Juiie 1917 


- 5 

12th, 13tli June 1917 

l.-)tli, 10th June 1917 


■ 6 

13th. 14th June 1917 

lOth, 17th June 1917 




The grub comes out of the egg-shell b_y bursting it open at one end by 
its hard mandibles and \\Tiggling out. A peculiarity noticed was that in 
most cases two eggs were laid at a time side by side in a cavity but only 
one grab was to be found in the cavity afterwards and the other egg or 
the grab hatched out of it was missing. In one instance only the egg- 
shell of the missing grub was to be found. This leads to the suspicion 
that the more vigorous of the newly-hatched grubs eats its less fortunate 

Larva. The newly-hatched grub is about 2 mm. long and is whitish 
in colour with brown well-developed mandibles. The thoracic region 
has a swelling on the ventral side. The abdomen is made up of ten seg- 
ments each of which has a short projection on the dorsal side with the 
helji of which the segments may be counted. The whole body has a 
slight curvature on the ventral side. Small short brownish hairs are 
scattered all over the ventral side of the body and roimd the last two 
Segments. The grub has neither thoracic nor abdominal appendages and 
locomotion is effected entirely by means of the wriggling movements ■ 
brought about by the contractions and relaxations of the muscles 
of the body-wall. As soon as the grub comes out of the egg- it begins to 
bore into the stem ; it makes a straight tunnel in the centre of the stem, 
blocking up its entrance and a short distance inside it with excrement. 

The fiill-grown larva is a little over thirty-two millimetres in length 
and has the ventral thoracic lump well developed. The segments of the 
body ha\e the dorsal surface convex and the ventral surface plain. The 
body has a glistening appearance and is covered all over by short hairs 
which are yellow on the dorsal side and brown on the ventral. The 
anal segment of the body is flattened at its hind end and has a circle of 
bro\\ii hairs along its edges. 

The duration of the larval period is variable. Of the four grabs that 
completed their life-history in captivity one pupated two months and five 
days after hatching from the egg, another two months and 26 days, 
a third three months and 16 davs and the last three months and 2i davs. 


Hatched on 

2nd May 1917 . 
9th, 10th May 1917 
llHh. 17th June 1917 . 
12th. ISthJune 1917 . 

Pupated on 

Larval period 


7th August 1917 
fith, Gth August 1917 
3rd October 1917 . 
7fh October 1917 . 

2 months 5 days. 

3 montlis 26 days. 
3 months 16 da^va. 
3 montlis 24 days. 


The larval period may thus be put roughly to be from two to four 
mouths. Pupatiou has not been observed in nature ; probably it is in 
the soil or some other place outside the stem because all the grubs reared 
in captivity- came out of the stem when they were full-grown and pupated 

Pupa. This is of the typical Lamiad type. It is yellow in colour 
and 20-25 mm. long. The appendages of the head and the thorax are 
folded together on the ventral side inside the exceedingly thin and trans- 
parent pupal skin. A day or two after pupation the eyes get dark. The 
colour of the pupa changes gradually from yellow to brown and after 
a week the pupal skin is cast off and the adult emerges. 

Xo. Pupated cm Emerged oil Pupal jieiiod 

1 7th July 1917. . Uth July 1917 

2 6th August 1917 . . Uth August 1917 

3 1 3rd October 1917 . .' 13th October 1917 

4 7th October 1917 . . l.jth October 1917 


On emerging from the pupal skin the beetle is dull and t^oft to the touch. 
In a day or two the body gets hard and the beetle begins to move about 
and feed on the bark of the moringa stem. 

These observations were made by me at the Insectary of the Agri- 
cultuial College. Coimbatore. under the guidance of M. R. Ry. T. V. 
Eamakrishna Ayyar Avargal, the Acting • Government Entomologist 
of Madras, and I take this opportunity of tendering him my heart-felt 
thanks for the valuable suggestions he gave me during my investigations. 

The habit of emergence from the stem to pujjiate ehsewherc, at the Mr. Fletcher, 
conclusion of the larval period, is most unusual in a Lamiad beetle. 
Further observations on this. point, under natural conditions, appear 


Bij T. Y. Ramakrlshna Ayyar, B.A., F.E.S., F.Z.S., Actimj Govenunent 
Entomologist, Madras. 
The subject of this paper is a flea-beetle which is found causing 
some damage to cultivated black pepper (Piper nigrum) in the pejiper- 
growing tracts of North Malabar. 


Since there is no j^revious record of this insect as a pest and since 
there is nothing also regarding the Hfe-history or habits of the insect, 
I believe the followuig notes may be of some use in adding to our know- 
ledge of this beetle. 

So far aS I know, sixteen sjaecies of this genus, Longitarsus, have till 
now been recorded from different parts of India, and of these Longitarsus 
^mgrijjevnis is one. The previous record of its locality in his description 
of the species by Motschulsky is simply " India " with no mention 
of the exact locality. Jacoby has described some species latterly and 
these are from Pondicherry, Madura, Calcutta. North Kanara and 

The species of this genus are comparatively small in size, no'; more 
than 3 mm. in length, and are extremely active in habits. Their hind 
femora are very much thickened, thus showing the great saltatorial 
powers these insects possess. I have very rarely found them flymg ; 
they commonly leap or hop from place to j)lace and cover great distances 
in such a way. This species (L. nigripennis) is 2'5 mm. in length. The 
liead is comparatively very small and more or less covered by the fairly 
prominent prothorax. The antennae are long and the eyes prominent. 
The hind femora are extraordinarily stout compared with the size of 
the insect. The head and j^rothorax are of a pale fulvous-yellow colour 
when fresh ; in dry S2:)ecimens this appears reddish-brown ; the elytra 
bluish-black. The antennae and legs are of a pale brownish colour ; but 
the hind femora have a shinmg bluish-brown colour ; the eyes are dark. 

Damage done by the insect. You will find fi-om the title of this paper 
that I have called this the " Pollu flea beetle of pepper." This means 
that the insect is associated with a disease of pepper called " Pollu " 
which really means ' hollow ' or emj^ty. The turnuig hollovv' of the grow- 
ing pepper-berry, is often caused by this beetle. There are, of course, 
other causes which bring about this ' Pollu ' conditidti but I shall confine 
mytielf only to the insect side of it. The small cream-white grub of this 
beetle burrows into the ripening green berries of jiepper and eats away 
the inner contents, which causes the seedlessness or hollowness of the 
berry called.' Pollu.' The external indication of such an attack on the 
growing pepper-vine is generally the presence of a group of two to 
four darkish berries in a spike of pepper, the rest of the spike being 
healthy and green. Infested berries are commonly found in groups 
of two, three or four. An exammation of the inside of one of these 
blackened berries will disclose a short stout 'psi\e white grub. Generally 
only one of these three or four berries shows the grub and this is explained 
by the fact that this one grub is responsible for the damage of all the 
three or four berries m the groui^, the larva feeding on the inner contents 


of the berries one after the other. Not more than four berries are attacked 
b.y one grub before it is full-fed. At the initial stages of infestation one 
has to examine the spikes more carefully to find berries that are just 
getting attacked, since, at the beginning, the berry that is first attacked 
simply shows a pale sickly yellowish surface and a minute hole^ through 
which excrement might be seen thrown out ; the characteristic dark 
group of berries begins to show itself only when the grub has finished 
with one berry and has entered the second. In certain cases another 
phenomenon is noted in infested pepper-berries and that is the darkening 
of the whole distal portion of a spike. This happens when the grub 
in tunnelling through one berry to another encroaches on the main stem 
of the spike and scoops out a good portion of it ; this damage to the 
stalk at the middle arrests the flow of luitrition to the distal portion and 
the berries beyond this spot turn black and do not ripen, although 
they remain attached to the spike ahnost throughout the season. 

Life-history. Observations made in the field go to show that the 
eggs are laid singly. Each egg is carefully thrust and glued to the tissue 
just underneath the skin of the green pepper-berry, commonly near the 
attachment of the berry to the spike ; only one egg is generally deposited 
in each berry. To find out the egg one has to open the berry skin very 
carefully in very thin slices. The egg is ovoid in shape and mea8iu:es 
1'5 mm. in length ; it has a pale brownish colour. It has not yet been 
possible to get the eggs hatched out in captivity although several 
methods were tried. The grub is pale to cream-white in colour with the 
head and prothorax dark ; it is comparatively short and stout in build. 

The grub goes on growing by feeding on the inner contents of two 
or three berries for about forty or fifty days, after which it stops feeding 
and drops down into the soil to pupate. It goes down into the soU two 
to three inches and before the final moult to assume the pupal stage 
builds an oval cocoon of soil around itself. The pupa is pale white in 
colour. In thie condition it remains for ten cfays — the period noted in 

After this period, the adult form is assumed, but the beetle remains 
in that condition for a day or two in the soil and comes out only after 
these one or two days which are apparently necessary for the insect to 
get its body hard and become active itself. 

The adult insect readily and voraciously feeds on the tender pepper- 
leaves, biting numerous small holes in them. 

Seasonal history. The investigations with regard to the habits, etc., 
of this insect are stil incomplete. But. so far as work has been done, 
it appears that there are two clear broods in the year, one generation of 
beetles emerging in October and another in January. It is thought that 

VOL. Ill H 


tlie insect a?stivates in the adult ccindition througli the summer ruontlis. 
March to June. But whether this is so or whether there is another breed 
during this period of the year will be definitely known next season. 

Nalyral enemies. So far no natural enemies of any kind either 
predatory or parasitic have been noted. 

0/Jier host flants. Besides jjepper no other plant has been found till 
now wherein the pest breeds. This point can be verified during the off- 
season, when the pepper-vines are dormant. 

Extent and distribution of tJie ' Polhi ' caused by the insect. The pest 
is not noted in two of the three pepjjer tracts, viz., the coastal region and 
the Ghat region, but is prevalent only in the sub-montane jungly tracts 
below the Ghats. The insect is more commonly found in shady, damp 
and very cool plots. Even in the same place those plots, which are 
somewhat open and not full of shade-trees, are less infested with the beetle 
pest. With regard to the extent of damage the actual injury done bj' 
the insect in causing ' PoUu ' is very little compared to the extent of 
actual ' Polhi ' caused by all causes combined. We have reckoned it 
ruughly as between 5 and 8 per cent, of the total damage. 

Control-methods. Looking at the life habits of the insect it appears 
to me that the most vulnerable stage in the life of the insect is the pupa, 
and I think measures to destroy these in the soil at the proper season 
will go a great way in checking the multiplication of the pest. Hoeing 
the soil under the vines in Sej^t ember- October and December-January, 
the seasons when the pupae are found under the soil, might do good. 
Nothing coidd be done to tackle the borer which is an internal feeder. 
Then, coming to the methods whereby the adult could be checked and 
prevented from laying eggs, one method is spraying ; our attempts. in 
this direction have shown that it is rather difficult to get the jjepjier 
vines satisfactorily spra3'ed, although in some plots where we tried some 
deterrents like lead arsenate and Bordeaux mixture the pest did not 
appear. Investigations are still continued in this direction. 

£ij Ramrao S. Kasergode, Assi.staHt Professor of Entomology, Poona. 
The seed-testing Department of Bombay has for some years past 
been engaged in trying to find out the germinating capacity of most 
seeds used by the cultivator dirring the sowing season. The results show 
that most of the seed, besides being mouldy, is destroyed by insects 
and does not germinate satisfactorily. Mouldiness is preventible by 
preserving the seed in dry conditions, and admixture of weed-seeds can 


be remedied by careful field selection, but the insect attack is more difficult 
to check even if the cultivator would try to depend upon his own seed 
without going to a Mm vari for it. It is therefore necessary to investigate 
the nature and extent of injury by insects alone, and pulse-seeds were 
first taken in hand as being likely to be solved easier than most other 
store-house pests. 

In the year 19M Farm-grown puJse-seed was collected under careful 
supervision of the" following five varieties, (1) peas, (2) ual (Loliclws 
lablab), (3) tur (Cajainis indiciis), (4) Lvlllti {Lolichos bif'oivs), (5) gram 
{Cicer arietinum). 

They were fully dried and kept in sealed kerosine tins to prevent 
external infection. The tins, when opened at the end of the year, showed 
that gram and kidthi escaped attack from Bruchids totally but the Ivr, 
ual and peas were attacked, the peas least of all. This helped to show 
that the infection need not necessarily come from old infested seed of 
previous years but may also come from the field direct. In the year 
1915 a large number of plants of each kind were kept under close observa- 
tion from the time of their flowering. Eggs of all insects known to 
lay their eggs on the pods were carefully brushed away daily, but all 
efforts during the whole year to isolate the eggs of Bruchids proved use- 
less. A variety of different adult Bruchids were however caught in the 
flowers of tur, teal and peas. These were identified by the Imperial 
Entomologist as belonging to three different species, B. affinis, B. tlucb- 
romcB and B. chinensis (PacJiyiiieius chinensis). The dry pods on several 
plants other than those under observation showed clean-cut round holes 
on them very much like those found upon stored pulse-seeds. There 
was therefore no doubt that the Bruchids did breed on the green pods 
on the plants in the fields, fc'eeds of these plants kept in glass-topped 
boxes developed some more Bruchids during the summer of 1915. 

During the following season Bruchids reared from stored seeds were 
enclosed in paper bags along with growing pods on potted plants. The 
Bruchids laid their eggs freely. The pea Bruchid, B. ofjinis, laid its 
eggs anywhere about on the outside of the pods singly, but the ^iw.Bruchid, 
B. tJieobromcE, restricts itself solely to the depressions found on the iur 
pod. B. chinensis would not lay eggs on any of the common pulses. 
The Bruchids reared from these eggs fitted very well with the identified 
specimens from Busa. The shape and size of the eggs of these Bruchids 
made it possible for me to search for similar eggs in the field and to my 
great satisfaction I was able to find similar eggs in the field. In both 
these cases the adults have been caught in the flowers. The same have 
now been reared from eggs in the field. The eggs are from two to two 
and a half millimetres long, round at the end and slightly bent on one 



side. In colour tlie .eggs of afjinis are lighter than those of B. theobromcB 
which have a slight tinge of yellow in them. It is difficult to follow the 
life-history of these small beetles inside the pods or seeds but better 
means for rearing may make it possible to find out the details of the life 
stages of these beetles. 

It was only in 1917 that eggs of the wal Bruchid were isolated. This 
Bruchid is different from any of the three identified Bruchids and it 
lays its eggs in small masses of three to five eggs in each cluster and each 
green pod may have from two to six such masses laid on it. The eggs 
are white, of the same shape and colour as of B. afpnis. All the eggs 
are capable of developing into fully-formed adults even although there 
may be only three to five seeds in each pod. It is probably explained 
by each seed being larger than most other pulse-seeds and capable of 
sustaining more than one grub. As many as six of these beetles have 
been bred from each seed. 

B. affinis is also in the habit of laying more eggs than the pods are 
likely to contain seeds and although as many as seventeen eggs have been 
counted on each pod the seeds inside always regulate the number of 
beetles that would breed out of the pod. The rest probably die. 

Further breedings of the beetles in the laboratory have shown that 
BnicJnis afjinis is not capable of breeding in dr_y seeds and that it has only 
one generation in a year. The other two Bruchids, B. theobromw and the 
uml Bruchifl, do breed successfully to the total destruction of dry seeds 
in the store. 

At the time these investigations were carried out a fat grub of a beetle 
was seen to breed in the pods of Crotalaria juncea. On breeding, it proved 
to be a Bruchid of a new type as yet unidentified, of which specimens 
are exhibited. This beetle passes through only a single generation in a 
year and the eggs and larvae are found in green pods in plentiful numbers 
to the total destruction of the seeds in them. The larvae have the habit 
of spinning a tortuous long silken cocoon inside the pods wherein they 
pupate. The eggs are laid, one on each pod, just in the manner of 
other Bruchids. 

The recognition of the fact that many of our common Brucliids are 
found breeding in the field brings us a little nearer to the solution of the 
problems of control-measures. It is helpful at least to know that mere 
care to exclude external infection is not in itself sufficient to prevent 
destruction of pulse-seeds and it may therefore be necessary to fumigate 
the seed directly after harvest. 

Unless the pods in the field dry and open up, the Bruchids do not 
breed on them. 


In my experiments I enclosed green pods in paper bags and even then Mr. Ramrao. 
they were attacked. 

Our experience at Pusa supports that of Mr. Eamrao. Mr. Fletcher. 

The question of the identity of these Bruchids, and of the distinctions 
between the various species, seems at present to be in considerable con- 
fusion. Last year we sent a number to Dr. Marshall for determination 
but we have not yet received the identifications. 


Bij T. v. Ra.m.vkrishna Ayyar, B.A., F.E.S., F.Z.S., Acting Government 
Entomologist, Madras. 

It need hardly be stated that the study of insect parasites — especially 
of those which are natural enemies of some of our important crop-pests — 
offers a very wide and almost unexplored field in India. Besides being 
very fascinating from a purely scientific point of view, this study is of the 
greatest importance in connection with some of the problems of Agricul- 
tural Entomology connected with the «various control-measures against 
insect pests. 

Among the various insect parasites we know of, the representatives 
of the Order Hymenoptera are by far the most numerous and important. 
There is little doubt that there is a considerable amount of material of 
these insects which have been collected or reared out, not only at Pusa 
but at the different centres in India where any entomological work is 
done. But unfortunately very little appears to have been done in the 
way of getting this material worked out and the economic importance 
of the different forms recorded or estimated. Systematists like Cameron, 
Szepligetti, Ashmead, Viereck, Crawford, Morley. etc., have recorded 
sundry Indian species of parasitic Hymenoptera in different scientific 
periodicals ; but all of these are systematic papers and there is very little 
in these descriptions to show the economic aspect of these parasites. 
In spite of this drawback such papers are really useful because of the fact 
that, in order to properly appreciate the real importance or otherwise 
of these different forms, ^he correct identification of each species is a 
very essential factor. 

I therefore venture to believe, that the little information contained 
in this paper regarding some of our reared parasites which I have managed 
to get identified within the past year or two, may be of some use in adding 
to our knowledge of Indian parasitic Hymenoptera in relation to their 
hosts. The paper is certainly imperfect, but is only prepared to point 



out the importance of the study of Indian parasitic wasps many of which 
are very good friends of the Indian farmer. The information in my 
list is very little compared to what we might be able to get when all the 
accumulated material all over India is worked out, but perhaps this 
may be of some use as a preliminary list. 

I have arranged the information in a tabular form showing the hosts 
and the parasites so that it will facilitate easy reference. 

The parasites noted in the above table are those whose host relations 
have been definitely known. I have, however, come across records of 
other Indian parasites by authors like Crawford, Viereck and others and 
although I have not been able to peruse the papers to see whether 
anything is said of the host relations of these parasites, the names of these 
parasites appear to give some hint in that direction. Such are the 
following . — 

Viereck has described in the Proceedings of the United States National 
Museum 1912, thelndianspecies, Apanteles creatonoti, A. staurojpi, 
A. papilionis, A. plusice, A. fhycodis, and Meteorus arcticida. 
These evidently- look like parasites on Lepidoptera which are more 
or less familiar to us. Similarly Cameron's Apanteles tachardiw, 
■ Ectadiofhatnus tachardice and Chalcis tachardiw in the Indian 
Forest Records certainly show some relation to the " Lac insect." 
The following described by Crawford in the Proceedings of the 
United States National Museum., 1912-13, also suggest that they 
have parasitic relations with insect pests, viz., Tetrastiches ophinSw, 
Bruchocida orientalis. 

Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Ramakrishna 


Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Ramakii^hna 


Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Beeson. 

Mr. Ramakrishna 

Mr. Fletcher. 

Some records of parasites reared at Pusa are being published in the 
Bulletin of the Second Hundred Notes, now in the press. Some of the 
insects included in this paper are new. Who is describing them ? 

Some are being-described by Dr. Howard and others by Mr. Girault. 

^Vhere are the descriptions being published? 
In some journals not accessible to us. 

That is rather unfortunate. 

The descriptions of the parasites that we send out for determination 
are coming out in the Indian Forest Records. 

We sent specimens of grasshoppers to Mr. Bolivar but I have not 
heard from him. 

I think that specialists .shoidd be asked to send descriptions for 
publication in India. It is very difficult for workers in India to obtain 
access to some of these scattered papers. 



£ .2 

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Pahir (South Arcot). 






Coimbatore (egg 

Palur (South Arcot). 







Coimbatore, Kurnul, 

Attur, Chingleput, 



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Xanlhopimpla immacidata. Mor. 
Clinoccnlrus sp. , . 
Apantelcs sp. . 
Henicospilua sp. 
Microdus fumipemUa, Bingham 
CUnocentrua sp. . 
Protapanteles sp. 
Henicospilua (reticulatvs ?) . 
Protapanteles sp. 

Anastatus coimhatorciisis, Gir. 

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Antigastra catalaunalis (on gingelly) 
Exelaatia atomoaa (on red-gram) 
Plithmimma blapsigona (on brinjal- 


Parnara mathias (Rice skipper) 

Ckolam leaf skipper 
Taragama sivd (on x4caoi«) 
Trabala vishnu 
Nalada nararia (on Pithccolobinm) 
E aproctia fraterna (on castor) 
Euproclis scintillans (on yoiyM) 
P«aK« accuris (on paddy) 
Polyptychus dental us (on Cardia) 

Cirphis albistigma (on paddy) 
Achaia melicerte (on castor) . 

Pcrigaca capenais (on safflowor) 

Adisura atkinaoni (on lab-lali) 
Plusia agramma (on snake gourd) 
Carea aubtilia (on Eugenia) 
Chilo aimplex (on Sorghum) . 
Borers on maize. Sorghum anc 

Crocidolomia binotalis (on radish) 
Euzophera perlicclla (on brinjal) 





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Mr. Ramakrishna 


^lay not these descriptions be contained in the Departmental publi- 
cations.. Bulletins and Memoirs ? Will the Report of this Meeting be a 
suitable place for the publication of these results ? 

It is very difficult to get our parasites identified and we are handi- 
capped for want of these identifications. Our work coidd be carried much 
farther if we coold get these insects identified quickly. We had a large 
collection of parasites of cotton boll-worms but lost it all on its way to a 
specialist, as it was sunk by enemy actionr At present we have a large 
collection of parasitic Hymenoptera and Diptera that we cannot get 
identified. We sent a large collection to Dr. Howard in 1914 and we have 
not heard any more of it since. One American Entomologist came to 
India from Florida to get parasites of Aleurodids, but we in India know 
practically nothing of these parasites. At present the identification of 
Chalcidids is oirr chief trouble and, unless they can be identified, we 
cannot proceed with our work. 

I quite agree with what Mr. Misra has said. One of our crying needs 
is for good systematic workers on our parasitic Hymenoptera and Diptera 
to let us know what the different sjjecies are, and, until we get this, we 
cannot proceed with the control of crop-pests by means of parasites. 


Bji T. B.^ixBRiGQE Fletcher, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S., Imperial 


Plates 116-161. 

Localities. Insects of some sort are present in practically every 
locality within the Tropics, although it is obvious that some localities 
support a richer msect-fauna than others. Particular insects of course 
favour special localities but, for general collecting in India, the Hill 
tracts, especially between the heights of about two and six thousand 
feet, will be found to produce a more varied fauna than any area of 
similar size in the Plains. This is due mainly to the fact that the flora of 
these Hill tracts is much richer than that of the Plains. Many species 
of insects are only found in the Hills and other species only occur in the 
Plains, but there is of course no definite Hill insect-fauna as wholly 
distinct fiom that of the Plains, many species being equally abundant 
in both sorts of locality, nor are the insects found in one Hill tract 
necessarily the same as those found in others. Briefly speaking, the 
inSect-fauna of the North- Western Himalayas has a decidedly Euro- 
pean fades whilst that of the Eastern Himalayas is decidedly Orienta] 
with a slight tinge of the palsearctic element partly derived from the 


North-West and partly through Northern China {e.g., nnfiopa) ; 
the Khasi Hills (and probably the other little-kuown Hill tracts of 
Assam) have a strictly Oriental fauna and form a sub-region closely 
related to that formed by the Bunna Hill Tracts ; the South Indian 
Hills, except the Nilgiris, are very little known as regards their insect- 
liuna, which is however very distinct from that of the North-Indian 
Hills, and a line drawn East and West through the Palghat Gap, between 
the Nilgiris and the Anamalais, seems to form a definite demarcation 
between two faunal sub-regions, whilst the Ceylon Hills form a third 
such sub-region. 

The Khasi Hills seem to be the richest locality for insects within 
Indian limits and doubtless this remark might be extended to include 
the Hill districts of Assam generally, but it must be confessed that 
the surface of the groimd has scarcely been scratched in any of these 
Hill tracts, or indeed in any locality in India whether in the Hills or 
Plains, so far as our knowledge of the insect population is concerned. 
In a country where it is possible to discover some new and undescribed 
insect on most days of any week in the year, and where our knowledge 
of the insect-fauna is so scanty even in the best-worked localities, no 
keen collector or student of insects need ever be at a loss for occupa- 
tion. Hill or Plain, wet or dry, cultivated area or jungle, all aUke will 
furnish a wealth of novelty. The Hills, however, as a whole will supply 
a greater wealth of material, both of beautiful species and of those 
interesting from the entomological view-point, and the collector in such 
localities will daily come across the most interesting and at times bizarre 
forms of insect life. Nor, in his appreciation of the individual forms, 
should he neglect to notice more general facts, such as the great preva- 
lence of gi-een-coloured insects in locaUties with a heavy rainfall and 
consequent very verdant vegetation. 

Desert tracts form the very antithesis of Hills but these also have 
an interesting, though necessarily scanty, insect-fauna, of which practi- 
cally nothing is known in India,* and an investigation of desert-living 
forms of insect-life and a comparison of the different forms found in 
the various desert tracts would be of considerable interest. 

Many insects are aquatiq during the whole or only a part of their 
existence and every more or less permanent body of water supports 
a considerable insect-fauna, which comprises members of all the principal 
Orders, and the aquatic insects of India as a whole form a complex 
of which we know remarkably little as yet, although special attention 

* See " Fauna of a Desert Tract in Soutliem India " by Annandale and Wroughton 
in Mem. A. 6". B. Vol. I, No. 10 (1906). 


has been j^aid to them of late by the Zoological Survey and, of course, 
very special attention has been paid to one group, the mosquitos, by 
numerous workers. 

In any locality, therefore, the collector will find ample material 
for observation and collection, and he will find further that close observa- 
tion will as a rule develop a trained eyesight which will reveal innumer- 
able insects which would never be noticed at all by the untrained eye. 

In any case, it will be found that it pays better to work thoroughly 
one good, if circumscribed, locality rather than to spend time in moving 
on to s'ome other, perhaps less favourable, place. " If you know a 
better place, go to it — and stop there " is not a bad entomological motto. 
It is bad policy to try to combine coUectmg with a walking tour. It 
is best to survey a locality briefly, note down one or two likely places 
for the particular insects required, and to work this or these thoroughly. 
The following remarks deal with special localities or methods of collecting. 

Insect Pests usually obtrude themselves upon notice and, where 
an insect is in sufficient numbers to constitute itself a pest, little difficulty 
usually occurs in obtaining specimens. In the case of crops, the crop 
affected should be examined and also any adjacent likely food-plants. 
Insect pests of sann-hemp for example, are Ukely to be found also on 
wild species of Crotalaria, and pests of sugarcane and cereals on wild 
grasses. It is often important to know what are the alternative food- 
plants, either cultivated or wild, of pests because this loiowledge may 
be of considerable importance in devising control measures. This 
paper deals with collecting insects generally and not with control of 
pests and therefore it seems unnecessary to say much about insect pests 
here, beyond pointing out that every item of information regarding 
the occurrence, fife-history, and so on, of insect pests is of importance 
in devising control-measures. Accurate records of the occurrence 
of all pests are very desirable, as it is possible that the accumulation of 
records of this sort will eventually throw a good deal of light on the 
reasons for the occurrence of such outbreaks and will perhaps enable 
us to forecaste them and take preventive measures in due time. On 
all occasions, therefore, when insects are found present in destructive 
numbers, the collector will assist the progress of economic entomology 
considerably by taking some specimens and forwarding them to an 
entomological centre with any information about the outbreak, instead 
of merely passing them over as common things of no mterest to any- 

Biiglit, sinttiy. ojicn jjlaces such as open glades near or in wooded 
areas, gardens, and, generally speaking, any places containing flowering 
plants, sunshine, and shelter from wind, will be found good locaUties 


for the collection of siicli insects as butterflies, dragon-flics and dayfl)'ing 
ini^ects generally. Roadside hedges, covered with flowers, are also 
very attractive, especially in the ear)y morning, ^vhen insects are feeding. 
For shade-lovers, Such as most moths, shaded tunnels in woods, 
roadside bushes, and any localities providing leafy .shade will yield an 
ample supply of specimens, which will usually require to be beaten out 
during the daytime. 

Caves, if sufficiently deep to be in permanent darkness, often have 
a peculiar insect-fauna of their o-mi comiDosed of small moths, crickets 
and beetles, which are sometimes blind and often have their antennae 
enormously developed. Very little is known as yet of the caverni- 
colous iniSects of India and collectors who have an ojjportunity of explor- 
ing deep caves will doubtless come across many new and interestiu'^ 

Under stones or logs will be found a favourite habitat of numerous 
insects and when collecting s'uch it is as well to have the forceps, killing- 
bottle and a supply of tubes of spirit in readiness, as many of these 
insects scuttle away as soon as they are exposed to the light. Beneath 
large stones will be found Thysamira, Collembola, earwigs, cockroaches, 
crickets, beetles (especially Carabids and Tenebrionids), Reduviid and 
other bugs, ants, termites (especially Capritermes) and numerous other 
insects, some of which live in colonies under such shelter, the same 
stone in some cases sheltering several colonies which tend to get mixed 
up together when the stone is overturned ; some care is therefore neces- 
sary in securing specimens in Such cases, as it need scarcely be pointed 
out that individuals from different colonies of such insects as ants and 
termites should never be placed into one tube. Logs (which term covers 
the case of all large pieces of wood lying on the ground) also give shelter 
to many of the insects enumerated above and in addition the dead 
wood itself provides food and shelter for a large number of insects and 
their predators. Rotten palm-stems, whether fallen or staudinw, 
generally harbour Oryctes larvae and rotting logs in the Hill districts 
will be found to contain Passalid beetles in all stages. A Stout knife 
or small axe is usually required for successful grubbing in logs. Many 
insects {e.g., Aradid bugs and Brenthid beetles) often occur in numbers 
under the bark of dead trees, and the bark reijuires to be ri])])ed off 
to find them. 

Felled or fallen trees, which are still green, attract many insects 
which feed on dying or dead wood and these will generally be found 
on the under-side of the felled trunk. In some cases, indeed, trees 
may be felled on purpose to .serve as traps for some beetles attackint^ 
dying trees. 


Wood-borers will be found both in dying, dead, and decayiiig trees, 
as noted above, and also in living trees, where their presence is often 
indicated by the extrusion of their sawdust-like excrement or by the 
dying back of the bored branch or stems. The adults are compara- 
tively rarely met with but may sometimes be found resting on the 
attacked trees, although best obtained by collection and breeding of 
the immature stages. In special cases, attacked stems may be enclosed 
in wire gauze in order to tiap the adults on their emergence. 

Root-borers, such as Hepialids, are usiially captured by accident and 
are also best obtained by breeding. 

Streams and ponds furnish many insects which live in the water 
either as larva? or adults. For purely aquatic insects a water-net will 
be required but many of these fly by night and may be caught at light. 
There are also many grouj)s of insects, whose larval existence is aquatic 
and the iniaginal life aerial, and these may be caught along the edges 
of streams and ponds, although some range far afield from water, which 
they only approach to oviposit. It is only possible to search com- 
paratively shallow areas with a water-net and a drag-hook may be 
used to bring up weeds, sunken branches, etc., from greater depths. 
These, if searched, will be found to yield a rich harvest, esjiecially of 
immature stages ; Ranatrid bugs, for example, will be found amongst 
weeds, whilst fresh- water sponges contaia the larvae of Sisi/ra. 

Different kinds of streams often have quite dift'ererit types of insect- 
fauna ; thus, some species c.f dragon-flies affect rapid, rocky-bedded 
streams, whilst others prefer more sluggish streams with muddy bottoms 
and banks. Similarly, some insects prefer small accumulations of 
water whilst others live only in large ponds, lakes, or rivers. 

Holes in trees, which accumulate dead leaves or hold water after 
rain, are favourite hiding and breeding places for some insects 
and will often repay examination. Many beetles and mosquitos and 
the Tabaniil fly, Gastroxides atcr, habitually live and breed in such 

Hot Springs in other parts of the World have been recorded as con- 
taming many insects which live habitually in water at a temperature 
usually fatal to insect-life. I am not aware that any insects have been 
noted in hot springs in India but it is probable that such may occur. 
Similarly, in the United States the larva of an Ephydrid fly (Psilopa 
petrolei, Coq.)* has been found living, feeding, and swimming about in 
the pools of crude petroleum which are so numerous in the various oil- 

* " The Petroleum Fly in California," by D. L. Crawford. Pomona Coll. Jomn. Ent. 
IV, 687 697, figs. (May 1912). 


fields of California — another example of hardy constitution to which 
we have as yet no parallel in India. 

Wet places, especially wet sandy patches in beds of streams or muddy, 
patches along roadsides, are often very attractive to butterflies in dry 
weather and may sometimes be seen literally carpeted with these insects 
sucking Up the moisture. In such cases, it is often noticeable that each 
species keeps to itself. 

Marsliy places have a special flora to which some insects are attached. 
For example, the larva of BxtcMeria paludicola feeds on Drosera (" sun- 
dew ") and the imago of this little Plume-moth may be taken in the 
evening -in and around marshy places where Drosera is growing abun- 

Dry, sandy places, such as the beds of rivers during the dry season, 
yield many insects, amongst which species of Cicindela are conspicu- 
ously plentiful. The sandy seashore also has its special fauna, and 
Cicindela biramosa, for example, is never found at any distance from 
a sandy beach. 

TJie jnesence of ants in numbers on plants is generally a sure sign 
of the presence of other insects which they are attending, .such insects 
including Lycsenid larvae, Coccids, Aleyrodids, Membracids, etc. Many 
insects also are predacious or parasitic on Coccids, etc., and these also 
should not be overlooked. 

Ants' nests contain numerous myrmecophilous insects (principally 
beetles) rarely found except by searching these nests. Termites' nests 
also contain termitophilous, CoUembola, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and 
other insects amongst which may be mentioned the curious wingless 
Phorid flies belonging to the genus Termitoxenia. The nests of the 
social spiders of the genus Stegodyphus harbour small Celechiad moths, 
and nests of vertebrate ajiimals often contain fleas and other parasites 
of such animals and also insects feeding on the substance of the nests 
themselves, from which they may be collected or bred out. 

Spiders' ivehs often repay examination as they are sometimes foxmd 
to contain rmdamaged sjjecimens of uncommon insects. At least one 
bug hves normally in spiders' webs, being predaceous on the eggmaSses, 
and sjjiders' eggs also have insect parasites. 

Bats have a pecuhar insect- fauna of which little is known in India. 
Flying-foxes are infested with peculiar wingless Nycteribiad flies of 
the genus Cyclopodia, and Lyroderma carries small winged Strebhd 
flies and the rare and abnormal bug, Polyctenes lyrcv. Other verte- 
brate animals have of course their special parasitic insects, but those 
of bats are of especial interest from a scientific view-point. 


Dead animah and aniinal droppings attract many insects, principally 
beetles and flies, whose early stages are passied in dead animal matter, 
and examination of animal carcases and droppings and of the ground 
beneath them will yield many insects rarely found in any other way. 
In the case of animal droppings these may be placed in a bucket of water, 
when the contained insects will float up. The insect-fauna of human 
excrement is of considerable importance in connection with the trans- 
mission of many diseases but it cannot be said that this subject has as 
yet received adequate entomological investigation in India. 

Besides those insects which breed in such situations, carrion and 
animal drojDpings often attract butterflies and may sometimes be used 
as baits to bring within reach species which normally fly high up. 

Attraction by other scents may also be turned to advantage in the 
capture of insects. Newly-turned earth exercises potent attraction for 
some flies, whilst the males of some species of fruit-flies are attracted 
by the smell of citronella oil, or kerosine. 

Assembling is a special form of attraction by smell, by which the 
males of some insects congregate attracted by the smell of a newly- 
emerged virgin female of the same species. Advantage may be taken 
of this, in such cases, by exposing a bred or captured newly-emerged 
female and catching the males as they are attracted to her. The female 
should be isolated in a gauze cage as, once junction with a male is effected, 
the attraction ceases. This method of capture may be adopted in the 
case of wild silk moths and some other groups. 

Sugaring is another method of attraction by smell, used especially 
for the capture of night-flying moths, although little adopted in India, 
apjjarently because of the prevalence of ants. The usual procedure 
is to prepare a mixture of coarse treacle and sugar boiled or mixed 
together, which is thinned with beer and a little coarse rum added just 
before apphcation ; bxit almost any sweet mixture containing a little 
alcohol, such as treacle with a little methylated spirits, will prove 
attractive. The mixture is painted at dusk on to tree-trunks, palings, 
flower-heads or any suitable surface and it is best to apply it in long 
vertical streaks well worked into the bark. After dark the jjrepared 
patches are examined by means of a lantern, and the insects, attracted 
to the sugar and rendered stupid by the alcohol, are picked oft' as 
requu-ed either in boxes or direct into the killing-bottle. The beam 
of the lamp should be directed from below upwards, not neglecting 
to examine any drops or trickles of the mixture which may have dropped 
down, as insects will often drop oft" when the light falls on them and are 
then liable to knock oft any others below them. A still, warm, dark, 
sultry night is usually best and the cumulative effect of sugaring is 

P.ifjt 913. 

PLATE 146. 

/ig. 1.— Knaggs Butterfly Decoy (front view). 

Fig. 2. Knaggs Butterfly 

Decoy (side view). 

Fig. 3. -Light trap in section. 


very marked — those patches which have been painted on regularly 
for a long time proving much more attractive than new patches. Cold, 
windy, or moonlight nights are usually less productive. 

The Andres-Maire trap, used for the control of Agrotis ypsilon in 
India is a special form of sugaring, which otherwise seems scarcely to 
have been tried in India, although it seems worth a trial in suitable 

Allradioti hjj sight may be used for the capture of some insects, 
such as some butterflies which normally fly high up out of reach. Hcbo- 
inoia glaucippe, for example, may be attracted by pinning a roughly- 
coloured paper model in a convenient situation below the trees affected 
by this butterfly and, as soon as a specimen has Been caught in this 
way, it may be substituted for the paper model in order to attract further 

Some years ago. Dr. H. G. Knaggs described in the Entomologist 
(Vol. XXVI, pp. 1.54-157, 180-182, 207-210 (1893)) a working mode! 
of an artificial decoy butterfly, of which the main idea can be grasped 
from the two figures reproduced here. (Plate 146, figs. 1, 2). An 
imitation butterfly, or the wings of a real one, is glued on to two 
pieces of card cut roughly to the shape of the wings and these cards 
are worked up and down by pulling on strings attached to a piece of 
watch-spring fastened under each card, so that an imitation of a 
butterfly's action in opening and shutting its wings when at rest is 
thus secured. The model is fastened to a screw which can be secured 
into a wooden stake driven into the ground in any convenient situation. 
Any butterflies attracted may either be caught in an ordinary net 
or the decoy may be supplemented by a sirring net, on the lines of a 
bird-catching net, worked by a second string from the same distance as 
the decoy. 

Light exercises a very powerful attraction in the case of many night- 
flying insects, a fact which is oidy too well-known to all dwellers in 
India, and which may be taken advantage of to increase the collection, 
Many insects, which fly in to the ordinary house lights, will form welcome 
additions to the collection and special methods can be adopted to 
increase these numbers by the use of a powerful lamp with a white 
screen placed behind it in order to increase its attractive power and to 
provide a suitable resting-place for the insects so attracted. Or an 
unused room may be used as a trap, a light being left burning in it all 
night and suitable precautions taken to exclude toads, bats and other 
insectivorous animals. 

Special light-traps, which can be placed anywhere, may also be 
used. Some of these require the attention of the collector and some 
VOL. in T 


are self-acting. The former have been nsed with great success in Ceylon 
especially and are generally composed of an acetylene lamp surrounded 
by a mosquito-net framework to prevent the insects flying into the 
lamp, the back of the framework covered with white cloth to act as a 
reflector, and the whole apparatus packing into a box for convenience 
of transport. A lamp of this type can be taken and set up in any con- 
venient place, such as the edge of a clearing overlooking a good expanse 
of jungle, the operator standing by and picking off the required insects 
as they fly in to the light. As in the case of sugaring, dull, cloudy 
still, warm, sultry nights are usually the best, and comparatively little 
comes in on cold, windy, or bright nights, although nights of heavy rain 
are often very productive. Very few insects are attracted on bright 
moonlight nights, as a rule, and the period from about the fourth to 
tenth days after a full moon is usually the best. 

Self-acting light-traps may be put up and left out all night, the catch 
being examined next morning. They are so arranged that insects can 
fly in to the light but are unable to find their way out again. One 
drawback to their use in India lies in the number of large insects 
(beetles, grasshoppers, etc.). which may be attracted and do damage 
to the more delicate sj)ecimens, and also to the prevalence of geckos ; 
it is therefore necessary to adopt some means of killing all entrants 
into the trap. A self-acting light-trap jnay be made out of an old 
packing case of any suitable size, but about 2 feet 6 inches in height 
answers best. The construction is .shown in Plate 146, fig. 3, which shows 
a section thi'ough the trap. AB, CD, CE are pieces of glass fitting 
right across the box and are fixed by narrow strips of wood nailed to 
the sides. FG is a wooden partition with a hole (JK) 6 inches square 
cut out of it opposite the flame of the lamii, this hole being closed with 
a pane of glass fixed behind it with putty or nails. The lamp is an 
ordinary wall-lamp provided with a reflector. The chimney passes 
ins'de a tin tube (T) which in its turn passes through the top of the 
box ; where th's tube passes through, the top of the box must be well 
puttied, or wet will get through and crack the chimney. The lamp 
is put in and removed through a door at the back. In the bottom of 
the fi-ont of the box is a drawer which contains a shallow dish filled 
with potassium cyanide and covered with muslin. The glass sheet 
AB overlaps the sheet CD, and insects climbing up CD towards the 
opening are diverted by the glass strip CE and fall into the drawer. 
To work this trap, it is placed in a favourable position, the lamp lighted 
and left overnight. 

Sinohimj may be used for disturbing inserts from thick herbage 
whence they are often diflicult to dislodge by beating, the smoke being 


puffed into the herbage with the mouth (tobacco smoke) or a bee-smoker 
or a smudge being used. Large numbers of small insects are often 
to be collected in this way. 

Beating bush,es or herbage with a stick will dislodge nmuerous insects 
which may be taught as they fly out or when settled again. The beating 
or shaking of trees, bushes, flowers, etc., over an inverted umbrella, 
piece of white cloth or large sheet of pajDer, will also result in the tlropping 
of large numbers of miscellaneous insects, which can be picked out as 
required ; or the whole mass can be placed in a tight bag for subse- 
quent examination at leisure. 

Flofters, moss, termites' fungus-coiiibs, etc., may similarly be collected 
in a tight bag and turned out for subsequent examination over a clean 
sheet of paper or cloth. Tennitoxeivid may thus be collected from the 
fungus-combs, and especially the '' nursery combs " of mound-building 

The time of daij when collecting is done, will determine to a large 
extent the material collected in the case of many groups and, con- 
versely, if it is intended to collect particular groups, it is important to 
select the appropriate time of day for their collection. 

The early part of the forenoon, when the sun begins to warm the 
air, is the feeding-time of many butterflies, such as Ornithoptera and 
strong-flying Papilionids, which then descend to feed on such flowers 
as Lanlana, but later on in the day fly high uji or at such a pace that 
capture becomes very difficult. 

The morning is also the best time to catch di-agon-flies, partly because 
their intestines are then less likely to be replete with insect prey, since 
specimens taken with empty alimentary canals are more likely to keep 
their colours than examples which are fifll of insect prey, and partly 
because many dragon-flies are to be found in numbers near water in 
the morning but in the afternoon seenijo disperse and are often not 
to be found in places where earlier in the day they were 

The early evening is the best time for the collection of Microlepi- 
doptera which may then be beaten out of bushes and herbage or taken 
on^:he wing. 

Twilight brings forth a few butterflies {e.g., Melanitis) most Sphingids 
and Melolonthids. Sphingids and the curious nightflying bee (Xijlocopa 
rufesccns) may then be caught attracted to flowers, and Melolonthids 
may be foimd feeding or clustered on leaves or may be attracted to a 
white sheet. 



After dark, most moths and iiiglit-fl3-ing insects generally are oa 
the wing and may be taken at light or at sugar. 

A few insects fly late at night, but it will be noticed that very few 
seem to be on the wing after about 10 p.m. 

Some insects fly at special and irregular times. Amongst such are 
termites, whose flight usuallj^ takes place on a still evening after the 
first heavy rains, but may take place (in the same species) at other 
times of the day. Thus at Pusa the flight of Odontolermes assmiithi 
usually occurs in the late afternoon, but may take place in the early 
morning or at almost any time during the day, that of Microlermes 
obesi always occurs between 7 and 8 p.m., that of Ereinoterm^ para- 
doxalis in the late afternoon, and that of Co-ptotermes heimi at dusk, 
whilst, on the only occasion at Coimbatore that I have noticed the 
flight of Hodotermes viaruni, it occurred late at night after 10 p.m. When 
such flights occur, it is important to trace the pilace whence the emer- 
gence is taking place, in order to secm-e specimens of the soldiers and 
workers which belong to the winged adults. This is often difficult to 
do, especially in cases where the adults issue singly from small holes 
or slits in the ground, but, by bending down as near ground-level as 
possible and watching carefully, it is often possible to find the holes 
of emergence and, by digging up the ground beneath these, the soldiers 
and workers may be found and definitely associated with the winged 
forms. The winged adults of Ercmotermes, for example, emerge from 
minute slits in the ground, which are very difficult to discover, and 
the soldiers and workers, which are rarely s^en otherwise, may be turned 
up from the soil beneath the hole of exit. Odonfotermes, on the contrary, 
usually streams up from a mound or hole or holes of exit, whose entrance 
is thickly siirrounded with soldiers and workers running around on 
the surface of the soil. 

" Carpe diem." In the case of the occurrence of termites' swarms, 
as in all other cases of collecting insects, the entomologist's motto should 
be " Carpe diem." When an insect, of which specimens are required, 
is found commonly, the opportunity should betaken to take a sufficient 
series at the time ; otherwise, if this is not done, the chances are that 
the species will not be found again later on when required, or an oppor- 
tunity of taking examples (such as revisiting a particular locality) may 
not recm-. It is better to take a good long series of any uncommon 
insect when met -Rath rather than to take only a few;. it should be 
remembered that duplicates or excess specimens will often be desiderata 
to other brethren of the net and he who has such specimens to spare 
to others is most likely to be remembered when they have specimens 
to dispose of. 

/■'/;/' '"'i- 

Fig. 1.— Nets made with Y-pieces of wood (left) and metal tubing (right) 

Fig. 2.— Folding Net in folded position. 

Pug, ut: 

PLATE 148. 

Folding Net. On the right it is shown open ; in the centre it is shown folded over to prevent the escape 
of an insect caught in it ; and to the left is shown the screw attachment to the stick. 

proceedings of the third entomological meeting 947 

Turning now to tlie apparatus required for collecting insects the 
absolutely necessary items include net, store-box, pins, forceps, lens, 
killing bottle, tubes, spirit, and note-book, to wbich various other items 
may be added. 

Nets. A net for grneral collecting may be made at a pinch from a 
piece of old mosquito-netting or nuislin .sewn on to a ring made from 
a %lip of bamboo fastened to a forked stick or joined to a straight stick 
by a metal Y-piec3. (Plate 147, tig. 1). Such a net is quite a useful 
weapon to keep hand}' for use within a limited area, such as a 
bungalow compound, but for convenience of a more portable 
form is better, and a wire-framed fdlding net (Plate 147. fig. 2, 
and Plate 148), adjustable to any stick as a handle, will fulfil all 
ordinary purposes. One obvious advantage of an adjustable net is 
that it may be fitted on to any ordinary walking-stick or umbrella or 
on to a long bamboo if it is desired to catch an insect settled or flj'ing 
high up. The size of the net may be made, to suit individual rec[uire- 
ments, but personally I like a moderately small net, about 12 to 15 
inches in diameter across the month and about 18 to 20 inches deep. 
This size is big enough to catch the largest-sized insects and at the same 
time is sufficiently light to ensure the quick stroke necessary to secure 
rapid flyers. The bottom of the net .should be cut square with the 
corners rounded off ; and the depth of the bag should suffice to enable 
the net to be closed by turning the rim over, whilst it should not be so 
deep as to cause any difficulty in securing specimens at its bottom. 
As regards material, a silk gauze is the best, being at once light, strong 
and transparent — three qualities indispensable to a good net-bag. 
Cotton materials, such as mosquito-netting, may also be used but are 
less Satisfactory in use and less durable than silk. Purchased iiets are 
usually dyed green, presumably on the supposition that the intended 
victims are less likely to take notice of the waving of a green object, 
but this seems to be a fallacy and in actual practice it will be found 
that it is the movement, much less than the colour, of an object which 
is apt to frighten insects. It is, moreover, more difficult to see the 
enclosed insect in a green net than in a white one. It seems, therefore, 
that no end is gained by the use of green-dyed material, more especially 
as the dye tends to rot it, and a white net appears preferable on every 

The successful capture of insects, especially of very strong-flyers, 
is an art only to be acquired, by practice. It must be remembered, 
as )ioted above, that insects are keenly perceptive of motion and the 


would-be capturer must tlierefore creep up very cautiously, or take up 
a favourable position aud remain motionless, until the occurrence of 
a suitable opportunity for a quick sharp stroke with the net. If this 
fails, it is generally useless to pursue the startled insect. The best 
thing to do is to keep quiet in the hope that it may return. Some butter- 
flies, such as Vanessids, often have a favourite spot to which they return 
again and agam, and hawk-moths will fi-equently return to the flowers 
fi'om which they have been startled, whereas a stern chase in either 
case is more likely to drive the insect away than to achieve its 

A wary insect, such as a butterfly or Fulgorid, settled on a tree- 
trunk or on any solid object above ground-level, calls for the most 
difflcult side-sweep of the net. A case of this sort proves the truth of 
the saying that " practice makes perfect " ; too distant a stroke will 
probably wreck the net against the tree-trunk and too near a one will 
miss the insect, and it is only the collector who knows by constant 
practice the exact reach of his net who will achieve the happy medium 
and secure the prize in nine cases out of ten. 

To catch an active insect resting on the ground is also not easy, the 
best method as a rule being to creep up very cautiously to within easy 
strikmg distance, raise the net very slowly until it occupies a convenient 
position for the stroke and then strike it downiwards over the insect, 
taking care that the rim strikes the ground evenly all round and not 
with too much violence. Butterflies will usually fly upwards into the 
bat' but tiger-beetles will often run around on the ground inside the net 
and escape if any hole is available under the rim, which should there- 
fore be kept pressed tight against the ground. 

^Vhen netting an insect, endeavour should be made to follow its 
motions with the eye. An insect which is supposed to be safely in the 
net often proves, on examination of this, to have been missed ; but, 
if it's flight has been followed with the eyes, a second chance of capture 
may be afforded. Some sluggish insects when at rest will remain 
clingmg to their resting-places even when struck at with a net but will 
drop or fly off immediately afterwards. The collector therefore should 
not look at once at the net, for, if the insect has been netted, it will 
remain safely there ; he will do better to keep his eye fixed on the posi- 
tion of the insect, so as not to lose sight of it if perchance it has not got 
into the net. 

Similarly, when seeing an insect at rest and being unprepared for 
its capture, it is always as well to endeavour to keep one's eye on the 
insect when getting ready the net or killing-bottle or whatever is to be- 

A/f/r 910. 

Fie. 1. Details of Water Net. 

Fig. 2.— Scissors Net. 


used. An active insect may change its position whilst the eye is taken 
off it and then be frightened away for ever when endeavourmg to locate 
it anew, and many apparently inactive insects are nevertheless acutely 
conscious of discovery and move or drop off immediately they perceive 
that observation has been removed from them, even momentarily. 

When ajjproaching an active insect, which is to be netted, it is 
imjiortant to approach it from the side opposite to that from which the 
sun is shining, as a shadow may easily startle it away. 

Besides the ordinary "" general service " net, the collector may use 
other nets for special purposes. Such nets are Micro-nets for the collec- 
tion of minute insects, sweep-nets for collecting insects from herbage, 
water-nets for securing aquatic insects and scissors nets for the capture 
of Hymenoptera off flowers, etc. 

Micro-nets are simply small-sized nets of the ordinary pattern but 
made of very fine silk gauze or chifi'on. They are extremely useful 
for the capture of .small and delicate Lejjidoptera, Dijitera, etc., but 
require careful use as the material of the bag is necessarily very thin 
and easily torn. 

Sweep-nets on the contrary are larger editions of the ordmary 
pattern, with a stoutly-built rim (preferably of metal) and stout bag^ 
made of cheese-cloth or similar material. They are used to drag over 
and through herbage and vegetation generally, especially for the collec- 
tion of Coleoptera, Ehynchota, and Orthoptera, and are therefore neces- 
sarily of stout construction to withstand wear and tear under such 
conditions. In use, frequent examination of small lots of contents is 
better than less frequent examination of large masses of material. 

Water-nets, as their name implies, are used for the capture of aquatic 
insects on and in water. The ordinary " general service " net may be 
used for this (as also for sweeping) at a ijiuch, but rough use of this sort 
will not tend to its longevity. Water-nets may be of the folding pattern, 
adjustable to any stick (in which case it is as well to secure the net 
securely to the stick with a length of cord also in case the clamp should 
slip whilst the net is in use) or they may be made simply of a stout 
ring of round metal rod fastened securely into a permanent stout handle 
which should-Ae six or seven feet long for effective use. The metal 
rim is best made of galvanized iron. The bag, made of hght canvas 
or similar material, should be comparatively shallow, as it is not required 
to be closed over to prevent the escape of captures, as is a land-net, 
and it is uncomfortable to remove specimens from the bottom of a deep 
bag when it is wet. (Plate 149, fig. 1). 

'9-jO rROCEEDiNt;s of the third entomological meeting; 

Scissors-nets are made on the 25i'inciple of a paiv of scissors whose 
blades are replaced by flat areas of net supported on diamond-shaped 
or oblong frames which can be separated or brought together by the 
action of the handles (Plate 149. fig. 2). They are intended for 
capturing Aculeate Hymenoptera resting on flowers, leaves, etc. I 
have never used one myself, or met anyone who has, and imagine 
that their utility is not great. 

Store-boxes are used for the temjiorary or permanent preservation 
of pinned specimens and should be light-and air-tight, lined with some 
material which will hold the pins firmly, and of a convenient size and 
Tveight for storage and handling. As further information about store- 
boxes is given further on under the heading of " Preserving," it only 
seems necessary to say here that the most convenient store-box for 
general purposes is one made of good deal, with top and bottom of 
tlu:ee-ply wood, external dimensions 17-J long by 12 inches broad by 
i inches deep, lined on both sides with cork covered with white paper 
and provided with a naphthaline-cell. (Plate 150. fig. 1). 

For general collecting purposes, when travelling, it is useful to rule 
light pencil lines across the paper lining so as to form squares about 
two inches each way, as specimens from one locality can then be placed 
in one or more squares with a small label pinned into the lower right- 
hand corner, and there is then no difficulty later on, when permanent 
labels are to be affixed to the specimens, in knowing which particular 
locality any specimen came from. Specimens with any particular 
data may also be isolated with ease in this way. Another method of 
isolating groups of specimens is to draw a line around them with j^eneil ; 
but this looks untidy and, after a little use, the lines are liable to be 
confused together, whereas the squares may be used indefinitely and, 
if they are fairlv small, little spac^ is wasted owing to incompletely filled 

One of the worst enemies of the collection in India is mould and 
it is often difficult to avoid mould developing on newly-caught and 
imperfectly dried specimens, especially when collecting in a damp 
climate and having to open the collecting-box constantly to add fresh 
specimens. Before starting, therefore, it is a good plan to treat the 
store-box with a saturated solution of naphthaline in benzine or any 
similar solvent, pouring the solution all over the inside of the box and 
allowing the solvent to evaporate, when a thin film of naphthaline is 
left over the interior : this, while it lasts, will effectually prevent the 
development of mould and, when the naphthaline has evaporated, there 
will generally be room to pour in a little more of the solution over unoccu- 
pied portions of the lining. The amount of naphthaline contained in 

I'lige did. 

PLATE 150. 

Fi?. 1.— Store-box ruled into squares for collecting. Lid of camphor cell (in near side) 
Is shown raised up. 

Fi». 2.— Pinning insects into store-box to economize space. 

I-ny, ;>ol. 

PLATE 151. 

Fig. 1.—" Shingling " set butterflies for cicse packing. 

Fig. 2. Mounting small insects ; {<i) on polyporus pith, {h) on sola pith, {<■) on single card stages, and 
('/) on double card stages. 


tbe ordinary cell inside the box is quite insufficient to j^revent the gi'owth 
of jnould in such cases. 

When collecting, space in the store-box is often a consideration 
and considerable economy can be effected by i^inning in the small speci- 
mens (on small pins) first, when it will be found that a good many of 
the larger specimens (on big pins) can be pinned in between and over 
the smaller ones (Plate 150, fig. 2). In the case of large specimens 
set out with their wings flat {e.g., butterflies, dragon-flics, etc.), 
considerable economy of space can be effected by " shingling " them, 
i.e., pimiing them into the box at an angle so that their wings overlap 
one another. (Plate 151. fig. 1). 

Pins are made in various sizes and of various materials, the main 
requisites being that they should be made of a hard, non-corrosive 
metal, have sharp points and small heads, and be of slender diameter 
and suitable length. Ordinary brass pins corrode sooner or later, the 
body-juices of the pinned specimens attacking the metal with the forma- 
tion of the so-called " verdigris," which is not verdigris at all but 
copper butyrate. Silver pins are sometimes used for minute insects, 
but are too soft and blunt and do not seem safe from corrosion. 
The most satisfactory pins are those made from pure nickel wire. 
We always use Messrs. D. F. Tayler's pure nickel pins, sizes 16 and 20, 
the former being a stout pin 35 mm. long suitable for all large insects 
and the latter a fine pin 15 mm. long suitable for all small insects. 
These two sizes of piiis are suitable for all general collecting work. 

Sfagiiig is a method of mounting small insects, pinned with small 
pins, to raise them above the level of the cork surface of the store-box 
or cabinet drawer and to avoid injury when moving the sjaecimens. 
The small pin of the specimen is driven into one end of the stage, through 
the other end of which is passed a stout pin which bears the label and 
is secured into the cork surface. The stage may be made of various 
nmterials, of which pith and card are generally used. Polyporus pith 
is very suitable as it keeps beautifully white and may be obtained in 
square slips. Sola pith is obtainable locally and makes satisfactory 
stages. Card is readily obtainable and may be cut to any size or shape 
required and makes a good stage for permanent mounting. Double- 
card stages are sometimes used in Em-ope, two similar card-stages being 
used, one about an eighth of an inch below the other, and both large 
and small pins being passed tlu-ough each stage ; but there seems to be 
no special advantage gained by this method. Mica also is sometimes 
used for staging, especially in the case of small Coleoptera, but I have 
had no experience of it. Photographic film may also be used if a 
transparent mount is desired (Plate 151, ^g, 2). 


Small Coleoptera ma_y also be gummed onto card stages, with legs 
and antenna? outspread, and in such v-^ases it is as well to mount some 
specimens upside-down for ease of examination. 

Forceps (Plate 152, fig. 1) are an absolute necessity for any 
collecting work and a good pair of forceps is as useful as a third 
hand to the entomologist. A pair of forceps is invaluable when 
collecting, in picking up all sorts of odd specimens, and is absolutely 
necessary for handling pinned specimens, when the pin should be 
grasped belotv the specimen in order to avoid bending it when pushing 
it into the cork. Forceps are made in various sizes and shapes and 
are sometimes provided on the inside of one leg with a short pin 
which fits into a hole of the leg. Tastes differ, but personally 
I prefer a moderately small paii of forceps without a pin. 

Knives of various patterns are often useful when collecting, those 
most frecjuently required being a field-knife, which may either be a 
large pruning-knife with a curved tip or a stout pocket-knife, and a 
medium-sized scalpel for delicate work. (Plate 15'?. fig. 2). 

Scissors are not often required for field-work but are a necessity 
for cutting labels, setting-strips, and sometimes for trimming specimens. 
Any ordinary small scissors are suitable. 

A lens is a prime necessity both in the field and for examining, pinning 
and setting small specimens. A platyscopic lens, magnifying ten 
diameters, by any good maker, is sufficient for ordinary work. Lenses 
with higher magnification are less suitable for field-work. 

Glass-bottomed Boxes (Plate 152. fig. 3) are extremely useful for 
collecting small insects which are recjuired to be kept alive. They 
are usually made of card board and sold in nests of seven boxes, 
one fitting inside the other. The larger boxes are used for collecting 
caterpillars and large insects generally, and the .smaller ones are 
very useful for small moths and so on. Care should be taken that 
only one moth or similar insect is placed in each box ; if several 
are imprisoned together, they are sure to disturb one another and all 
are likely to be spoiled. Glass-bottomed boxes made of are also metal 
available but are not satisfactory for use in hot climates, as they get 
overheated and the contained insects die and dry up. 

Killinfj an insect is the natiu-al sequence to catching it in cases where 
it is desired as a specimen. In the case of many slender-bodied insects, 
such as butterflies, this can be done whilst the insect is in the net by 
pinching it with the forceps or between the thumb and first finger ; the 
wings are held over the back and a smart pinch is given to the thorax, 
at the base of the legs (not to the head, as the non-entomologist usually 
imagines). This will kill most Lepidoptera outright but a few (Danaines, 

I'a'Jc 'j:,5. 


/'„!/. iir, 


Fig. 1. To kill a butterfly it should be 
pinched at the place sliown by the 

rsts^/. L- -^J>::>J^' 

FJg. 2. Cyanide killing-bottle. 


Zygsenids, etc.). are very tenacious of life and will fly off again gaily 
after a really hard pinch (Plate 153. fig. 1). 

For most insects a killing-bottle is used, made of any tightly- 
stoppered wide-mouthed glass jar which is usually charged with potas- 
sium cyanide. The jar should have a cork stopper, as a glass stopper 
is very liable to break either itself or the bottle when clapped to smartly, 
as is necessary when shaking specimens into the bottle out of glass- 
bottomed boxes ; and it is more convenient if the cork stopper is fitted 
into a wooden top (Plate 153, fig. 2). The jar is charged by filling 
in small lumps of potassium cyanide to a depth of an inch or more 
(according to the size of the jar) and then filling the chinks between 
the lumps with dry plaster of paris ; a thick mixture of plaster of 
paris is now made up with a minimum of water and poured over the 
cyanide to form a smooth layer, which sets hard and keeps it in place. 
There is always a considerable condensation of water on the inside of 
a newly-charged bottle and this water requires to be wiped off several 
times. In damp weather also the cyanide picks up a good deal of 
water from the air and the surface of the plaster is liable to get very 
wet. It is as well, therefore, to cover the surface of the plaster with 
several layers of thick white blotting-paper, which should be renewed 
when it becomes wet or dirty. 

Some collectors powder the cyanide and mix it with the plaster. 
But a bottle prepared with lump cyanide and a minimum of water in 
the plaster, as described above, will last longer. 

For general collectii:ig, it is useful to have at least two bottles, one 
of which may be reserved for more delicate .specimens which are liable 
to be broken if mixed up with larger ones. 

Killing-tubes, made from a corked glass tube j^repared in the .same 
way as a bottle, are also useful for small specimens, and can be carried 
in one"s coat-pocket when a bottle would be unnecessarily cumbrous. 

Besides potassium cyanide, various other killing materials may 
be used, such as chloroform, benzine, ammonia, etc. In the case of 
specimens collected in glass-bottomed boxes, for example, one end of 
a strip of paper dipped in chloroform may be introduced into the box, 
when the insect is speedily stupefied. Benzine may be used in a similar 
way and is sometimes used mixed with chloroform. Killing bottles 
or tubes may also be extemporized by stuffing a wad of tissue paper 
into the bottom of a suitable bottle or jar and pouring on to it a few 
drops of choloroform or benzine or a mixture of both : a glass tube 
charged in this manner will remain effective for two or three hours 
if not left opened too long.. 


Insects killed in a bottle or tube become very stiff after death, as 
rigor mortis sets in ; this passes off after some hours. If insects are to 
be set, therefore, they should be left in the bottle overnight when they 
will usually be found in proper condition for setting the next morning. 

Tobacco smoke makes an effective temj)orary stupefying agent, 
very useful in the case of Microlepidoptera which have been collected 
in glass-bottomed boxes. The lid of the box is raised very slightly on 
one side and a puff ot smoke blown into the box ; in a few seconds the 
moth is stupefied, when it can be shaken- out, pinned, given a nip on 
the thorax with the forceps and will then be iu beautiful condition for 
setting forthwith. 

After using chloroform, benzine, tobacco smoke or any similar agent 
to stupefy or kill insects in collecting-boxes, care should be taken that 
the boxes are left open and thoroughly aired afterward'? as, if any trace 
of the killing agent lingers inside the box, any insects subsequently 
placed in the box are likely to be made very restless and knock about 
until they spoil themselves. 

Occasionally a specimen will be found which is too large to go into 
any ordinary killing-bottle. Such insects as large Coleoptera, Phasmids, 
etc., may be dropped into a basin of boiling water, which kills them 
immediately ; they should, of course, be well dried before putting them 
away. Larger moths, such as Attacus alias, may be killed by holding 
them with the wings over the back and thrusting into the side of the 
thorax a pen f)r stout pin dipped in a saturated solution of oxalic acid ; 
if no such killing agent is available, a red-hot needle thrust into the 
lower part of the thorax is a barbarous but effective method. 

Dragon-flies, especially large ones, should not be killed at once if 
it can be helped, as the subsequent putrefaction of the intestinal contents 
will spoil the colour of the bodies. It is better to place them alive 
each in a separate box or dry glass tube plugged with a wad of crumpled 
paper and to leave them until next day before killing in order to give 
them time to empty their alimentary canals. 

The intestinal contents of large dragon-flies may also be removed, 
after killing them in the cyanide bottle, by slitting up the underside 
of the abdomen with a pair of scissors and pulling out the stomach 
and intestines with a pair of forceps. A blunt-pointed pair of scissors 
is better than a fine-pointed pair, as the latter is more likely to pene- 
trate the skin of the back. In the case of male dragon-flies, care must 
be taken to make the slit around the secondary sexual apparatus found 
beneath the anterior end of the abdomen so as not to spoil these organs, 
which are of importance for systematic discrimination of the species. 

A stout bristle may be passed in through the front of the thorax 

Pnge f)5i 


aud down the inside of the abdomen, to prevent the latter from breaking 
off, as dragon-flies when dried are peculiarly brittle objects. 

Wet material. Many insects are not easily preserved dry, either 
because they are too small to pin or because they shrivel up. Minute 
insects (such as small Chalcidids), which in any case require to be mounted 
as microscopic objects for satisfactory study, are best pre- 
served in spirit. Spirit is also the best medium for the collec- 
tion and preservation of insects such as Aptera generally, termites, 
Embiads, Thysanoptera, and Aphids, which shrivel up too much to 
make satisfactory dry specimens ; and it is also as well to preserve 
in spirit some duplicate specimens of most other groups which are 
ordinarily pinned, in order that both wet and dry examples may be 
available for study, this remark applying especially to such groups as 
Psocids, earwigs and dragon-flies. Some insects whose brilliant 
colours in life are due to a thin film of liquid within the chitinous 
epidermis, such as many CassidLne beetles, lose these brilliant colours 
entirely when dry, but the brilliancy is retained in the case of specimens 
kept in spirit or formalin and in such cases a few duplicate examples 
may be kept wet. Immature stages are also best placed into spirit. 

The best preservative agent for general use is ordinary spirits of 
wine at a strength of about 70, reduced to about 50 in the case 
of immature and very soft-bodied insects so as to avoid distortion. 
Formalin is also used sometimes but is not very satisfactory ; 
the ordinary commercial formalin is of about 40 per cent, strength aud 
this is diluted to about 4 per cent, for preserving purposes. 

For collecting, therefore, a supply of corked tubes of various sizes 
and filled with spirit is required, and a pencil and paper should also be 
at hand in order that a temporary label may be placed in each tube as 
it is filled. These temporary labels should be replaced or supplemented 
by permanent labels, giving full data and written on good paper with 
a moderately soft pencil, and placed inside each tube. Labek stuck 
onto the outside of tubes are liable to fall off or be obUterated. 

A collecting-hag is a useful accessary in which to carry the 
apparatus required for fieldwork. It may be of any convenient size or 
material. A very useful bag is easily and cheaply made from stout 
cloth or light canvas about sixteen inches broad and twelve deep and 
three wide, with slightly rounded corners, and provided with a flap 
secured by a button and also with a wide strap to pass over the 
shoulder. The bag may be divided into two or more compartments 
in order to avoid mixing full and empty boxes, tubes, etc. Such a 
bag will hold killing-bottle, folding-net, field-knife, and a supply of 
boxes and tubes. (Plate 154. fig. 1). 


The clothes wheu collecting may be selected with due regard 
to their suitability for the purpose. A loose coat, with pockets ample 
both in size and number and capable of being buttoned up, provides 
stowage for a large amount of material. The forceps and lens will of 
course be carried in one pocket, the latter attached to a button-hole 
by a string if considered necessary. A supply of small empty boxes may 
also be carried in one side pocket and transferred as filled to the corres- 
ponding pocket on the opposite side ; for ordinary right-handed people , 
it is more convenient to carry empty boxes in the right-hand coat pocket. 
The left-hand coat pocket, besides filled boxes, will hold a killing-tube 
ready charged. An inside breast-pocket will accommodate the folding 
net if a bag is not carried, and an outside breast-pocket securely buttoned, 
will hold a supply of tubes with pencil and paper for labelling. Finally, 
a few pins may be stuck into the lining of the topi and specimens such 
as butterflies, which can be killed by pinching, pinned sideways and 
stuck into it, several specimens on one pin if necessary to economize 
space ; such specimens can be relaxed and moved oft' the pin later on 
and either set or placed in jjapers. 

A HOtc-boolc should be an indispensable part of the field-apparatus. 
It should be of a convenient size, of good plain paper bound in stout 
boards and provided with its pencil. If carried in the collecting-bag 
it will be at hand when required to make a note on habits or any point 
observed concerning insect or to make a sketch on the spot of any 
peculiar attitude, etc. It is useful, in connection with such notes to 
number them consecutively, either with a series of figures or letters, 
and to label the specimens to which they refer with corresponding 
numbers ; on looking over the notes afterwards it is then possible to 
pick out in the collection the particular specimen referred to, and 
similarly, when a numbered specimen is named up, the name can be 
entered in the note-book, which in this way becomes a valuable 

Setting is the name applied to the process of spreading out insects 
partly for display in a collection and partly for convenience of proper 
examination of their structure, the latter requirement being important 
in the case of all collections made (as all should be) for scientific 
purposes. When collecting in the field, it is not necessary as a rule to 
set large insects, as it is nearly always possible to relax these after- 
wards and they occupy a smaller amount of space if carried unset, but 
it is desirable to set small specimens (such as Microlepidoptera) when 
fresh, as it is often difficult to set them satisfactorily afterwards. Some 
collectors of special groups, e.g., butterflies, also prefer to set their 
captures when fresh. 

Ill (J, fi-,7. 

PLATE 155. 

Fig. 1.— Travelling case for setting-boards. 

Fig. 2. -Setting small moths on flat cork sheet. 


la the case of speciineus such as large Lepidopteia, Neuroptera 
generally and others whose wings are to be spread out, it is usual to do 
this on special setting-boards, which are usually made of parallel strips 
of wood covered with papered cork sheet and with a space between 
to receive the bodies of the insects. (Plate 154. fig. ;5), Setting- 
boards are sometimes made with the corked side-pieces sloping slightly 
upwards or curved downwards, but the best boards are flat and raised 
about one inch above the bottom of the board to give plenty of room 
to grasp the pin with the forceps below the insect when set. The 
specimen to be set is first pinned through the middle of the thorax, 
the pin being placed iqjright or slopmg forward very slightly, and 
then pinned into the groove of the board so that the bases of the 
wings are just above the level of the board. Two strips of moderately^ 
thin glazed paper are then cut of a width aud length proportional 
to the size of the board and one end of each strip is pinned onto the 
end of the board in front of the insect whose wings are then stretched 
dowTiwards and forwards until the hinder-margins of the forewings are 
at right angles with the axis of the body ; the strip of paper is then 
passed down over the fore-wings, the hindwings drawn up as necessary, 
and the strip of paper pinned down to fix the wings in position. The 
antennae (and legs, if necessary) should also be fastened into symmetri- 
cal positions with pins, and the body fixed with pins into a position 
parallel with the head and thorax. Both for the sake of dif^play in a 
collection and for structural examination it is important that the wings 
be sjDread out symmetrically and sufficiently ; a very common error 
is to draw the forewings, especially in Lepidoptera, insufficiently 
far forward, so that they are overlapped by the front portion of the 
hindwings, with the result that it is impossible to examine satis- 
factorily the structure of either pair of wings. As a general rule, the 
forewings should be so placed that their hinder-margins are in a 
straight line and the hind wings should be drawn up only so far as 
not to overlaji the forewings. (Plate 151. fig. 3). 

Most insects are pimied through the thorax, except Coleoptera 
(beetles) which are pinned through the right elytron (wing-case) and 
Rhynchota (bugs) which are usually pinned through the scutellum. 
(Plate 151. fig. 2). In cases where the thorax or scutellum bears special 
characters (e.g., Chalcidids, many Rhynchota) the pin should be so 
placed as not to destroy these characters ; in pinning a series of any 
small insect, therefore, it is as well to pin a few specimens sideways 
through the thorax, so as to retain the thoracic characters unimpaired. 

Earwigs, cockroaches, beetles, flies and bugs are u.sually left unset 
although the wings and antennae may be displayed symmetrically 


Grasshoppers and other winged Orthoj^tera usually have the wmgs 
spread out on one side only, and this is done for economy of space in 
the storage of these large insects. 

Settmg-boards may be carried and kept in any convenient tight- 
shuttmg box, but when travelling a setting-case is often convenient. 
This may take the form of a large box, somewhat after the style of a 
small meat-safe, with shelves to hold the boards, or a more compact 
travelling case may be made of the size of a store-box with soft-wood 
setting-boards fitted in. (Plate 155, fig. 1). Specimens can then be 
set when fresh and carried on the boards. 

As noted above, however, there is no real need to set large speci- 
mens at the time of capture, as they can nearly always be relaxed and 
set at any subsequent times and for small specimens, which require 
immediate setting, there is no need to carry special boards when travel- 
ling, as such small specimens can be set quite satisfactorily on small 
sheets of cork, pith or compressed peat which can be pinned into the 
store-box. The procedure is as follows : — a strip of paper slightly 
wider than the expanse of wings of the insect to be set and as long as 
the width of the cork sheet is cut and pinned onto the sheet and two 
narrow slips of paper are pinned onto this at a Suitable distance apart, 
the insects being then set on this paper-covered cork in the ordinary 
way. (Plate 155, fig. 2). Data can be written on the paper. Any 
ordinary fairly-thin glazed paper is satisfactory ; thin " squared " 
paper is very usefiU as the cross-lines give a good guide to the proper 
position of the wings. 

Improvised setting can also be done without boards in many cases, 
by pinning the insect onto a small card to which the wings, legs, etc., 
may be secured by small pins. When dry, these pins and cards can be 
removed. (Plate 156, fig. 2). 

No definite time can be given during which insects can be left under 
setting. It depends entirely on the humidity of the surrounding air 
and the size of the insect. In dry weather small insects may be ready 
to take off the boards even after a few hoiu-s and in damp weather they 
may take a week, whilst large insects may take four or 'five days to 
two or three weeks. By gently testing with a pin to see whether the 
body is quite fii-m and hard, it is possible to see whether the insect is 
ready in any case of doubt, as, if the body is quite fii-m, it may be assumed 
that the insect is ready to remove from the boards, but if the body is 
at all soft it should be left longer. In damp weather or when rapid 
removal is required drying may be expedited by placing the boards 
in a drying chamber, or in a box over a lamp or in front of a fke ; but, 
in cases where artificial heat is used, care must be taken to see that the 

Piu/r 9 VI 


2S A 



wings are proijerly fastened down or they will tend to cockle up at the 
tips. In any case of doubt or when there is no hurry for removal it 
is as well to leave the insects on the boards as long as possible, provided 
of course that the boards are kept in a safe place. After relaxation, 
set insects require to be kept on the boards for a longer period than do 
fresh specimens of similar size, as they are very liable to " .spring '' if 
reiuoved too soon. 

Dragon-flies require to be dried as rapidly as possible in order to 
retain their colours, and in damp weather the process of drying generally 
requires to be hastened artificially to avoid decomposition and mould. 

Labelling is a most important item in the art of collecting. Every 
single specimen in a collection, to be of any scientific value at all, must 
carr}' a label or labels showing at least where and when it was obtained, 
and any further parfcicidars concerning it, such particulars usually 
including the name of the person who collected it. Other particulars 
should include references to note-book or other record, foodplaiit or 
any particulars regarding place of occurrence, habits, colour in life, 
etc. Finally, if the specimen has been identified by a specialist it 
should bear a label showing its name as given and the name of the identi- 
fierand date (at least the year). The labels should be as small as 
possible, as it is a waste of space in the store-box and a decided eye- 
sore to attach enormous placards to the specimens, as one often sees 
done, especially in CTOvernment Collections in India. If there is not 
room to write all particulars on one small label, it is better to use two 
or more labels, one placed below the other, but the uppermost should 
always be that showing the locality and date of capture, and these 
particulars at least shoidd be legible mthout removal of the pinned 
specimen. Then may follow particulars of foodplant, etc., references 
to any records of rearing or habits, etc., and finally a separate label 
showing identification. (Plate 156. fig. 1). 

When large numbers of insects from one locality are dealt with, 
it is onvenient to use labels jarinted in small type, as printed labels 
are more compact, neater and more legible. When the locality is in 
the Hills, its height above sea-level should be stated and, except 
in the case of well-known localities {e.g., Calcutta), it is as well to add 
the Province ; thus : — 

Assam ; Khasi Hills. 
ShUlong (5,000 feet) 

(Collectors name.) 
The spelling of place-names should conform as far as possible to 
the rule that consonants are pronounced as in English and vowels as 

VOL. Ill K 


in Italian, the only exceptions being in the cases of very well-known 
names of erroneous spelling {e.g., Lucknow, 'Calcutta). Thus, it is 
preferable to write Darjiling, Karachi, Muzaffarpur, rather than 
Darjeeling, Kurrachee, Mozufferpore. 

Vague indications, such as " on cotton " should be avoided, as such 
labels give no real information. Full particulars (, " imago eating 
cotton flowers," " imago resting on cotton leaf," " larva rolling and 
eating cotton leaf '") give definite information and are j)roferable. The 
correct botanical names of foodplants should also be ascertained and 
used as far as possible, as popular or local names are often incapable 
of exact identification. 

Dry, unpinned material. Some specimens are best collected and 
kept dry and unpinned and may either be preserved permanently in 
this state or be Tdf>rot\ aud set at any subsequent time. 

Such insects va butterflies, dragon-flies, ant-lions, and, generally 
speaking, any broad-winged insects, may be j^laced inside paper enve- 
lopes with their wings folded over their backs and in this way a large 
number can be packed in a comparatively small space. Envelopes 
are best made of a moderately thin slightly glazed paper, rectangular 
pieces rather longer than broad being folded over to form a triangular 
envelope, on the outside flaj) of which should be written full data (place 
and date of capture, collector's name, and any remarks). (Plate 156, 
fig. 3.) These envelopes can be stowed in any tight box, together 
with some powdered naphthaline, and may be kept for years if 
required. Special boxes for storing such envelopes, and useful either 
in the case of a c"li'"'''i"n kei^t in papers or of duplicates kept for 
exchange or pres' •■^fai'iv, have been designed and desciibed by Mr. E. 
Ernest Green, w ose account of them is as follows : — 

" Triangular paper envolnpes have been employed by travelling 
entomologists for the temporary storage of butterflies, for many years. 
But it has been usual to lay these envelopes haphazard in plain boxes, 
in such a manner that it is impossible to find any particular specimen 
without turning over the whole contents of the box. 

'• By the use of the special boxes here described the envelopes occupy 
very much less space, the contents ore less liable to damage, and any 
individual specimen can be found and removed with the greatest ease 
without disturbing the remainder. 

'' The boxes are made of tin plate, with partitions dividing them 
into trough-shaped spaces. The envelopes rest edgeways in the troughs. 

The boxes are fitted with two lids, above and below — 

" Plate 157, fig. 1, shows a box with the upper lid removed and 
the iower one in place. The box measures 9 in. by 6 in. by 3 inches. 

I'liqr mil. 

PLATt 157. 

Fi§. 2. Design 1 i under side). 

Fig. 1.— Design 1 (with lids). 

Fig. 3- Design 2. 

Fig. 4. Design 3. 
Green's boxes for storage of papered insects in envelopes. 


The upper space contains a single trough (a) and carries envelopes 
with a base of 5| inches. 

" Figure 2 represents the reverse of the same box, with two 
smaller troughs (6, c) to contain envelopes of half the size. 

" Figure 3 shows a box of the same size, but designed for the 
smaller-sized envelopes alone, and containing four troughs (d, e, /, g.). 

" Figiure 4 is a larger box, of just double the depth of the others, 
measuring 9 in. by G in. by 6 in. with a diagonal partition forming a 
single trough above and below {h, i), capable of carrying envelopes 
of a larger size. 

" (In figures 2, 3, and 4 the two lids have been omitted for the 
sake of clearness.) 

" These boxes are designed for three sizes of envelopes, which gives 
a sufficient range for butterflies of any size. Size 1 is made from a 
rectangle 8 in. by 5 in., size 2 from a rectangle 6 in. by 4 in., size 3 from 
a rectangle measuring 4 in. by 2| in. 

" It is found in practice that a box made according to figure 1 
will carry, withoitt overcrowding, from 100 to 130 full envelopes in the 
larger trough, and from 175 to 200 in each of the two smaller spaces. 
Design 2 will hold in each of the four spaces 225 Lycainidse, making a 
total of 900 insects. Design 3 will hold 75 or more filled envelopes 
in each of the two spaces. 

" For convenience of examination the insects should be arranged 
in families ; the genera alphabetically in each family, and the species 
alphabetically in each genus. Subsequent additions can be slipped 
into their places without distmbing those already in position. To 
keep the envelopes in place when the troughs are only partly occupied, 
triangular blocks of cork about f inch thick can be employed. For 
use as collecting boxes the troughs can be charged with empty enve- 
lopes, and the cork triangles will serve as markers to separate the unused 
envelopes as they are filled. 

" The boxes illustrated are of the simplest design, as made by a 
local tinsmith in Ceylon. They can be improved by a coating of black 
japan on the outside. 

" Messrs. Watkins and Doncaster have adopted this design, and 
are turning out boxes (to suit their special-sized envelopes) in sto'it 
japanned zinc, with perforated partitions at the end of each trough 
for the reception of naphthaline or camphor." (Spolia Zeylanica, VII. 
pp. 164-166 (May 1911)). 

K 2 


Or the envelopes may be packed in stout paper packets as described 
by Major H. D. Peile in the Journal of the Bombay Natural History 
Sociehj, Vol. XXV, pp. 309-312 (September 1917), as follows :— 

" Standard sizes of paper-triangles should be used. For small and 
medium-sized butterflies semi-transparent butter-paper is best, as it 
enables the contents to be seen through the paper at a glance, and 
guards against spread of any grease that may form. For large triangles 
use stronger glazed paper such as that of English illustrated weeklies, 
as glazed paper does not rub the scales oS the wings. 

" Place the newly-captured butterfly with the antennae close against 
the forewings and at the fold of the paper, so that they dry in that 
position safe from injury (see sketch 3). Do not place it with body 
against the fold {see sketch 4) as in this position the antennae almost 
always dry sticking out and eventually get broken off in handling the 
paj^er or specimens. 

" If papered butterflies be massed together in a box any particular 
specimen cannot be got at without many being handled, resulting in 
damage to some sooner or later. 

" The paper triangles should be kept in packets of corresponding 
standard sizes, so that these packets, fitting closely in an ordinary biscuit- 
tin, economize space and enable an}' one packet to be easily taken out 
without disturbing its contents. 

" The paper triangles should be so placed in a packet that the bodies 
of the specimens are alternately to right and left and so lie evenly ; 
if not so placed they form a lopsided pile, and S25ace is wasted and 
pressure is all on one side. 

" All packets should be of uniform height — -1 inch — so forming 
two or three tiers in the tin according to the kind of biscuit-tin Jised 
and each packet shoiJd contain just so many specimens as not to be 
loose in it, and then the vertical sides of the packets take any weight 
or pressure. 

" A medium-sized packet has its longest side about 3^ inches ; larger 
packets can be made double, or smaller ones half the size of this one. 
Stout paper such as parchment-note answers best. 

" Attached is an outline pattern (reduced half-size) for making such 
a packet (Plate 159, fig. 1). Cut along the outside continuous lines, 
and fold backwards at the dotted lines. This pattern may be used 
for outlining others with a pencil, keeping the centre portion of the 
pattern fi.xed with the fingers of the left hand, and turning up each 
portion after outlining as one works inwards. Paste A to underside 
of B so that C is between the two ; then paste underside of D onto E 
with F between them. To close the packet insert the flap between 

I'mjc 962. 


3. PeLi^erfor M e ol ium Pa./3e>* triangle. 
Fold at dotted l«neS. 
BuLtte-rfly placed. With, (tntenKo*. 5a/t« 

lt-»Pd.Per triangle elose«^. 
Batter/I/ unsafely /olftteci . 

Major Peile's envelopes for butterflies.] 

I'illlL .'/6'.J 

N. d 

I I 

? a. 


G and H. A number of these outlined and cut out for packets, but 
not folded, can be kept ready to be made up into packets as they are 

" The pattern for packets should be of rough paper so that it will 
last a long time, and if some coloured paper be used for it the pattern 
will not get pasted together for a packet in mistake for one outlined 
from it. 

" The lower sketch [fig. 2] shows an open completed packet. 

" Diagram 5 shows an arrangement of three sizes of packets, .say 
in the uppermost tier in a small biscuit-tin, a space in the middle being 
conveniently left for naphthaline. 

" Each packet is mmibered and a list of contents pasted on the 
outside of the tin. Finally the tin is closed against damp and insects 
by a strip of 1-inch adhesive plaster all round the edge of the closed 

Many insects, however, are not suitable for storage in ordinary 
envelopes, grasshoppers and stick-insects, for example, and these may 
be wrapped in tissue-paper rolled in ordinary imglazed paper. Large 
beetles may be packed in dry saw-dust iu which a little powdered naph- 
thaline has been mixed, or they may be made up in little packets of 
thin paper and kept in a box with naphthaline. When saw-dust is 
used, it should not be that obtained from any resinous wood. 

The same procedure ihay be adopted with large bugs and, generally 
speaking, when accommodation in the collecting store-box becomes 
or is likely to be cramped, space in it can be reserved for small and 
delicate specimens, all large insects being disposed of in papers or 

Scale-insects may be < ollected and kept as di-y specimens, according 
to the size of the foodplant, in envelopes or boxes. In such easels a 
parallel series in spirit is useful. 

Insects kept diy in glass tubes should have the inside of the cork 
naphthalined before being closed up, to prevent development of mould. 

Behxing is the process of softening dried insects for the purpose 
o! manipulating them at some interval after they have stiffened subse- 
quent to the vanishing of rigor mortis. It is usually effected by exposing 
them to a damp atmosphere, by placing them in a closed box (Plate 159. 
fig. 4) on damp sand or blotting-paper, a few drops of carbolic acid 
being added to prevent the growth of mould. The time taken to 
relax an insect in this way varies with the size of the insect and 
the temperature, the time being extended directly by the size of the 
insect and lowness of the temperature. In warm weather small 


insects may be relaxed in twenty-four hours and large ones in two 
or three days. The process may be hastened by using warm water, 
over which the insects are suspended or floated on a piece of cork. 
Care must be taken that the insect is sufficiently softened to permit 
of easy setting and, conversely, that it is not left in the relaxing-tin so 
long that it becomes too decomposed. As already noted, relaxed 
insects are peculiarly liable to " spring " {i.e., the wings fail to 
retain their positions) if removed, too soon from the setting-board ; 
extra time on the boards should therefore be given in the case 
of all relaxed specimens and, in any obstinate cases, the wings 
may be fixed with a small drop of cement applied to the base of the 
lower surface of each wing. 

Green insects, especially moths, are very liable to fade when relaxed 
and should therefore be set when fresh as far as possible. 

Cement, by the way, should also form part of the collector's appara- 
tus, as it is often requtred for mending broken specimens. Special 
Insect Cement is prepared, obtainable in small bottles, and only a very 
minute quantity is required to Be appUed. If it becomes too thick, 
it may be softened by adding a little vinegar or acetic acid solution. 

Assuming that an insect is pinned and labelled and (whether set 
or not) is ready to be placed in the collection, it still remains to take 
all necessary precautions to preserve it effectively. To do this it is 
necessary to keep it free from fungal and animal pests and from the 
action of light. 

Mould is the worst enemy of insect collections in damp climxtes 
such as are found in most parts of India, either all the year round or 
at certain seasons, and constant vigilance is required to prevent its 
development and spread on specimens. Large insects when badly 
attacked may often be cleaned with a smill brush moistened with 
benzine but small and delicate specimsns, such as Microlepidoptera, 
are ruined once and for all when badly moulded. As in so mxny other 
cases, prevention is much better than cure, and every effort should bj 
made to prevent the entry and growth of mjuld on the specimja^. The 
best preventive is (1) to see that all new acquisitions are thoroughly 
dried and free from mould before putting them away in the collection 
and (2) to keep the atmosphere inside the Store-boxe3, cibinet-drawars 
or other receptacles thoroughly impregnated with naphthaline vapDur, 
in which mould is unable to develop from any spores which obtain 
admittance from the air when the receptacles are opsaal. A plenti- 

PK0CEEDI:NGS of XUE THIUD entomological MEETINO 965 

ful supply of powdered naphthaline should therefore be kept in all store- 
boxes, cabinet-drawers, etc. It is of comparatively Httle use to pin a 
large lump of solid naphthaline in one corner, as the evaporation from 
a limited surface is too small- to exercise any really beneficial effect. 
In the case of cabinets, there is ample space provided as a rule around 
each drawer and, if this space is kept filled with powdered naphthaline, 
the collection will remain quite safe ; should excessive evaporation 
take place and naphthalhie be deposited on the specimens, a httle airing 
will speedily free them without damage. In the case of store-boxes, 
a " camphor-cell " is usually provided and this should be filled with 
powdered naphthaline, but it is often too small and in such cases the 
inside of the box may be paiuted over with naphthaline dissolved in 
benzine. It is best to keep store-boxes in tightly-fitting almirahs which 
can be given a plentiful supply of naphthahne ui crystals or small lumps 
so that the boxes are kept in an atmosphere impregnated with naph- 
thahne vapour. 

Extreme dryness is also injurious to insect specimens, as they become 
very brittle and are apt to break at the least touch. Moderately dry 
conditions of storage should be aimed at as far as possible. 

Insect Pests, especially Psocids (the so-called " mites "), Derrnestid 
beetles, Tribolium, and Tineid moths attack and rxiin specimens to 
which they have access', but are easily kept at bay hy the irse of tightly- 
tittLng receptacles well impregnated with naphthahne. In case pests 
such as Dermestids gain access to the collection, however, it takes more 
than naphthahne to destroy them. In such cases a mixture may be 
used composed of naphthaline dissolved in carbon bisulphide and mixed 
with beech-wood creosote, in the proportion of about one-third of each 
constituent, and a little of this poured into the boxes ; this acts equally 
well for insect pests and mould and at Pusa we use this to a consider- 
able extent, especially during the Rains. 

Care must be taken that insect pests do not attack specimens when 
on the setting-boards and be subsequently introduced into the collec- 
tion with the set specimens. The boards should therefore be kept 
in a tightly-fitting drawer or similar place with plenty of naphthaline 
and carbolic acid. Major Fraser mentions a small fly which attacks 
insects (especially dragon-flies) on the setting-boards at Poona, but 1 
have never come this. 

Larger animals, such as mice, will devour the bodies of dried speci- 
mens, and of course ruin them, but the access of such large animafe 
can only be due to gross carelessness. And, generally speaking, damage 
to a collection by animal pests of any sort is only possible when there 
is a certam amount of neglect exhibited. 



Light is injurious to the colours of most insect specimens, especially 
in the case of moths and green-coloured insects, which rapidly fade 
when exposed to hght. Glass-topped cases are therefore very unsuit- 
able receptacles for the permanent storage of a collection of any value 
and are usually only seen in public museums, where it is necessary to 
exhibit specimens ; and in such cases they should be so placed as not 
to receive direct sunlight at any tiine and should be kept efficiently 
screened when not actually in use. The dire combined efiects of light, 
mould, insect pests and neglect generally are perhaps nowhere more 
evident than in the case of the hisect-cases displayed .to the public view 
in many museums throughout India. 

Sfore-boxes are necessary for the collection of specimens and are 
convenient for their preservation, at least temporarily, especially in 
the case of small collections, as it is always easy to interpolate boxes 
when expansion is necessary. 

Various patterns have been tried at Pusa during the last fourteen 
years, all teak-wood boxes 1TA> 12x3 inches. The first pattern was 
lined with pith and provided at one end with a partitioned compart- 
ment to hold naphthaline balls. A second pattern was lined, top and 
bottom, with cork sheets covered with white paper. A third pattern 
had no cork at all but was lined with two sheets of paper stretched 
over thin slips of wood screwed to the inner sides of the boxes, these 
Bcre%A'S being adjustable to secure proper tension of the paper. A fourth 
pattern was lined on the bottom with cork linoleum painted white and 
fixed in with a mixture of paraffin wax and naphthaline, a further supply 
of this mixture being also placed in the lid of the box. A modification 
of this last pattern had a white-painted sheet of cork linoleum embedded 
in a thick layer of paraffin wax and naphthaline poured into the bottom 
of the box and allowed to set, the lid of the box being simply varnished. 

The last pattern was in use for a long time and the majority of the 
collections at Pusa are still kept in such boxes, but they are not satis- 
factory in use, as the wax makes them very heavy to handle and is 
liable to melt in really hot weather whilst the naphthaline soon evapo- 
rates and exercises no preventive actioji on iu.sect pests or mould after 
a year or so. The linoleum sheet also is liable to buckle upwards at 
times, the specimens being pressed against the Hd of the box and often 
luined in this way. We are therefore no longer recommending this 
paraffin-lined box for general use. 

Storeboxes are usually made in standard sizes (8x6, 10x8, 13x9, 
14x10. 16x11, and 17Jxl2 inches) and 3 mches deep, these measure- 
ments being external dimensions. Small boxes are useful to trans- 
mission of specimens but fur a collection the largest size (17ixl2) is 


preferable, and in any case it will be found most convenient to have 
all the boxes of a uniform size, at least as regards length and breadth. 
As regards depth, the ordinary depth of 3 inches is too shallow to admit 
of placing large or high-set insects on both sides of the box without 
risk of damage and an external depth of four inches is best. A four- 
inch box is not only more economical of space (as three four-inch boxes 
filled on both sides hold as many specimens as six three-mch boxes 
which can only be filled on one side, and also occupy on a shelf only 
the space required by four three-inch boxes) but is also more easily 
placed upright on an almirah shelf as it does not tend to topple over as 
a three-inch box does. 

As regards material, imported store-boxes, as supphed by dealers 
in entomological requisites, have until comparatively recently been 
made of deal, the top and bottom often only glued to the sides, with 
the result that these come unstuck m damp weather. The tops and 
bottoms also crack and split in the dry weather, so that glued deal- 
wood boxes are unsatisfactory under Indian conditions. In any case, 
the tops and bottoms should be screwed onto the sides in addition to 
being glued. 

Locally-made boxes are made of various kinds of wood, of which 
teak is that most frequently used. A well-made box of good, seasoned 
teak should last well, but has the disadvantage of being heavy and is 
-by no means immune from, the top especially, splitting in hot, dry 
weather, with the result that insect pests and mould play havoc with 
the collection during the ensuing Eains. Another disadvantage of 
locally-made boxes is that it is extremely difficult to secure exact 
standardization in size, with the result, if the boxes arc kept in racks, 
that eome boxes will be found not to fit in properly. 

Three-ply store-boxes, i.e., boxes whose tops and bottoms are made 
of a " three-ply " wood, such as " Venesta " boarding, and whose sides 
are usually made of deal, have come into use of late years and our experi- 
ence of them has shown that they are thoroughly satisfactory in use. 
A box of this pattern, 17| x 12 x 4 inches, holds a large number of insects 
whilst being sufficiently light for easy handling. The tops and bottoms 
should be screwed on and the whole of the outside varnished. The 
inside is fitted with a large cell for naphthaline and the top and bottom 
lined with sheet cork covered with white paper. 

The first requirement of a good store-box is that it must remain 
tight, without cracking or shrinking under any climatic conditions 
in India, and this requirement has only been fulfillecl so far in the case 
of three-ply boxes. We have had no experience of metal boxes in 


Small label-holders, made of thin sheet brass, may be attached to 
the front of the box to hold card labels to indicate the contents of each 
box. If these labels are rubbed over with paraffin wax, after being 
written on, they are less liable to be eaten by fish-insects. 

Storage. For a collection of any size, some definite system of 
storage is required. At Pusa and most of the Agriciiltm-al Colleges, 
teak-wood boxes, lined with paraffin-wax and naphthaline, have been 
stored in open wooden racks, the boxes sliding on horizontal wooden 
or iron slats. This method has been given a thorough trial at Pusa 
during the last thirteen years and has proved thoroughly defective, 
as : — 

(1) every box is exposed to dust and atmospheric conditions, the 

result being that the tops of the boxes frequently split in ■# 
the hot, dry months of March-May so that there is free 
access to light, insect pests and spores of mould, the last 
especially proving very troublesome during the Rains (June- 
September) when the satiu-ated air penetrates into the 
boxes through such cracks ; 

(2) it is impossible to keep the boxes in an atmosphere impreg- 

nated with naphthaline vapour, so that when all the avail- 
able naphthaline added \vith the paraffin wax has 
evaporated there is no fm-ther protection by this means 
against insect pests and mould ; 

(3) the system of storage in open racks gives very poor economy 

in space, as not more than about twenty boxes can con- 
veniently be kept in one rack. 
Almirahs are preferable to open racks as the store-boxes are kept 
free from dust and it is possible to surround them with an atmosphere 
impregnated with naphthaline vapour, so that, if a box should crack 
or be left improperly shut or spring open (as sometimes happens), its 
contents incur far less risk of damage by insect pests, mould, or light. 
■ If store-boxes four inches in depth are used, they will stand upright 
on shelves quite securely ; but if boxes only three inches in depth are 
used they are unsteady if kept upright and will require thin battens 
to keep them in place. For heavy insects there is some risk of displace- 
ment if the boxes are kept vertical and this is one objection to storage 
in almirahs, but, on the other hand, if the boxes are placed horizontally 
there is a gi'eat deal of waste of space as each box requires to be provided 
with a separate pigeon-hole Boxes of four inches in depth placed 
upright on shelves in almirahs are much preferable to boxes three inches 
in depth kept either vertically or horizontally as far as economy of 
space is concerned. 

I'a.f [Ids. 


PiKjf 909. 

PIATE 161. 

Cabinet drawer with glass partially reitioved, showing naphthaline cell running all 
around the four sides. 


Cabinets (Plate 160) seem to have been little used in India 
hitherto but provide by far the best means of storage for the 
permanent preservation of insects as all the specunens are kept free 
from mould, pests, and light, provided, of course, that the cabinets 
arc thoroughly well made of properly seasoned wood and that 
the drawers are kept supplied with naphthaline, which, however, 
evaporates comparatively slowly under closed conditions. A great 
advantage in cabinets is the very large economy of space yielded 
by their use instead of store-boxes, whether these are kept in racks 
or almirahs, as three or four twenty-drawer cabinets may be placed 
on top of one another, so that eighty drawers (equivalent in storage 
space to one hundred and twenty tlu-ee-inch store-boxes or to 
sixty four-inch boxes) only occupy about the same 
as one rack holding only twenty tlu-ee-inch boxes. 

The most convenient size for a cabinet is one of twenty drawers, 
in two tiers of ten drawers each. It should be made of thoroughly- 
seasoned, best quality mahogany or teak. Inferior woods will warp 
in the dry weather and swell in the rains, with the result that the sides 
may crack and the drawers will stick. Under no circumstances should 
resinous wood, such as cedar or pine, be used, as the resin contained 
in such wood is siu-e to exude sooner or later and condense in little blebs 
on the glass and inside of the drawers and even on the specimens them- 
selves. It is thoroughly bad economy to have any but the very best 
quality of wood and workmanship in a cabinet. It should be provided 
with double wooden doors, to lock in the centre and lined with velvet 
along the hinge-edges to exclude dust. No fancy-work in the top or 
bottom is required if it is intended to stand cabinets one upon another. 

The drawers may be made of any size but a convenient size 
is 18 X 18 X 2i inches externally, giving internal dimensions of about 
10x16 inches of corked space and at least 1| inches fi-om siu-face of 
cork to lower surface of glass. In any case the drawers should be made 
interchangeable, not only in the'r own cabinet, but in all the cabinets 
containing one collection. By this means it is possible to expand and 
rearrange the collection without moving all the specimens. The drawers 
should be fitted with glass frames to drop in and with a space all around 
al)out s inch wide, under the edges of the frame, for naphthaline 
(I'late 161). They should be lined with sheet cork over which 
unglazed white paper is pasted. The cost of a well-made cabinet, 
in the above dimensions, landed in the laboratory, may be put at 
about Rs. 15 per drawer. 

Preservation of LarvcB. Caterpillars may be preserved dry after 
having been " blown." The process is as follows : — Select a well- 


coloured specimen, preferably a day or two after a moult, and kill it 
either in the cyanide bottle, vnih chloroform or other agent or, in the 
case of a non-hairy caterpillar, by dropping it into spirit or boiling water. 
If wet, it is then dried on blotting-paper, on which it is laid. A small 
slit is then cut in the anus with a fine-pointed pair of scissors and the 
contents of the body are carefully squeezed out through the vent with 
the help of a small rounded piece of wood, such as a pencil, which is 
rolled lightly over the body, commencing near the anus and gradually 
working up towards the head. In this way, all the contents of the 
body can be removed, leaving only the empty skin. Care should be 
taken not to press too hard, especially at first, or the skin may burst. 
The skin being emptied of its contents, the point of a fine blow-pipe, 
either of metal or of glass tubing drawn out to a point, is inserted into 
the hole through which the body-contents have been removed and 
the skin is gently inflated either with the mouth or by means of a 
small rubber bulb or bellows attached to the blow-pipe. If the skin 
slips off the blow-pipe it may be secured either with a twist of cotton 
or by means of a piece of watch-spring lashed onto the blow-pipe and 
with its free end pressing against the end of the blow-pipe. The inflated 
skin is then dried moderately rapidly over a piece of wire-gauze placed 
over a spirit lamp. When thoroughly dry, the skin will retain its shape 
without collai^sing and may be removed from the blow-pipe and mounted 
with glue onto an artificial spray of its foodplant or onto a strip of pith 
or a piece of silk-covered wire and then, after labelling, pinned into 
the collection. 

Many caterpillars keep their natiural colours very well under this 
process, but gTeen larvse nearly alwaj's lose all colour. Such may 
either be left as they are or may be painted by hand or a little dry green 
paint may be distributed over the inside of the dried skin. 

Another metJiod, known as " popping," is sometimes used for the 
preservation of small non-hairy caterpillars and possesses the advant- 
ages of simplicity and quickness. The only requisite is a glass-tube 
or piece of tin or anything that will stand heat. The caterpillar is 
killed with chloroform or benzine or in the cyanide bottle and placed 
in the tube which is heated over a flame. The caterpillar will first 
contract and then expand and burst and dry in this expanded state. 
It may be allowed to cool in the tube and can then be removed and 
mounted. As a rough-and-ready method for the preservation of small 
larvse, the process of ■' popping " often gives satisfactory results under 
conditions, such as touring, in which regular inflation is not practicable. 

Dried ynpinned material, such as Coccids, may be kept either in 
envelopes or boxes (according to size) placed in drawers and kept 


supplied with plenty of naphthaline. No general rules can be given 
for the preservation of more biiUcy material such as wasps' nests. In 
any case it is best to keep all such material away from light as far as 
possible and to protect it with naphthaline. 

Spirit material may be kept in tubes or jars according to size, but 
in any case should be properly labelled with full information written 
with pencil or waterproof ink on labels ])laced inside the tubes or jars. 
Labels gummed onto the outside of containers are very apt to drop 
off or become illegible on account of fading or attacks of fish-insects. 
Corked tubes are best kept on their sides if the corks are good, as they 
should be ; if placed upright, the corks are apt to diy and shrink, so 
that the spirit evaporates. Loss of spirit by leakage and evaporation 
is always a trouble in the case of corked tubes and the best method of 
storage is to remove the corks altogether, plug each tube with a wad 
of tissue-paper (iwt cotton-wool), and place the tubes in a jar filled with 
spirit. A layer of cotton-wool should be placed at the bottom of the 
jar to prevent the tubes breaking. By this means all the specimens 
of one species or group may be kept together so that they are readily 
accessible when required, a large label placed inside the jar indicating 
its contents at a glance. By this means also the spoiling of specimens 
by loss of spirit is reduced to a minimum, as it is much easier to see 
when the jars require refilling and less trouble to fill a few jars than 
. many separate tubes. It is as well to go over the jars at regular intervals 
to see whether any renewal of .spirit is required. For a working collec- 
tion, it is impracticable to seal up specimens hermetically, and there 
will always be some loss of spirit even in the best-fitting jars. Tops 
that fit very well are apt to stick especially if the jars have not been 
opened for some time ; to obviate this and reduce evaporation of spirit 
in the case of less well-fitting jars, a little thick vaseline may be smeared 
around the edge of the cover. All spirit specimens should be kept 
in dark almirahs and not be exposed to light. 

Transmission of Specimens. 

A paper on collecting and preserving insects would not be complete 
without a few words regarding the transmission of- insect specimens, 
as every collector, especially in a country such as India, is sure at some 
time to recjuire to send specimens away for identification, and it is 
extremely annoying and unsatisfactory to find that cherished speci- 
mens, possibly unique and irreplaceable, have been destroyed in trans- 
mission. At Pusa we send out hundreds, sometimes thousands, of 
specimens in the course of a year to correspondents in India, Europe, 


America and practically all parts of the World and receive back speci- 
mens after determination by specialists, and rarely suffer loss in trans- 
mission (except owing to the Germans' piracy during the War). But 
it is far otherwise with the specimens we receive from correspondents 
in India. Frequently we receive a box of pinned insects, sent through 
the post wrapped only in a sheet of paper ; the inevitable result being 
that the box of " specimens " on being opened is found to consist of a 
tangled mass of pins, labels, and broken insects. Such a result is due 
solely to gross carelessness or stupidity or both and may be avoided 
by a realization of the jolting to which a parcel of insects is liable when 
going through the post and by adoption of precautions accordingly. 

Pinned specimens should be firmly pinned into postal boxes or small 
store-boxes lined with good cork previously prepared with naphthaline 
solution (in benzine) to prevent mould or insect attack en route. Lumps 
of naphthaline should not be pinned into the corners of the box, whether 
enclosed in muslin or not. A wad of cotton-wool may, however, be 
pinned in one or more corners to catch any stray legs, bodies, etc., 
which may be jarred off the specimens. Large specimens shoidd be 
secured with cross-pins or strips of paper firmly pinned down over 
them. If the bos is sufficiently deep to take specimens pinned into 
both sides (top and bottom), a sheet of thin paper should be placed 
between the two sides, and secured by all four edges of the box when 
it is shut, to isolate any specimens which may become loose. Then 
wTap the box in clean paper and pack it into an outer packing-case 
with at least two inches of good resilient packing all around between 
the insect-box and the outer packing-case. Tow, balls of crumpled 
paper, or excelsior, all make excellent packing material ; cotton-wool 
may be used for the light packages. Ordinary wood-shavings, cut 
paper or straw should not, be used for packing material, as they are 
not sufficiently resilient. Sprinkle a little powdered naphthaline onto 
the packing material as it is filled in, and make siire that there is plenty 
of packing material below and above the specimen box as well as all 
around it. The lid of the packing-case should be screwed down and 
not nailed, as nailing down is apt to jar the specimens and a nailed lid 
is also more liable to be damaged in opening the box. When any 
quantity of specimens are to be sent away, it is as well to have packing- 
boxes made specially of light wood. Bomhax wood makes very good 
packing cases which are light and yet sufficiently strong to stand the 
postal journey to Europe and back. In sending insects abroad for 
identification, it is as well to declare them as " of no commercial value " 
on the Customs Declaration form ; if they get broken or lost on the 
way, no compensation from the Post Office will replace them whilst. 


if you declare their value at a fancy figure, your correspondent (in some 
80-caIled civilized countries at least) will be called on to pay Customs 
Duty on tliem at a corresjjondingly inflated rate. 

With unpinned, dry tnalerial the main object is to j^revent rattling 
about in transit. Do not send specimens loose in a tube ; pack them 
sufficiently tightly with a wad of tissue-paper, not cotton-wool. Butter- 
flies and similar specimens in paper envelopes should not be allowed 
to rattle about. Pack in a light but sufficiently strong box and, if it 
is not quite full, fill it up with tissue-paper or balls of crumpled pajjer, 
adding a little powdered naphthaline. 

Sfirit material is best sent in tubes fitted with good corks. Speci- 
mens must not be sent loose in a tube. Place a wad of tissue-paper 
at the bottom of the tube, then fill in the specimens, then another wad 
of tissue-paper pressed gently against the specimens to prevent their 
moving and then, if necessary, more tissue-paper up to the cork. Do 
not use cotton-wool inside the tubes, as the specimens get entangled 
in the fibres. See the tube is filled with spirit and that the cork is tight. 
If the cork tends to come out, place a piece of thin string in the tube, 
then ram home the cork and withdraw the string. If the tube cracks 
or the spirit leaks out en route, the moistened wads of tissue-paper will 
help to keep the specimens in condition until their jomney's end. See 
that each tube contains its proper label. Wrap each tube separately 
in paper and then in a v.rapping of tow or wool and pack in a stout 
wooden box with plenty of packing around each tube and an extra 
cjuantity lining the bottom, sides, and top of the box. As in the case of 
pinned specimens, it is best to use screw-down lids to the packing boxes. 

Living material should be sent as a lule in light wooden boxes^not 
in tight tins or boxes jmnched with large holes, as insects are usually 
asphyxiated in air-tight tins and living insects often escape if holes are 
provided for this purpose. 

Eggs of insects may be sent wrapped in tissue-paper or thin muslin 
placed in small boxes or a piece of bamboo so that they will not rattle 
about or be exposed to pressure in the post. 

Larvae are generally best sent in wooden boxes. Caterpillars may 
be packed with dry leaves, as wet leaves placed with them usually 
ferment and they are often killed by the conditions so resulting. If 
food for the caterpillars is to be sent, it should be sent separately and 
might be wrapped in slightlj- damped muslin and sent in an airy wooden 

Subtenanean larvae are best sent packed in crumpled paper pressed 
moderately tightly together ; if sent in earth, they are usually crushed 
or asphyxiated. 



Mr. Senior-White. 

Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Senior-White. 
Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Beeson. 

Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. SeEior-White. 

PupsD should be wrapped carefully in tissue-paper or cotton-wool 
and packed carefully in cotton-wool. 

Finally, the great art of successfid transmission of insect specimens 
by post is to use plenty of good packing material. It is far better to 
pay a little extra in po.stage and make sure that plenty of packing 
material surrounds the insects sent than to skimp the packing and find 
that the specimens have arrived broken to pieces on account of defec- 
tive packing. 

May I say a few words as regards labelhng insects ? I put down 
details of each specimen on a card and on the label I have only a number 
referring to this card. 

That means that your specimens are incomplete in themselves and 
if you send them out it is very difficult to know what the data are. 

You could make out a list and send it with the specimens. 

That is not an easy matter when you have to send out thousands 
of specimens as we do. 

A card index is certainly a valuable accessory. You really require 
a clerk to deal with the writing work in the case of a large collection. 

Do you prefer cork for lining the boxes ? We use pith and it answers 
very well with us. 

I think that cork is better to work with and more permanent. I 
certainly prefer cork for cabinets. 

I use asbestos sheets, but these are too hard to take ordinary pins. 




By Dr. E. H. Hankin, M.'A., Sc.D., Chemical Examiner to Govern- 
ment, Agra. 

The ordinary method of preserving butterflies is not without its 
disadvantages from the point of view of the ordinary collector. In 
a cork-Uned store-box about a quarter of an inch of vertical space is 
occupied by the butterfly and nearly two inches of vertical space by 
its pin. 

My attempts at an improvement on an ordinary store-box have led 
t o a method which may perhaps be of use in special cases. Each butter- 
fly is movmted in an air-tight box having a glass top and bottom. The 
sides of the box are made of a strij) of benl^fc electroplated. I submit 
specimens of butterflies mounted in this way [exhibited]. 

I have used three sizes of boxes. The largest takes ordinary quarter- 
plates as used in photography. The next size is fitted with these plates 



cut in two and the smallest size has these plates cut in four. The advant- 
ages of using jDhotographic quarter-plates is that the glass is of very 
good quality and is practically a waste product. The tin frame is made 
of such a size that the distance between the two plates is sufficient to 
accommodate the legs and body of the insect. 

The butterfly is attached to one of the glasses by a cement made 
of four parts of resin and one of beeswax. The glasses are attached 
to the frame by a cement containing four parts of resin, four parts 
of sealing-wax and one part of beeswax. The constituents are melted 
together and sufficient lamp-black is stirred in to give it a black colour- 
if black sealing-wax is not available. 

In mounting the butterfly, the glass to which it is to be attached 
is first fixed in position in the frame. Marks are made on the outside 
of the glass with a grease-pencil to indicate points to which the adhesive' 
composition is to be applied. The composition is melted over a flame 
and small drops of it are put on at the points indicated by means of a 
thin pointed glass rod. The butterfly is set on a flat piece of cork upper 
side downwards. A pin may be used to attach it in position while the 
wings are being set but must be removed as soon as this is done. It 
is advisable to allow the set butterfly to dry in the presence of carbide 
which is a most efficient desiccating agent. When thoroughly dry 
the butterfly is removed from the sheet of cork and placed with its 
back upwards over the mouth of a bottle of suitable size. The glass 
in the frame is warmed so that the spots of composition are properly 
melted. It is then lowered into position over the butterfly until the 
latter adheres. The frame is then laid on the table and some of the 
black composition is placed along the ledge on which the second glass 
is to rest. It is warmed with the help of a Bunsen burner and the glass 
is dropped into position. It is advisable to cool the edges of the frame 
rapidly with the help of water so that the composition sets before the 
air in the box has had time to cool. Otherwise the cooling of the air 
may result in a decrease of pressure and air from the outside may be 
drawn in through the layer of composition under the edge of the glass 
and the box may not be airtight. 

It is not difficult to mount the butterfly in an atmosphere of carbonic- 
acid gas in these boxes. To do this I made a glass-walled box whose 
bottom was a little larger than the frame of my container. Carbonic 
acid gas was led into this from a tube provided at the bottom and 
replaced the air by displacement. The box containing the butterfly 
was lowered into the glass case. Gas was allowed to enter during a 
few minutes. The glass lid was then lowered into position. For this 

VOL. Ill L 

\>7G rn()(KED[xi;s of the Tiiinu entdmolouical meeting 

purpose it was attached to the end of a rod by m^ans of a piece of p'asti- 
cine. The composition on the edge had previously been put into place 
and heated. It remains adhesive sufficiently long for the glass firmly to 
adhere to it. 

The great objection to this method is that it is expensive. It is 
not every tinsmith who has sufficient skill to make the frames. If 
they were made of aluminium they might be produced cheaply and 
would not need electroplating. Such frames might be of use for preserv- 
ing specimens of other insects than butterflies or for seeds or other 
natural history specimens. Mounting the insect in the box takes up 
so much time that the method could scarcely be suitable for ordinary 
nniseum purpo&'es. But it might be useful in special cases in which 
it was desired to preserve the original colours. The method has the 
advantage that the heads, abdomens, etc., can be cemented either to 
'the glass or to each other and hence are not likely to come loose. 

I have here some specimens of butterflies, mounted in this way, 
which Dr. Hankin has sent for exhibition in illustration of his paper. 
In an accompanying letter he says : — " Some time ago I met an alumi- 
nium manufacturer and showed him these boxes. He told me he would 
be ready to consider the question of making them in quantity if there 
was any prospect of a demand. I. should be glad to hear what entomo- 
logists say on that point. Some sent up to Simla were rapidly sold 
for charitable purposes." It seems to me that, whilst such boxes might 
find a small sale as curiosities, such a method of preservation would be 
cpite unsuitable for an entomological collection on account of the time 
taken in preparation and the inaccessibility and difficulty of storing 
the specimens themselves. If kept in a damp climate the specimens 
would be sure to go mouldy sooner or hiter. 

Bij David Sharp, M.A., F.R.S. 
Many who have a taste for entomology begin collecting with enthu- 
siasm, but after a time diminish their eft'orts or even altogether abandon, 
them. There are numerous reasons that account for this fact, but 
as this brief communication is of a practical rather than of a philoso- 
phical nature, I need allude to but one of them, and that is a belief that 
collections are more advanced and nearer completion than the other 
branches of entomology are. This I believe to be a great error. Those 
who have inspected a large collection of insects- and have recognized 
its great extent may be pardoned for entertaining the idea that 


collections are large euo\igh ; altlioiigh really, in comparison with the 
condition of Nature they are intended to exemplify and to make uu 
understand, tliey are painfiilly incomplete. 

The great Sociologist Herbert Spencer held that it was amongst 
the very first duties of a civiHzed community to make itself thoroughly 
ac(iuainted with the environment among which it lives. 

Alas, to think how very far we are from this. There is not a single 
square mile of the earth's surface of which we know thoroughly the 
fauna and flora. Hence the number of existing forms with whicli we 
are totally unacquainted is very great, and I feel that I need not insist 
on this for I believe all entomologists will admit it. I think I may 
say with probable truth that not more than one-fourth of the insects 
existing iu India are represented in any collection, or even in all collec- 
tions if they could be united or brought together as one. 

But to get together a collection of all the insects of a limited region 
is merely to lay one of the foundation-stones of the science of entomo- 
logy in that region. For we have not only to recognize that the creatures 
exist, but also to become acquainted with their variation, their distri- 
bution and their habits : to study the anatomy and the development 
of each species, and (as many at least among us recognize) their evolu- 
tion, i.e., the relation of their generations. And what a huge number 
of specimens is required for all these purposes, of this huge number of 
kinds that we believe to be in existence. 

I Say then, do not discontinue collecting but go on with it with the 
greater knowledge and discretion that your experience may suggest. 

I urge this because entomology is the science of many generations. 
In a hundred years (I might say a thousand with almost equal truth) 
entomology will still be in a rudimentary state ; but in that period 
many of the iSpecieS of animals now existing will have become extinct. 
This constant extinction of other animals by the extension of civiHza- 
tion is one of the saddest facts that the naturalist is forced to recognize, 
and we should at least endeavour to preserve some record of them for 
the instruction of posterity. It is frequently said nowadays that 
posterity can take care of itself, but it cannot do so in the matter of a 
knowledge c)f the animals that we have caused to cease to exist. 

I trast these few considerations, which must be famihar to many 
if not to all of you, may tend to promote the habit and art of collect- 
ing. This period ought in the history of entomology to be marked as 
the age of collections. 

These very imperfect remarks on an important subject should 
naturally be followed by others on the preservation and distribution 
of the specimens collected. But this would take me too far for a Meeting 


978 I'RncFF.nixi^s uv 'iHi'; Tniun extomui.oc^jcai. iieetixc; 

of this kind, and I can merely add that in my opinion the advancement 
of collections shonld be attained b\' international combination. For 
want of this the extremely limited resonrces of entomology are much 
wasted, and the admirable enthusiasm of collectors is Smothered if not 
entirely extinguished. 

Fletcher, Dr. Sharp is familiar to all of you as the author of the two volumes 

on Insects in the Cambridge Natural History, to mention only one 
work with which you are all familiar. He is absolutely correct in 
drawing our attention tfi the vast amount of work still to be done in 
collecting and studying insects and we are all much obliged to him for 
his kindness in sending us this paper. 


B)j T. Bainbrigoe Fletcher, R.N., F.L..S., F.E.S.. F.Z.S.. Imperial 

(Plate mi.) 
The Geometrid larva shown in the accompanying photographs and 
coloured sketch* was found by me at Shillong on 29th June 1918 feeding 
on a small plant of HeplaplemiDii Injpoleiicinn (Araliacese). 

As you will see from the figiures, it provided a very good imitation 
of a small piece of dead stick covered witli a thick growth of green moss. 
It was in the evening when I found it and I did not examine it very 
closely at the time, but supposed it was probably an " Emerald "" cater- 
])illar which had applied pieces of moss to its back, in the same way 
as is done with lichen in the case of another small Geometrid larva 
which is very common at Shillong. On examining the larva next 
morning, however, I was surprised to find that the supposed fragments 
of moss were really outgrowths from the skin itself. As you will see 
from the figures, the resemblance to moss was exact both in shape and 
colour, the detailed exactitude of the protective resemblance in this 
caterpillar being verj' striking. 

The larva fed on Heplnptleunim leaves, usually remaining motionless 
by day, and ultimately pupated on r2th July. The pupa is shown in 
the coloured sketch. It was brought to Pusa when I retmuied there 
at the end of July but the journey and change of climate proved too 
much for it and it failed to emerge. It is therefore not possible to say 
defimtely what species this caterpillar belonged to. until further examples 

* Not reproducetl. 

Pnq- r;- 

PLATE 162. 

Fig. 1 . -Geometrid larva on l[rpf<ij>liiirinii at Shiilong. 

Fig. 2. Geometrid larva on ITt ptn/i/rininn at Shiilong. 

rKOCEEDIXGS OF THE TmUU E.\T(IM( i|,(u;i(Al, MEETi.Nll 97'J 

may be found and reared out. The caterpillar, however, does not 
seem common and fm-ther repeated search for other examples failed 
to discover any. 


B/j T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S., Imperial 

(t'late 163.) 

The genus Epipyrops, with type anamahK was first described by 
Westwood in Trans. Entom. Soc. London. 1870, p. 522, tab. 7, from 
examples reared at Hongkong by J. C. Bowring from larvte found upon 
Fulgora candelaria. In the Transactions for 1877, pp. 434-435, Profes- 
sor Westwood mentions an Epipyrops larva found by Lieut-Colonel 
Godwin- Austen on the body of a species of Aphcena (Fidgorids) in the 
Dillrang Valley, and also figures (Tab. X, C.) another larva found upon 
Eiirybrarhys spinosa, presumably somewhere in Madras, as the specimen 
belonged to the Madras Museum. It is, however, no longer in existence 
there, as Dr. Henderson informs me. Nevertheless, these records are 
of interest as indicating that species of Epipyrops had been observed 
to occur in India more than forty years ago, although apparently the 
moths were never reared from the larva;. 

Epipyropidee, however, are by no means confined to the Oriental 
Region. In 1883 G. C. Champion noted (Proc. Eni. Soc. London, 1883, 
p. xx) that he had often observed larvte attached to some of the 
smaller Fulgoridas in Central America, but apparently in this case 
also no moths were bred out. In 1902 H. G. Dyar described {Proc. 
Ent. Soc. Wash., V. 43-45) Epipyrops harheiiana reared from a larva 
attached to a Fulgorid in New Mexico, and two years later W. J. Holland 
recorded {Entl. News. XV 344-345) this same species from Texas on 
another species of Fulgorid. Finally, in 1905 R. C. L. Perkins described 
(Hmcaii Sugar Planters' Assocn., Entl. Ball. No. 1, pt. 2. pp. 75-84, 
figs. ) three new genera and seven new species of Epipyropidse 
from Fulgorids, Jassids and Delphacids in Queensland and New South 

The first definitely described .species of Epipyrops recorded from 
the Indian Region was E. poliographa, from Mankulam and Yatiyantota 
in Ceylon, described by Sir George Hampson in the Bombay Natural 
History Society's Journal in 1910. In the following year I took a single 
specimen, apparently belonging to an undeScribed species, a^ light at 


Hoshaugabad in September. In October 1914 P. Susainatlian bred 
several examples from Eitryhrachys toinentosa at Coimbatore. In 
November 1915 I foimd larva\ probably of E. foliogmpha. on the same 
insect at PoUibetta in South Coorg, and in December 1917 numerous 
larvae of E. eunjh-achjdis, again on E. tomeniosa, at Coimbatore. Epipy- 
ropids are therefore \sddely distributed in the Indian Region. l>eing 
known to occur in Ceylon. Coorg, Coimbatore, Hoshangabad and the 
Dilrang Valley. At our last Meeting Mr. Kunhi Kannan also exhibited 
some sj^ecimens found on Idiocenis at Bangalore, but I have not had 
an opportunity of examining these. It is probable therefore that search 
on Fulgorids and other Homoptera in India would reveal a large number 
of species of this interesting grouji of moths. 

The systematic position of Eprpyrops has been a matter of doubt. 
Westwood placed the genus in Arctiadae, from which it is excluded 
by the neuration, 8 of hindwing being free from base and not coincident 
at all with upper margin of cell. Sir George Hampson, as recently as 
1910, has placed Epipyrops in Limacodidse. but the reason for this is 
not evident, as the hindwing has not vein 8 anastomosing with the 
cell as is required for Limacodida? by his table in Cat. Lep. Phal. (Vol. 
I, p. 19). S. B. Fracker, in his classification of lepidopterous larvae 
(Illinoids Biol. Monogr. II p. 96 (191-5)) includes Epipyrops as a distinct 
family Epijiyropidse under the suiierfamily Zyga^noidea between the 
American families Pyromorj)hida^ and Megalopygida? and together 
with the Cochlidiadae (Limacodidae). Perkins in 1905 had already 
considered that these insects should form a distinct family most nearly 
related to Fiunea and Talwporia of the Tineida? and to the Psychid^ 
of the Ps_ychina. It seems best to retain them as a distinct 

The known genera may be tabulated as follows : — 

fCell of hind wing emitting only i veins (4 absent), 7 free 

J to base ......... Palcenpsi/che. 

I Cell of hind wing emitting 5 veins (4 present), 7 absent . 2 

I Cell of hind wing eniitting 6 veins (4 and 7 present) . Ejiipi/roj)!. 

e, ( Fw. with 7 out of 8 jiear apex ..... Agamopsi/che. 
L Fw. with 7 and 8 basally approximated i>nt distinct . Heteropsyrhe. 

Of these, all )jut Epipyrops are only known from the Australian 
Region as yet. 

Turning to the Indian species, we have at least three. E. poliogiapha, 
Hmpsn., E. eurybrachydis, n. sp., and a third undescribed species from 

r'lt/r nsi. 

PLATE 163, 

Fig. 1.~Neuration of Fpipi/iojis iinjthrnchjtiHs, 

Fig. 2. Egg of i:/>i/)!/ii,jtn jio/io- 
ilitipliii, Hmps. I magnified I. 

Fig. 3. — ICjiijii/riijis rini/hi'iic/ii/flis. 
<i. larval leg (right leg of first pair; 
( 35) ; h. arrangement of crochets 
on larval proleg ( , 75). 


Epvpyrops poliogiapha, Hmpsn. 
In the Jouniid of the Bombay Natttral History Society, Vol. XX, p. 109 
(June 1910) Sir George Hanipsoi\ described Epipijrops poliographa, 
as follows : — 

'■ Female.- Head, thorax and abdomen very dark olive-brown mixed 
with grey. Forewing very dark olive-brown thickly and 
evenly reticulated with indistinct silvery-grey markings. 
Hindwing uniform very dark olive-brown. 

Habitat. Ceyion ; Mankulam (iMackwdod), Yati}-antota (Green). 

Exp. 16-26 mill. 

Type in B. M." 

This species is also figured on Plate F, figure 12, of the same volume 
(opposite p. 1047). 

The description is short and unsatisfactory and it is unfortunate 
that Hampson's species was described from females and the great 
difference in wing-expanse possibly indicates that more than one species 
is included under name of iwliographa, but the description and figure 
given seem to refer best to specimens bred by me from larvae found on 
Eurybrachys tomentosa at Pollibetta, in South Coorg, in November 
1915, and I conclude that these sjiecimens are E. poliognipha, Ilmi^sn. 

Epipyrops ei'.rybi'icliydis, n. sp. 

Mule. Expanse 11-12-5 mm. Antenna witli twelve to fourteen 
branches, pectinations whitish, shaft and branches streaked with 
pale brown. Head and thorax greyish-fuscous. Abdomen short and 
rather stout, not exceeding hindwing, dark fuscous narrowly ringed 
with greyish at apices of segments, anal tuft pale greyish; underside 
of abdomen whitish. Legs brownish, irrorated with whitish. 

Forewing broadly triangular, apex moderately acute, tornus slightly 
rounded, violet grey-brown thickly suffused on basal two-thirds of wing 
with dark olive-brown, which tends to form a recurved fascia from 
costa to lower edge of cell at f ; a narrow indistinct antemarginal olive 
brown fascia from costa to near dorsum. (In other specimens the 
markings are more obscure and the wing may be described as dark 
olive-brown irregularly sprinlvled with greyish scales tending to form 
indistinct transverse markings, especially towards termen, and spots 
along the costal region). Cilia white, brown at apex and brownish 
around tornus. 

Hindwing fusfous, irrorated with whitish on costal area. Cilia white 
sometimes brownish around apex and tornus. 


Female. Expanse 14-1'J mm. .Much as in male, but in the forewing 
there is a greater tendency to form irregular undulating transverse 
lines in outer half of wing. Cilia brown intermixed with a few greyish 
scales. Sometimes there are two or three irregular pale-yellowish 
blotches slightly before f in lower portion of disc below cell tending 
to form a short oblique undulating line. 

Hindwiug uniform fuscous-brown, paler than m male. Cilia brown 
intermixed with a few greyish scales ; dorsal cilia sometimes whitish. 

The neuration is shown in the figures. (Plate 163. fig. 1.) 

The full-grown larva of E. eurijhrachydis has a strong posteriorly 
curved claw on the extremity of each thoracic leg (figure 3a). 
The abdominal prolegs with crochets arranged in a single row forming 
a complete circle, but the posterior crochets are much longer and stouter 
than the anterior ones (figure 36). The anal prolegs have apparently 
a single row of crochets on the anterior edge only. 

The pupa emerges from a horizontal .slit in the cocoon, the anterior 
half, which is more highly chitinized than the posterior, being thrust 
out on emergence. 

Locality. Coimbatore. Larva on Eini/bracJiijs kunnntosn. Fb. I 
am by no means certain whether the Coimbatore material does not 
include two species ; if so, exrybrachydis will be restricted to that with 
more variegated markings and 14 antennal branches in the male. The 
markings are, however, so obscure in all the specimens that it seems 
unsafe to differentiate them only on this. 

I may say that this paper is not intended as a detailed monogi'aph 
on our Indian Epipyropida?. but merely to call attention of Indian 
collectors to the occiu-rence of these little inoths in the hope that, if 
attention is directed to tlipui, further observations may be made on 
their habits and occurrence within the Indian Empire. We do not know 
where the eggs are laid, whether they are actually laid on the host-bug 
or whether they are laid on the plants on which these bugs feed, the 
larvae subsequently crawling onto their hosts ; the latter supposition 
appears the more probable. We do not know exactly what is the larval 
food, whether it feeds on the flocculent waxy excretion of the host or 
whether it actually sucks the juices of the bug. The larval mouth- 
parts are very peculiar, the mandibles being very long and slender, 
and from this it certainly looks as if the larva is truly parasitic and 
sucks the juices of its host. Unfortunately, Eitrybrachys does not 
occur at Pusa. It is, however, common in many parts of India and 
I therefore bring these facts to your notice in order that any of you, 
who have the opportunity, may investigate further. 



Bij T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S., Imjjcrud 

(Plates 164-166.) 

lu liis Annual Adtlress* some years ago a President ot the Entomo- 
logical Society of London remarked (I do not pretend to quote the 
exact words) that one of the most interesting chapters of the great 
book of Nature, coidd we but read it, would be that dealing with the 
various forms of insect life which have disappeared from the World 
without Man having ever been even aware of their very existence. This 
remark applied more particularly to those present-day forms of insect 
life which are being rendered extinct by the advance of civilization in 
almost all regions of the Earth. But how much more true is such a 
remark when applied to the innumerable species of insects which have 
had their existence in the past before such a study as Entomology was 
even adumbrated. Innumerable as seems the number of forms of 
insect life living at the present day, easily outnumbering in species all 
the other terrestrial animals added together, this number is yet but a 
small fraction of those which have lived in the past and become extinct. of these extinct species have passed away without leaving any 
direct trace save in the very rare cases in which they have been preserved 
in a fossil state. 

In Europe and America and other parts of the World thousands 
of species of fossil insects have been found and described, although 
comparatively little attention has been paid to this branch of Ento- 
mology by either entomologists or geologists ; but from India, until 
within the last two or three years, practically no fossil insects had been 
described at all. Indeed, in my book on South Indian Insects. I stated 
(page 18) that no fossil insects appeared to be as yet known from India. 
That statement, however, was not quite accurate, as at the time I was 
unaware of a paper on fossil insects from Nagpur "j- and of a few scattered 
notes in Medlicott and Blanford's Manual of the Geology of India. And 
since then numerous fossil insects from Burmese amber have been des- 
cribed by Professor T. D. A. Cockerell in five papers, J so that quite 

* Pruc. Enl. Sor. London 1887, pp. Ixxiv-lxxv. 

t Notes on some Fossil Insects from Nagpiir, by Andrew Murray (Qrhj. -Joiint. Cleol. 
Soc. XVI (1860), pp. 182-185, t. 10, £f. 66-70). 

; (1) Insects in Burmese Amber; Amer. .Jviini. Science XLII. I:i.")-L'is (Au^. I'JIG). 
(2) Fossil Insects; Ann. Entl. Soc. Amer. X 1-22 (1917). 
(.'!) Arthropods in Burmese Amber; Psyche XXIV 40-45 (April lltlT). 
(4) Insects in Burmese Amber; Ann. Entl. Soc. Amer. X 323-329 (1917). 
(5) Descriptions of Fossil Insects; Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. XXX 79-81 (Mav lUi7). 

984 rKocEEmxGs of the tiiikd entomological weetiX(; 

a small fauna of fossil insects is now known from India. AH these insects 
flourished in Tertiary times, those described from Nagpiir being found 
in the inter-trap]iean beds which are found near the base of the volcanic 
formations, and those described from Burmese amber being found in 
lumps of Burmite which occur in clay beds of Miocene age. 

The inter-trajjpean beds, in which insect remains were found at 
Nagpur by Hislop, are found interstratified with the lower trap rocks 
almost throughout the great trap area, and especially in parts of the 
Central Provuaces, Northern Hyderabad, Berar, and the States north 
of the Narbada Valley. They eonsist of thin bands, rarely more than 
a few feet and often only a few inches in thickness, of chert, limestone, 
shale or clay, which apparently formed the beds of shallow fresh-water 
lakes and which contain fresh-water shells, the bones and teeth of 
animals, and fossil plants. It was amongst the fossil seeds and fruits 
found at Takli, about 2J mil&s west of the old town of Nagpur, that 
the greater part of the ColeojDtera described by Murray were discovered. 

Fossil insects have also been foimd in shaly beds associated with 
limestones and clays at a small village called Kota, on the left bank 
of the Pranhita or AVainganga, about eight miles above its junction 
witli the Godavari. These formations belong to the Upper Gondwana 
groups, which are said * to be newer than the liassic and certainly of 
greater age than the trias. No insects appear to have been described 
definitely from Kota, but in a letter dated 24th July 1857, Hislop 
mentions "j" a Blattid forewing with "deep chestnut brown jjatches, 
now represented by the dark stains," which came from Kota. 

Further undescribed insect remains have been found in the Bombay 
intertrappean beds, which belong to a very different horizon frona that 
to which the intertrappeans of Nagpur and the Narbada Valley must 
be assigned. I As the remains are only fragmentary and are found 
associated with the skeletons of large numbers of frogs, it is probable 
that they represent the excreted food of these animals, as the general 
conditions seem to show that these beds formed part of a shallow marsh. 

No fossil insects appear to have been found in India hitherto in 
lock foimationf< other than those of the Kota-Maleri group and of the 
Nagjmr and Bombay inter- trappean beds, as noted above. It seems 
probable, however, that a search would result in further discoveries of 
insect remains in such formations as the plant beds at Ratuagiri and 
in the Raimahal Hills. 

* Maniinl oj the Geology of India, p. xxxiv. 

t" Steiilu'ii Hislop. Pioneer Missionary and Naturalist in Central India," by G. Smith 
(Loncl.n ; .J. ilurray ; 1888), p. 250. 

t "A Manual of the Geoloav of India," by H. B. Jledlicott .and W. T. Blanford 
(Calcutta ; 1879), p. 320. 


As regards the insects found in Burmese amber, Professor Cockerell 
has stated that " it is evident that the amber was washed into them 
[clay beds of Miocene age] from higher levels, and it is not i'mpossible 
that it is much older." Dr. Noetling's jDaper § about this amber is 
not available in the Pusa Library, but Dr. E. H. Pascoe, of the Geolo- 
gical Survey, kmdly informs me {in lift., 28 May 1917) that the amber 
mines are situated in the Hukong Valley in the extreme north of Burma 
near Maingkhwan (Lat. 26° 15', Long. 96°25' approximately) and that 
nine amber localities are reported in this ireighboiirhood. The amber 
occurs in a blue clay of Tertiary age, which Dr. Noetling is inclined to 
think is Lower Miocene in age. The amber is formd in irregularly distri- 
buted pockets as flatfish pebbles. This evidence of wear and tear, 
however, Dr. Pascoe adds, would not necessarily in his opinion denote 
a much older age for such an easily corroded substance as amber, nor 
does he know of any other evidence of a greater age. 

This Burmese amber, which has been called Burmite by Dr. 0. 
Helm, 1 1 differs from ordinary Baltic amber by the absence of succinic 
acid, the presence of which distinguishes true Baltic amber, which is 
therefore known more precisely as Succinite. There appears to be no 
evidence regarding the trees whose resinous exudations have come ' 
down to us as Burmite. Succinite was a product of coniferous trees 
and the New Zealand kauri gum, which is obtained in a sub-fossil condi- 
tion, is also the product of a conifer (Agathis australis) but the East 
African Copal, which is another recent and sub-fossil resin, is an exuda- 
tion fi'om a leguminous tree. Burmite is usually transparent or semi- 
transparent and bro-miish red or dark-brown in colour, but may be 
ruby-red or yellow. 

Fossil resins have also been found in other localities, such as in the 
lignite beds near Varkalay, twelve or fourteen miles south of Quilou, 
in Travancore, and it is probable that search m such resins would yield 
insect remains. I can merely indicate the possibilities to anyone who 
has opportunity of investigation in such locaUties. 

Turnuig now to the insects which have been actually recorded so 
far in a fossil condition fronr India, the following have been noted :— 

From the Inter-trappean terliaries at Nagpur. 
Thirteen Coleoptera, four Buprestidse, of which one was named 
by Murray as Lomalus hislopi and the other three were left unnamed 
and are doubtfully Buprestids, and nine Curculionidae, of which one 

§ Rec. Oeol. Surv. India, XXVI, p. 31. 

II Rec. Geol. Surv. India, XXVI, pt. 2, pp. 01-64 (1893'' 


was called Merislos hunteri by Miuray, and of the others, which were 
left umiamed, some are doubtfully C'urcidionids. 

From Burmite. 

The Hymeuoptera are represented by a Trigonahjs, two species of 
Bethylida\ and several genera of Evaniadse. Curiously enough, not a 
single Formicid has as yet come to light. 

The Diptera include two Empididte, a Cecidomyiad, a Psychodid, 
and two Mycetophilidae. 

Single species of Trichoptera and P^ocidae are included. 

The Coleoptera include a Ehipiphorid, a Pedilid, an Elaterid, a 
Buprestid, a Deruiestid, Ipidee and others not yet studied. 

The Hemiptera are represented by two genera and four species of 
Henicocephalidse, of which only one has been described as yet, and the 
Homoptera by a Liburnia. 

The Isoptera include a Hoilotennes and a Tentiop.sis, both primitive 

Blattidse are also said to occur commonly, but only young or frag- 
mentary specimens have been noted. 

There is also a Lepismatid, doubtfully referred to Lampropholis, 
but undescribed as yet. 

The following is a bibliographical catalogue of the species actually 
described, showing the origui of each : — 


Triijvnithj.-i pernlus, Ckll., Pioc. Biol. Soc. Wash. XXX p. 79, 

ff. 1. (May 1917) Burmile. 

Apene-sia eUclripliilt. Ckli., Psycho XXIV 44-45 ff. A-E 

(April 1917) Burmite. 

Srhroihniui ? q^iadrideutalu,,,. Ckll., Psyche XX1\' 43-44, 

ff. o A-C (April 1917 ) Do. 

FrotvJaHU-s swinhou, Ckll., Ann. Eat. Soc. Am. X 19 ff. 1 

A-F (March 1917) Burmite. 

Hi/ptiogast rites electrinus, Ckll., Ann. Eut. Soc. Am., X 20, 

ff. 2 (March 1917) Do. 

EJectrocijrtoiiia burmanica, Ckll., Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. X 22, 

ff. .5 (March 1917) Burmite. 

Buniiiteiiipis halleralia, Ckll., Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. X 326, 

ff. 6 (1917) (sine ihscr.) Do. 


]yinnertziujn (yurmilkfi, Ckll.. l\svclie XXI\' 42 ff, T! A-f: 

(April 1917) liiirmitc. 

Trichonniin .'.irr.ihfjti. Ckll, Anil. Ent. Soc. Am. X ff. 4 A-C 

(.Manh HUT) . . . . ' . . . . Bunnik. 

Btirmacrocerri petiohtn, Ckll.. Ann. luit. Soc. Am. X 320-327 

ff. 5 f'-i5; (1017) . Bin-mik. 

Scinra burmilina. Ckll.. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. X 20-21 ff. 3 .4-/; 

(March 1917) Do. 

Odoiilocerirlw ? 
PkcophUhn.^ nebnJosvs, Ckll., Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. X 327, f. 7 

(1917) Burniik. 

PhijUipsocus ? brinksi. Ckll.. Ampr. Jl. Sci. XLII 13G-13S. 

ff. 2 .4-5 3 C'-£» (AugiLst lOlii) ... . Bunnik. 

Merislos hunteri, Murray, Qly., Jouru. CJco., Soc. XVI 1S4, 

t. 10 f. 07 (1800) InUr-lHipyean 

Terliarie-i (Nag- 
Myo/Jiks bvnriticvs. Ckll., Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. X 22. f. G 

[antenna] (March 1917) ...... Burmife. 

Eimjenhin wickhami. Ckll.. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. X 324-32-5. 

ff. 2 A-D (1917) Do. 

Elakr biirr,ntinu.% Ckll., Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. X 325, f. 3 

(1917) Do. 

Acmccodfrri burmitbw, Ckll.. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. X 323. ff. 1 

^-G(I917) ........ Do. 

Lomaius hislopi, Murray, Qly. Jouni. Gcol, Soc. XVI 183, 

t. 10, f. 66 (1860) Inlcr-trappean 

Tcrtlarir.^ {Xag- 
put ). 


Dcnncstcs lari;iU.% Ckll., Psyclic XXIV 43, ff. 4 A-D (April 

1917) . ...... Burmile 


Henicocephnlus fossilis. Ckll., Amer. Jl. Sci. XLII 135-13ti, 

ff. 1 A-C (August 191C) Do 

Liburnia bunnitina, Ckll., Ann. Ent. 8oc. Am. X 329, ff. 8, 9 

(1917) Do 

Tcrmopsis sioinhoei, Ckll., Amcr. Jl. Sci. XLII 138, ff. 4 A-C 

(August 1916) Do. 

Hodolcnncs tristis, Ckll., Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. X 329, f. 10 

[wing! (1917) . . Do. 

Explanation of Plates 164-166. 

1. Trifjonalys pervelus. 

2. Apenesia eleclriphila. A, stigma and adjacent parts ; B, base of antenna ; 0, 

labial palpus ; D, anterior basitarsus ; E, posterior femur. 

3. Scleroderma qriadridentatum. A, prothorax ; B, base of antenna ; C, hind femur. 

4. Protofoenus sivinhoei. A, anterior wing ; B, abdomen ; C, hind leg ; D, head ; 

E, base of antenna ; E, mandibles. 

5. H y pliorjastrites chctrinus. Anterior wing, abdomen, and liiud-leg. 

6. Electrocyrtomaburmnnica. Wing, antenna, and dorsal profile of head and thorax. 

7. Burmiiempis lialteralis. Wing, halter, and hind-leg. 

8. Winnertziola burmilica. A, wing ; B, halter ; C, claws ; D, palpus ; E, basal 

part of antenna ; F, end of antenna ; G, ca,udal appendages. 

9. Trichomyia swinhoei. A, wing ; B, head and thorax ; C, end of abdomen. 

. 10. Burinacrocera peliolala. A, wing ; B, halter ; C, abdomen ; D, tibia ; E, antenna. 

11. Sciara bunnitina. A, wing ; B, palpus ; C, leg ; D, abdomen ; E, end of antenna. 

12. Plecophlebus nebulosiis. Anterior wing. 

13. 14. Psyllijjsocus banisi. A, anterior wing ; B, anterior leg ; C, hind wings of 

both sides ; D, antenna. 

15. Myodites burmiticus. 

16. Eurygenius loickhami. A, entire insect ; B, maxillary palpus ; (_', end of anterior 


17. Eliiter burmilinus. Posterior angle of thorax. 

18. Acmceodtra bnrmiliiia. A. entire insect; B, thoracic puncturation ; C, maxi- 

llary palpus ; D, antenna ; E, elytral sculpture ; F, margin of elytron towards 
apex ; C4, midtUe leg. 

19. Dermestes larvalis. A, hind leg ; B, end of front leg ; C, mandible ; D, hair. 

20. Henicocephalus fossilis. A. anterior tibia, tarsus and claw ; B, antenna : C, 

end of wing. 

21. 22. Liburnia bunnitina. 21, forewing ; 22, fore and hind wing, profile of head 

and hind tibia. 

Page. 988(1). 

PLATE 164. 

(Copied from the figures reternd to in lexl. 

Poff. .%VV(;.'). 

PLATE 165, 

(Copied from the figures referred to in the text,) 

/'((./' l>.S6(o\. 

P»LATE 166. 


iCopied Irom the figures referred to in the text.) 


23. TennopsU swinhoei. A, costapiual part of wing ; B, side view of head ; C, joints 

of apical lialf of antenna. 

24. Hndolennes tristis. Wing. 

[Xdte. — .AH of the foregoing figures liave been copied from tlic papers quoted 

This paper is intended to draw your attention to tlie occurrence Mr. Fletcher, 
in India of insects in a fossilized condition .so that any of you, who have 
an opportunity of so doing, may perhaps be able to procure further 
material. I need hardly point out the extreme 'interest of the study 
of fossil insects, more especially from the point of view of the liglit 
which they throw upon the evolution of insects in the past. I can 
only regret that I have as yet failed entirely to obtain any specimens 
of fossil insects in India and therefore I have no specimens to exhibit 
to you. During a recent visit tp Nagpur, I made a search in the intev- 
trappean limestones but entirely without success so far as insects were 
concerned, although it was in this locality that Hislop obtained numerous 
specimens some sixty years ago. 

The consideration of fossilized specimens of insects leads us 
to consider how insects are being preserved at the present day under 
natural conditions in Such a way that in the course of ages they may, 
under favourable chances, become fossilized. Insects such as those 
now found fossil in amber must have become enclosed in the amber 
whilst this was still soft, presumably whilst it was oozing from the tree 
in the form of a gum. Now, if we examine present-day gums as they 
exude from the tree, we frequently find that this gum contains small 
insects. I have here [exhibited] some pieces of Kadaii {Sterculia wrens) 
gum fi-om the Dohad Hills forests and, if you examine them, you will 
see that they contain small ants of existing species which are normally 
found running about on tree-trunks and which have been caught in 
this gimi whilst it was still liquid, although it has now hardened. Under 
natural conditions in an undisturbed forest, this gum might finally 
get buried in the ground and in the course of ages would become 
fossilized along with the included insects. 

When I was at Minbu in Lower Burma a few years ago I saw some 
of the so-called " mud volcanoes " there. These are small hillocks 
built up of mud by the action of a stream of nnid which flows up from 
underground. This mud is extremely fine and, when fi-eshly exuded, 
insects, even minute gnats, which fall onto it, are caught by the sticky 
surface of the mud. I have here some specimens [exhibited] of insects 
found half-imbedded in this mud and you will see that they have every 
ap])earance of fossil specimens, now that the mud has hardened. If 
this mud were preserved so as to form rock in the course of time it 


would be found to contain numerous beautifully preserved fossil insects 
in due course. It lias occurred to me that possibly some of the remark 
ably well-preserved fossil insects that have been described as fi-om 
supposed fresh- water deposits may have been really entrapped in " mud- 
volcanoes " of this sort. Besides insects, this mud contains leaves, 
seeds, and twigs blown onto it by the wind and also snail-shells. 


Bij T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, R.N., F.L.S., F.E.S., F.Z.S., Imperial 
Entomologist . 
The desirability of the preparation and issue of a complete catalogue 
of Indian insects is self-evident and requires little argument. Every 
serious worker on Indian insects, with whatever group he is occupied, 
continually finds the need for some index to the pubhshed literature, 
which is so scattered that it is extremely difficult for any one worker 
to be sure that he has seen everything or nearly everything that has 
been published even on a small group. Even a worker on such a popular 
group as the butterflies has no accessible guide to the published litera- 
ture on this comparatively small group. " Lepidoptera Indica " is 
out of reach of the ordinary worker on account of its price and both 
de Niceville's and Bingham's books are unfinished and incomplete even 
as regards the published portion, for there is a considerable amount 
of literature which is not quoted either by de Niceville or Bingham or 
has been published since the issue of these two books : and Evan's 
list (B. J. XXI 55.3-584, 969-1008) is httle more than a list of names 
and localities, without references. Even in cases where monographs 
on particular groups have been issued, such as the " Fauna of British 
India '" series, these books are cpiickly rendered very incomplete, as 
the mere fact of their issue often stirs up interest in the groups treated 
of, so that more attention is paid to these groups, the result being that 
a mass of Supplementary published information is soon accumulated. 
Anvone who attempts to compare the " Fauna " vohmies on moths 
with the issued volumes of the " Catalogue of Lepidoptera Phalanse " 
will begin to realize how quickly these " Fauna " volumes have become 
out of date owing to the vast accessions to knowledge since their publi- 
cation. And, if this is so in grouj^s on which " Fauna " volumes have 
been issued, it may be imagined what is the case in other groups. The 
student, for example, of groups such as the Isoptera, the Odonata, or 
the Microlepidoptera, finds no guide to the published information on. 


Ruch groups and Las to compile, as best he can, a bibliograpliica! cata- 
logue on each subject before he is in a position to start work on any 
group. Such a compilation entails a great deal of labour and is only 
possible if there is access to a good entomological library on the subject. 
It may be possible to prepare the skeleton of such a catalogue from the 
" Zoological Eecord," but this publication only deals (for the most 
part, at all events) with new genera and species and catalogues formed 
in this way will be very incomplete as regards such items as localities, 
habits, foodplants and synonjany. More time may thus be spent in 
finding out what has been published on an insect or group of insects 
than can bo given to the study of the insects themselves. And, as 
matters are at present in India, with a number of scattered workers 
in different apjiointments and Departments, every such scattered worker 
has to compile his sources of information as best he can with very 
occasional help in the case of monographs on a comparatively few 
groups, and even in these cases he has to keep his information up to 
date as best he can from the literature issued year by year. If he does 
this it means considerable labour and time, each of these items being 
multiplied by the number of workers ; if he does not do it, it simply 
means that his information is incomplete and, when he requires it, is 
not available. 

I will ask you to consider for a moment what is the present procedure 
with regard to the identification of any Indian Insect, which we capture 
ourselves or which is sent in to us for naming. It may be something 
that we know and can name oS-hand, or it may be something that we 
do not know or are not certain of. In such cases v/e can usually place 
it approximately in a family, or sometimes in a genus or group of species,, 
and compare it with the already named specimens in our collection ; 
if it agrees exactly, it is presumed to be the same ; if it does not agree 
exactly and there is a " Fauna " volume or other monograph on that 
group, we look up the literature and try to run it down. But what 
happens in the large majority of cases, tinder present conditions, when 
we have neither similar identified spiecimens nor available monograjah ? 
The usual thing is that the specimen is regarded as unidentifiable and 
is put away in a box of " unidentified so-and-so's," where it probably 
remains for years until some specialist is found to work on that parti- 
cular group ; and in the meantime any information connected with 
the specimen is valueless in the absence of a definite identification. In 
rare cases,' some of us may have gone over the literature of a group 
and listed the various genera and species with references, so that it is 
possible to look up an unknown insect ; but this is decidedly the excep- 
tion rather than the rule. 


What is required, in my opinion, is a thorough revision and abstract- 
ing of all useful information which has been published to date on all 
Indian Insects, the term " Indian " including the whole of the Indian 
Empire from Baluchistan to Madras and including Burma, Ceylon, 
Andamans and Nicobars, Maldives and Laccadives, and such adjacent 
territories as Kashmir, Bhutan, Tibet and Yunnan, i.e., entomogeo- 
graphical India. This information would best take the form of a 
General Catalogue of Indian Insects, issued in parts which might be 
devoted to groups {e.g., Isoptera, Odonata) or families (e.g., Gelechiadse). 
Once issued this could easily be kept up to date, by the insertion of 
addenda and corrigenda as new information became avaUable, either 
the whole catalogue being kept up to date at one Entomological Institute, 
or different Institutes being responsible for special sections. It 
would probably facUitate matters if this Institute (or Institutes) kept 
their corrected up-to-date catalogue(s) in the form of card catalogues, 
additional information being issued either in the form of annual 
supplements or of revised sections of the General Catalogue as 

What information should such a General Catalogue contain ? The 
ideal catalogue would contain a general sketch and diagnosis of the 
group treated of, with lists of literature and general remarks on distri- 
bution, habits and life-histories ; if the group treated of were an Order, 
it should contain keys to the Families contained in it (if more than one) 
and under each Family there should be a key to the Genera, which 
would follow in systematic order ; under each Genus would be given 
references to the original description and any subsequent redescrip- 
tions, and similarly with synonyms, the type-species of each generic 
name being indicated ; the species contained in each genus would follow 
in systematic order, under each species being quoted the full reference 
to the original description and any subsequent re-descriptions, and 
similarly with synonyms and varietal names, then would follow refer- 
ences to occurrence, life-histories, habits, foodplants or any other relevant 
information, a brief note being given in square brackets after each 
reference regarding the information contained in it ; and m a separate 
column against each species would be given its distribution, the infor- 
mation given under this heading being connected with the references 
under the specific name by small arable numerals, so that it could be 
seen exactly what was the authority for the distribution given. 

With the help of such a Catalogue, the student should be able, by 
means of the keys, to run any unlcnown insect (provided of course, that 
it was a described species) down to a genus and could then compare 
it with the published descriptions of a comparatively few species. Such 


a Catalogue could not be a determinator for all unJcnovsn insects but 
would provide a very ready help in their determination. 

Such is the ideal Catalogue. It remains to be seen how nearly we 
call approach such an ideal. It will be by no means easy as things are 
,at present, for no one of us has the time or knowledge required for the 
production of such a Catalogue. But I venture to think that, if we 
-can enlist the help of specialists who have worked on particular groups 
of Indian insects, and add their help to our own efforts, we can at least 
make a start in such an undertaking. 

A certain amount of work in this direction has already been done 
by myself. 

The Orthoptefa were listed by me in 1912, the list being based on 
Kirby's Catalogue with additions to that date. This list is at Coim- 
batore and a little work would bring it up to date. 

Up-to-date card catalogues of the Blattida?, Dermaptera, Isoptera, 
Odonata, and all Nemoptera (sensn antlquo), prepared by myself, are 
-at Pusa. 

We have also at Pusa a card-catalogue of addenda to the " Fauna " 
volumes on Hymenoptera (also listed by Mr. Ramakrishha Ayyar in the 
Bombaij Journal ; but many of Cameron's names are synonyms and the 
whole requires careful check) aud also lists of other Indian Hymenoptera. 

The Coleoptera have been partly listed recently in Junk's " Cata- 
logus Coleopterorum ' and the parts of "Genera Insectorum " and 
we have a rather incom^ilete card-catalogue of Indian species. The 
Coleoptera form one of the largest and most difHcult groups for the 
preparation of a complete catalogue. 

The Macrolepidoptera have been listed in the " Fauna " volumes 
on moths and the supplementary papers in the Bombay Journal, but 
numerous additional species have been described iij the Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist., Novitatcs Zoological and other publications and some groups 
tave been thoroughly revised {e.g., the Sphingida; by Eothschild and 
Jordan and part of the Noctuidse in the Cat. Lep. Phal.). My own 
copy of the " Fauna " volumes is partly corrected up to date but requires 
a good deal of additions to make it complete. 

The Butterflies have been listed in Lepidoplera Ixdica, but 
numerous additions have been made since then. There should not, 
however, be any great difficulty in making a complete list of these. 

The Microlepidoptera ~have been listed by myself in a catalogue 
corrected up to date. 

The Diptera were listed by myself in 1910 and the card catalogue 
made then is presumably still in the Imperial Pathological Entomo- 

M 2 


legist's Section. I understand tliat Mr. Brimetti is publishing a cata- 
logue of the Nematocera and it should not require a great deal of work 
to complete a general list of Diptera. 

The Khynchota, so fax as dealt with in the " Fauna " volumes, have 
been corrected up to Vol. VI in my copy of the " Fauna " volumes. 
Vol. VII has to be added. 

The Aleyrodidae, Psyllidee, and Coccidse have not been listed. 
It will be seen, therefore, that a good deal of the work has been done 
already, more or less completely, and only requires a little more to be 
done to bring it up to date. 

The Coleoptera compose the most formidable group whose listing 
remains to be done, both because of the large numbers of families, geneia 
and species concerned and because of the extremely scattered literature 
on this Order. 

Most of the other groups can be done, to some extent at least, with 
our present resoiu"ces. 

What I suggest is that we should, as far as possible, invoke the aid 
of specialists in various groups to prepare catalogues of those groups 
not listed already and, as regards other groups, endeavour to list these 
ourselves to the best of our ability. Such a catalogue could take any 
one of the following forms, vi: . — 

Form 1. — A mere list of Indian genera and species without refer- 
ences or localities but with synonyms. 
Form 2. — A list of genera and species with references, localities 

and synonyms. 
Form 3. — A more complete list, as outlined above, with diagnoses- 
of groups, families and genera, citations of generic types, 
and full references with synonyms and localities. 
I give brief examples of these three Forms. Personally I think 
that the third Form is the best and if we are to undertake the work 
of preparing and issuing such a catalogue it would be most sati.sfactory 
to do it really well and to put it in the most useful form. 

Form I. — Pteeophori. 
PleropJiorida' Zell. 
Agdistis, Hb. 

bennetii, Curt. 
Cnannidophorus, Wallngr. 
rhododnctyius, Fb. 

{Extract from R. South's " Etitomologi.'^t" sijiionyrnk List oj British 
Lepidoftera .) 


Form II. — Pterophorid^s:. 
207. Triclioptilus, Wlsghm. 1880. 

UlO.—Paludtim Z. Is. 1841, 8GG ; L. E. VI. 400 ; Stt. . Germ.(s); ; 
Cat. Suppl. 13 ; HS. 19,V p. 382 ; Hein.— Austr. inf ; 
Wck. 810 ; Snell. II, 2, p. 1057 ; Leech lleiv ; Angl ; 
Pteroph t. 18, f. 8; Meyi. 431; Kofrn Bat; Fen; 
Pteroph 122 . . . ' . . . Liv ; Ga!. 

alp ; Cat. 

{Extract from SlavdiiHjer and BchcVs " Catalog der Lepidopteren des 
PalcrarctiseJwn Faanehgchietes.'') 

Form III. — Pterophorid.5. 

Head often with forked scales, forehead smooth or with conical 
horny prominence or tuft of scales, ocelli usually obsolete. Tongue 
developed. Maxillary palpi obsolete. Forewing with 5 remote from 
i, neuration often much degraded, usually cleft into two (rarely three 
or four) segments. Hindwing with 5 remote from 4, 7 remote from 6 ; 
lower surface with a more or less developed double row of dark spine- 
like scales on low-er margin of cell ; wing usually cleft into three seg- 
ments. Cilia containing ramified hair-scales. 

This is one of the two groups of Microlepidoptera covered by the 
popular term " Plume-moths," the wings being cut by longitudinal 
clefts into indistinct segments which in some genera have a feathery 
appearance. On this account the members" of this group are generally 
easy to recognize, but there is one section (the Agdistinoe) in which 
the wings are not cleft, although even here there is some dimiiuition 
of scaling on the areas which are develo])ed into clefts in the other 

The Pterophorida; are easily separated from all other Lepidoptera, 
however, by the series of spine-like scales on the lower surface of tjip 

The family is usually considered as belongiiig to the Pyralidina 
and has some PjTralid affinities, but it is very isolated and it is prcbab'y 
better to treat it as a separate entity. 

Larva rather short, usually with well developed fascicles of hairs 
in the free-living forms, but these are necessarily much reduced in the 
case of internal feeders. As a rule the larvaj seem attached to composit e 
plants, feeding on the flowers and fruits but in a few cases they tunnel 
in stems or fleshy fruits. Pupa usually hairy, attached by the tail by 


means oi a double cremaster ; tliere is occasionally a very slight cocoon 
but generally the pupa is freely exposed. 

Literature. The literature on this group is very scattered but the 
following list contains the principal papers requisite for its study : — 

Key 111 Oencro. 

1. Wings not fissured ....... 2 

Wings fissured ........ 3 

2. Termen of f. w. not falcate ; f. w. 8 and 9 separate . - AgdUlis. 
Termen of f. w. strongly falcate ; f. w. 8 and 9 stalked . Steganodaciyla. 


17. F. w. with 10 out of 7 Pselnoplwrvs. 

V. w. with 10 separate ...... PteropJtoms. 

CosMOCLOSris, Meyr. (ISSO). 

' Cosmodo6^>, Jleyr. T. E. S. 1886. 7(') .... Tyi^e : agluodes-may 


eglaodesma, Meyr., T. E. S. 1886. 12('). B. J. XVII. 134 (1906)(2) Ceylon (dry low 

Fletcher, Spol. Zeylan. VI 32 (1909) [Diacrotrkhali^] ; country)(-) 

Meyr., Gen. Ins. Tteroph. p. 4, tab. f. 1 (1910) [Diacro- ruttalaniC) 

tricha]{^) Solomon 

■ Isds(*) E. 
■ Australia. (') 

To conclude, I consider that it is highly desirable and within the 
bounds of iiracticability to prepare such a general catalogue in order 
to gather together the results of past work and to form a foundation 
for futirre work ; that its preparation shoidd be a matter for combined 
action of the various Institutes interested in Entomology in India : 
and that, if these various Institutes are jjrepared to combine in this 
matter, such a catalogue should be prepared and edited by an inter- 
departmental committee and published by Government. 

With regard to this matter of the preparation of a catalogue, I have 
written to various specialists in different groups and have received 
replies from nearly all of them promising help in their special groups. 
Mr. Bagnall, for example, wTites that he is willing to undertake the 
Thysanoptera, Dr. Cameron the Staphylinida^ Dr. Gravely the Passa- 
lidfe, and so on. llr. Prout wTites as follows : — 

" There is certainly a demand for an up-to-date catalogue of Indian 
Insects and I should like to collaborate so far as limited time and oppor- 
tuuity may render possible. I could at any rate do the sub-families 


(Eno-jhfomina, Hemithcimv and Sterrhinrc {=r. Acidaliinw) and probably 
the Larentiinw. The unwieldy sub-family " Boa/nniinw " I unfor- 
tunately have not yet 6o well in hand, though I have of course hosts 
of notes and references, so that if no one better could be found, I mij^ht 
find myself able to do fairly well with them by the time the list was 

Mr. H. E. Andrewes, who is working on Indian Carabidae, send^ 
quite a useful note on this subject, which I will read to you. He says : — 

" Having quite recently prepared a Catalogue of Oriental Carabidae, 
I mention a few of the considerations which have presented themiiielves 
to me, as a Coleopterist, in the course of that work. 

" (1) My first idea had been to confine myself to species recorded 
from India, Ceylon and Burma, but I soon found that I must abandon 
this scheme, and before long decided to take in the whole of South E ist 
Asia, including Japan in the North, and the entire Malay region in the 
South. The fact is that our knowledge of the fauna of India is at present 
80 -imperfect that species described from China, Indo-China, Siam, and 
Malay Archipelago, etc., are continually reappearing in India, so that 
a catalogue of species recorded at present from India only would give 
quite a false impression, and inevitably lead to the redescription of 
known insects, and a consequent augmentation of the already super- 
abundant synonymy. It would also limit the opportunities for the 
comparison of Indian species with allied forms in adjacent areas, which 
has always seemed to me so great a help to Entomologists. If I 
may slightly modify Kipling f would say " what should they know 
of India, who only India know !"' It fnay surprise some to learn that 
even among ground-beetles (cpiite apart from those inhabiting the 
desert tract from Egypt to Sind), there is at least one species common 
to India and Africa, and C[uite a number are spread over large tracts 
of South East Asia, and the adjacent islands. My first point therefore 
is that, in the present state of our knowledge, a catalogue should aim at 
covering a wide area. 

*' (2) Of existing catalogues of the Coleoptera — all that I am com- 
petent, to say anything about — the only complete one extant is that of 
Geraminger and Harold, commenced in 1868, a monument of painstaking 
labour, which must have proved of inestimable value to Coleopterists 
during the fifty years. During that period, however, the number 
of described species has probably doubled, so that it is now quite out 
of date. Before the war a new World-catalogue was in course of 
preparation under the auspices of the firm of Junk in Berlin, and some 
parts had already appeared in 1914 ; I have, however, no details at 
hand al)out it. 


" 111 1890 E. T. Atkinson published in a supplement to tlie Journal 
of the Asiatic Society of Bengal his catalogue of Oriental CarabidEe, an 
excellent piece of book- work, but necessarily suffering, as such work 
must always do, from his lack of special knowledge of the subject. He 
himself only claims " to give a list of recorded species," and that he 
did very well. 

" My own investigations have shown me (a) what an immense number 
of changes and corrections result from a study of the material to be 
catalogued, (b) How very far short I still am of arriving at anything 
like finality in regard to already existing species. My second point 
is, therefore, the importance of getting a subject catalogued, wherever 
possible, by someone who has studied or is studying it. This I fear is 
to some extent a Counsel of Perfection, but a general interest in Entomo- 
logy seems to be increasing, as its economic importance becomes more 
widely knowTi, and it ought not to be very difficult to induce more of 
those who have the taste for it to make themselves experts in a small 
group rather than remain amateurs in a more extended field. Where 
it is impossible to get a catalogue on these lines, one of the Atkinson 
type is most desirable, and sure of a cordial reception from entomo- 
logical workers. 

" (3) It may be suggested that the existence of the now numerous 
volumes of the " Fauna of India " series render catalogues more or less 
unnecessary. Writmg as a Coleopterist only, I hardly think this view 
will have much weight for another five and twenty — perhaps fifty — 
years, for, although half a dozen volumes on Coleoptera have already 
been published, not a single largo family has yet been completed, and 
catalogues are likely therefore to be as necessary as ever for many years 
to come. On their extreme importance to all workers in entomology 
I need hardly insist, and progress during the coming years should be 
materially increased by any stimulus which can be imparted to this 
branch of the subject." 

This subject has, of course, been considered by the Committee 
appointed to deal with this subject, so I will only now read the following 
report of the Committee on this Cataloguing question : — 

" Report of Committee o)t. Catalogue of Indian Insects. 

" The Committee considers that it is very desirable that a General 
Catalogue of all described Indian insects should be prepared and issued 
and makes the following proposals to this end : — 

(1) That a Standing Committee of the Entomological Meeting be 
appointed, with power to add to their number, to take the 


necessary steps for the preparation of sucli a Catalogue, 
which .should include references not only to descriptions 
but to the natural history (in its widest sense) of the insects 
concerned, and that the Standing Committee should report 
progress to the next Entomological Meeting. 

(2) That the area to bo covered should include the whole area 

included in the " Fauna " volumes with the addition of 
Tibet and Yunnan. 

(3) That the aid of specialists in the various groups of insects be 

invoked to help in this matter, and, where such special 
aid is not available, the Standing Committee shoidd make 
the best arrangements po.ssible in each case. 

(4) That Govermnent be approached with a view to sanctioning 

the preparation and issue of such a Catalogue which might 
be printed at the Government Press and published under 
authority of the Government of India as an interdepart- 
mental publication of the Entomological Meetings." 

I propose a formal Resolution to the effect that the Report of the ]y[f_ Fletcher 
Committee appointed to consider the question of the preparation and Resolulion 3. 
publication of a catalogue of Indian Insects be approved. 

1 beg to second that Kesolutidu. Mr. Ramrao. 

[The Resulution was pat to the Meeting and carried unaiiiiiioiivli/.\ 

The next thing is to appoint a Standing Committee to take action Mr. Fletcher, 
and report progress to the next Meeting. I shall be glad of the names 
of any volunteers who feel that they can assist in this matter. 

I shall be glad to assist. Mr. Beeson. 

I will do what I can to help. Mr. Andrews. 

I should like to see Ceylon represented on the Committee and will Mr. Senior-White, 
gladly assist as far as possible. 

Then the Committee will consist of Messrs. Beeson, Andrews, Senior- Mr. Fletcher. 
White and myself and we will meet together before we separate and 
■discuss details. 


Bij Edward Meyrick, B.A., F.R.S. 
(Plate 1C7.) 
My friend Mr. Fletcher has suggested to me that it might be useful 
if 1 would contribute a few remarks summarizing the present state of 


our knowledge of the Microlfpidoyleni of India, and I sliould be showing 
little gratitude for his generous and valuable help towards their study, 
if I failed to comply with so reasonable a request. 

When in 1905 I commenced a series of papers on the subject in the 
Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, only about 100 species 
had been authentically recorded from the whole of India, and a large 
proportion of these were incorrectly classified or otherwise very inade- 
quately known. The difficulty of collecting and preserving these fragile 
and delicate insects in good condition in the climate and surroundings 
of India is great but not insuperable, as has since been proved by the 
skill and energy of my correspondents, and the backward condition of 
our knowledge was hard to justify, the Indian species being at that time 
less known than those of any other considerable geographical area- 
From Australia I had already classified about 2.500 species, sufficient 
to give a good idea of the character of the fauna, which is a rich one. 
If Burma is included with India, I daresay the probable number of 
si)ecies occurring within these regions may be estimated at 10,000. 
I proceed to indicate how far our acquaintance with these already 

Looking at the subject from a geographical point of ^-iew, it appears 
that even now only a small part of the vast area included has been 
investigated, and that very inadequately. The southern portion of 
the peninsula is the best known ; Mr. Fletcher has sent many species 
from Coimbatore and some from other southern localities ; several 
collectors have visited the Nilgiris ; Mr. L. NeM'come has made consi- 
derab'e collections in Coorg, and Mr. R. Maxwell in Kanara. More- 
over the fauna of this region has much affinity with that of Ceylon. 
from which I have received copious material, and many sjjecies will 
probably prove to be common to both regions. From Pusa representa- 
tive collections have been sent by the Imjierial Entomologist and his 
predecessor, but presumably this locality has not an extensive fauna. 
I obtained a large number of specimens, forming the captures of a 
year, from a native collector in the Khasis ; this man was an expert 
collector, but without scientific knowledge. A few species only have 
been received from other parts of India, including the neighbourhoods 
of Bombay and Calcutta, and certain points in the Himalayas ; and 
Dr. Annandale and Mr. Fletcher have contributed a few from Biumia. 
I cannot acctirately state the number of species, described and unde- 
sr-ribed, which I possess at the present time, but estimate it roughly at 
about 2 300.* 

* The nunibi.-r of descriled species on my list is 2,425. — T. B. F. 


Tins leaves us (conjecturallj-) 8.000 more to be discovered, and the 
question arises, where are they '. In the first place it is obvious that 
they are not equally distributed over the land, but on the contrary 
very unequally. Large stretches of wide plain or cultivated fields 
may probably be little productive, but even these are liable to contain 
many more species than might be supposed j^ossible ; the insects may 
occur in very limited nooks of only a few square yards, they may be 
obtainable only for a few days in the year, only in certain weather or 
at a certain time of day, only by certain means of capture, or only by 
unusually sharp-sighted collectors. Even of experienced Microlepi- 
dopterists only a few can perceive a Keptimla on the wing, and some 
of the ilicroplerygidw, when flying in their favourite conditions of mixed 
simlight and shade, although relatively larger, are almost invisible. 
Limnacia phragmilella is a species of not inconsiderable size (20 mm. 
expanse) ; it was described in 1851 from two wasted English examples, 
having eluded all earlier collectors, and was thought to be of extreme 
rarity ; later a chance discovery was made of the larva, which feeds 
in the seedheads of TypJia, causing the down to hang out in masses 
(which however hardly attract attention, being attributed to natural 
decay), and it was found to be extremely easy to collect and rear ; the 
imago is excessively sluggish, resting on the foodplant, which it closely 
resembles in colour, whilst the Typha, growing in water, is little liable 
to be disturbed. Special search presently showed the insect to be 
common not only in England but in Europe ; I discovered it in North 
Africa, in Australia, and New Zealand, and have obtained it from South 
Africa and North America ; so that it now appears that this supposed 
rare and local species is really one of the commonest and most widely 
distributed of insects ; but it is stili hardly ever taken except by those 
who know how to look for it. This distribution is believed to be quite 
natural, the Typha being a cosmopolitan jilant ; the insect might be 
looked for in India. Even where insects .seem plentiful, it is wise to 
believe that we are passing over as many species as we find. 

The most favourable localities for number and diversity of Micrn- 
lepidoptera are forest-clad ranges, at elevations of from 3,000 to 7.<'tOO 
feet ; these will always repay prolonged and careful collecting. Such 
ranges, if they form isolated blocks, have probably been islands at 
some earlier period, and are likely to possess numerous peculiar specie?. 
The vegetation naturally gives good indications ; if the trees and plants 
are varied and pecidiar, the Microlepidoptcra are sure to be so likewise. 
At the same time it must be remembered that a large number of species 
feed on lichens, dead wood, refuse, fungi, and probably on dead leaves, 
thus making themselves independent of the flora. From mountains 


situated near tlie equator (Mt. Kilimanjaro in East Africa, and the 
Andes of South America) I have received species found at heights of 
13,000 feet, and they probably attain 14,000 feet ; in the Himalayas 
I anticipate they will be found u]y to 12,000 feet at least, but I have none 
yet from anything like this. Coast sand-hills and saltmarshes, carrying 
a i^eculiar vegetation, are usually very productive of interesting species, 
Cjuite different from those of other regions ; these have not yet been 
touched, apparently. 

The larvise of Bli'crolepidoplem are probably almost invariably edible 
(not protected by distastefulness or irritating hairs, as many larger 
Lepidojilera are), and when one considers the multitude of their enemies 
in the active life of a tropical forest, ants (one species of ant alone, 
introduced into the Hawaiian Islands, has exterminated there most 
of the Microlepidoptera in those districts over which it has spread), 
spiders, ichneumons, birds, lizards, and many other insect- eating 
creatures, it seems extraordinary that so many species still maintain 
their existence. Under this violent pressure it is certain that a variety 
of ingenious expedients for concealment and protection will have been 
evolved, offering a succession of interesting riddles to the acute collector. 
Alexander the Great, putting hard questions to the Indian sages, inquired 
which was the most' crafty of animals, and was answered " That which 
has not yet been discovered." Many will be found to be internal feeders 
in flower-heads, seed-vessels, ben-ies, shoots, stems, or roots ; others 
feed underground amongst roots, and these are difficult to find or to 
obtain uninjured, except in sand. Those which feed on dead leaves 
or ground-refuse (often in portable cases of leaf-fragments) are also 
difficult to observe, and have been much neglected. Some have adopted 
the courageous but eft'ective method of sheltering within the nests of 
termites, ants, or spiders, apparentlj^ sometimes tolerated by the owners 
as useful scavengers, and protected by them against external enemies, 
securing at the same time a supply of food and defence against drought 
or rain. An Australian species {Cyclotorna) is at first parasitic on certain 
Homoftera (Jassidcp), to whose bodies the larva adheres ; it then goes 
through a kind of pupal stage in a cocoon, and emerges as a larva of 
quite dift'erent form and colouring, which lives in ants' nests, feeding 
on the ant-larva». and ingratiating itself with the ants by excreting 
an agreeable liquor for their consumption. Some very interesting 
forms feed on scale-insects {Coccidcc), sheltering themselves amongst 
the fragments of their victims. Probably many curious kinds of parasi- 
tism remain to be discovered. 

I will now review the families in order, indicating how our know-, 
ledge of them stands at present. 


The Carfosinidce may be known by the combination of obtuse palpi, 
scaletufts on forcwings, and absence of vein 6 of hindwings ; I have 
ten Indian species, a number which will no doubt be considerably 
increased. The larva? arc believed to feed usually in berries, and should 
be easy to collect ; it would seem however to be a disadvantageous 
habit, as they must be liable to wholesale destruction by b^erry-eating 

The PhaloniaJrr are Tmiriciva which have vein 2 of forcwings rather 
approximated to angle of cell, instead of widely remote as in the following 
f;imilies ; they are principally interesting in India through their absence, 
only three or four species being known. Yet the family is largely 
developed in Europe, especially throughout the Mediterranean region, 
and extends thence all down North and South America : its abrupt 
termination on the frontier of India is a very striking feature. 

The Torlricidce proper are distinguished (not quite absolutely) from 
the Eticosmidw by the absence of the cubital pecten of hairs on hind- 
wings. Over 100 are known already, and they are probably most 
numerous in the Himalayan region, where they will be largely increased. 
The larvse are mostly leaf-rollers, and as they are often not at all parti- 
cular as to foodplant, they are liable to be very destructive pests of 
cultivated trees and slirubs. Owing to their versatility of habit, species 
that have never hitherto been noticed as injurious are capable of 
becoming suddenly dangerous. 

The Evcosmidce are very numerous and diversified in India, which 
is probably the original centre of distribution of the family. I have 
already about 250 forms. The larvse are very miscellaneous in habit, 
some feeding on leaves, others in fruits, stems, or roots. The consi- 
derable genus Lasjieyresia has a strong leaning to the pods of Legumi- 
noser, which offer a large and promising field for larval research. 

The small family Cididanotidce is intermediate in characters between 
the preceding and the Gh/phipterygido' ; it aj^pears to be mainly charac- 
teristic of Ceylon, but there is one species from Assam. 

Coming now to the Tineina, the first four families are marked by 
the sickle-shaped pointed palpi, smooth head, and stalking (or coinci- 
dence) of 7 and 8 of forcwings, and are distinguished from one another 
by the hindwings, which in the GelecMadcp, are trapezoidal with termen 
more or less sinuate, 6 and 7 usually diverging ; in the CEcophoridce 
elongate- ovate or ovate-lanceolate, G and 7 parallel ; in the Cosmop- 
ierygida! lanceolate or linear, 6 and 7 diverging ; and inthe 31e(aclin )idid(B 
are subtrapezoidal, with vein C absent. The pecten on the basal joint 
of antenna is theoretically present, but in the Gelechiada is generally 
absent. The GelccJuadcr, are abundantly developed in India (wliich 


is their place of origin), and I have nearly 700 species ; moreover as 
they are often small, obscurely coloured, retired in habit, and difficult 
to find in the imago state, it is probable that they will be largely increased 
by careful rearing from the larvse. The large genus Geleckia, however, 
so numerous and omnipresent in Europe and North America, stops 
abruptly on the confines of the Indian region, in the same curious manner 
as the Phahniadce. Its place is taken by the more primitive genus 
Brackmia, with its derivative Lecithocera and allies. The larvte mostly 
feed on low plants and shrubs, displaying an interesting variety of 
habit ; few have yet been discovered. 

The Metachandida' are an interesting family Specially characteristic 
of the Mascarene region, of which a few stragglers extend into Africa 
on one side and India on the other. I have about 15 Indian species ; 
the larval habits are unknown. 

The Cosmopterygidw are usually small and slender-winged, and 
readily escape notice, but under a lens are often very attractive ; the 
species of Cosmopteryx, decorated in black, orange, and metallic gold, 
are hardly surpassed for elegance. About 120 species of the family 
have been found. The larval habits are very various, but are usually 
fixed for each genus. The larvne of Cosmopteryx mine blotches in leaves, 
with a preference for Graminece. Other genera feed in shoots, or on 
seeds and dry refuse, or on scale-insects. Much work remains to be 
done in this family, which is often neglected. 

The OecopJwridce are principally represented by the Depressariad 
croup, though the large genus Depressaria itself follows exactly the 
main lines of distribution of Geleckia, and stops short at the border. 
The other three groups of the family are each represented by a few 
species only. Altogether there are about 150 species. Amongst the 
most curious and peculiar are the gigantic forms of Lactistica, which 
are amongst the largest of the Tineina, with extraordinarily elongated 
posterior legs ; and the still larger BinsiUa barrowi, whose pupa imitates 
a snake's head. In several genera of this family the pupa is naked 
and sits erect upon its tail, imitating a leaf or other object. The larvae 
of Pseudodoxia feed in singular long acute cases on lichens ; those of the 
elecant genus Macrobalhra on leaves of Leguminosw, especially Acacia ; 
other genera sometimes on dead leaves, or in decayed wood or bark. 

The Physoptilidce at present consist of a single peculiar species only. 

The Xyloryctidw resemble broad-winged Oecophofidce, but in the 
hindwmgs G and 7 are usually basally approximated or stalked, the 
antennal pecten invariably absent, and in the Stenomid group 7 and 8 
of forewings are separate. They are generally of fair size, and the 


larvse habitually protect themselves with some sort of shelter or tent- 
like covering, which in some Australian forms is developed into a tunnel 
in wood closed by a movable barricade, the larva carrying in leaves 
for food. I have about 70 species, but these insects are often retired 
in habit, and careful search for larvae will reveal unexpected novelties. 

I now include the Onwodidce at this point. These easily recognized 
insects, with the wings divided each into six (or rarely seven) plumes, 
are represented by 14: species, but I anticipate considerable additions 
rom the Himalayan region. 

I pass over the Sesiadw (or Aegeriada), which belong here but are 
commonh' appropriated by the collectors of the larger Lepidoptera 
without aiw justification. 

The Heliozeiidce are at present only known by two species of Antispila, 
small but elegantly marked insects whose larvse mine in vine-leaves 
tutting out cases for pupation ; I have no doubt that Heliozela should 
be fairlv represented, but these very small and obscure-looking moths 
have probably been overlooked. 

The Heliodinidw are narrow- winged insects with smooth heads, no 
antennal pecten, and the curious habit of erecting the posterior legs 
over the back, the tarsal joints of these being always more or less .spinose 
at apex. There are about 60 species. The principal genus is Stathmo- 
jpoda, which will be found very numerous when the larv^ have been 
sufficiently investigated ; these are various and interesting in habit 
with a preference for the pods of Leguminoscc and figs, some being gall- 
producers. The larvae of other genera feed in the fructification of ferns, 
or on scale insects. I recouunend this family for special study. 

The Ghj})hiptenjgid(s are alhed to the preceding but very different 
in appearance, their development having taken place in the direction 
of broader wings instead of narrower ; the antennal pecten is always 
absent. I have about 90 species, but the representation is probably 
very incomplete ; Glyphipteryx in particular, of which the species usually 
frequent Carex or Jitncus in open or swampy places, has probably not 
been sufficiently looked for, as it should not be less numerous than in 
Australia, where it is i^lentiful. Several of the principal genera (Simaelhis, 
huma, Phycodes) are closely associated with the various species 
of Ficus and its allies, and have probably been developed with 
them from the same place of origin. 

The Blastohasidce possess a stigmatium (thickened costal space 
between 11 and 12 of forewings) as in the Hyponomeutidce, veins 6-10 
being characteristically approximated whilst 11 is remote, and a strong 
antennal pecten. For obscurity and similarity they are unsurpassed 


by any Lepidoptera ; but the, males generally offer tangible sexiial 
characters. Hence those who collect these insects should take care 
to obtain good series of both sexes under the same circumstances to 
ensure identification. Only a few species have been definitely ascertained 
so far, for lack of adequate material. The main development of the 
family is in America. The larvae feed on seeds and dry vegetable matter, 
or on scale-insects, and may be of much economic importance. 

The Sojthriilw are represented by about 20 sjiecies of Sci/lhris ; 
collection in open flowery spaces by sweeping-net would probably 
largely increase these, especially perhaps in the Himalayas ; the larvae 
usually feed on low plants. 

The ElacJiistidce are few in number at present, and although these 
small and obscure insects (chiefly grass-feeders) are easily overlooked, 
I think it probable that they are much less numerous here than in 

The Hyponomeutidce have a general resemblance in character to 
the QicophoridcE, but with shorter and simpler palpi, less specialized 
neuration, and are distinguished by the presence of a stigmatium. I 
have about 50 species. The gigantic speckled species of Nosymna, 
the large spotted forms of Atteva and Ethnia, and the gaudy crimson 
and yellow Anticrates would attract attention anywhere. The larvae 
are mostly leaf-feederS, sometimes living gregariously in a web and 
easy to observe ; that of Comocritis feeds on lichens and bark of trees ; 
those of Argyresthia in shoots of trees. 

The Colcophoridfe are narrow-winged insects \isually recognisable 
by the anteimae being held forward in repose. Only about a dozen 
species are to hand at present, but none have yet been bred, and the 
species of this family are notoriously very retired in the perfect state, 
though often obtainable in abundance as larvae. The larvae are case- 
feeders, either mining (from within the case) characteristic small blotches 
in leaves, or often feeding on seedheads and flowers, when the case 
(itself constructed of seed-husks) is hard to detect. I anticipate 
however, that the family is here not very numerous ; it abo\inds in 
Europe, and is common also in Africa and North America. 

The interesting family GracUariadce- contains delicate and elegant 
insects, whose larvae are mostly leaf-miners.. Their peculiar habit 
of resting with the forepart raised and the anterior legs rather widely 
separated and displayed (Plate 167) usually causes them to be easily 
recognisable, and the filiform porrected maxillary palpi are very 
characteristic. I have about 150 species and fresh ones are being 
continually discovered by rearing from the larva?, principally of the 

PLATE 167. 

Resting attitude of a Gracillarisd {Aciocerrops resplcndens.) 


genus Acrocercops, which though cosmopolitan is at its maximum in 

The Epermenimke are everywhere a scanty group, represented by 
a dozen species. The curious Idioglqssa has gilt markings on both fore 
and hindwings, an unexplained eccentricity. The typical forms of 
Epennenia have scale-teeth on dorsum of forewings. The larvse are 
external feeders on leaves, protecting themselves by a slight web. 

The Amphitherida are another small group of narrow-winged insects, 
with long antennae, and the eyes usually curiously divided by a line of 
scales ; I have G Species. 

The PluteUidce nearly resemble the Hyponoineutidw, from which 
they are distinguished by the distinct short porrected maxillary palpi. 
They are an ancient family, not now numerous anywhere, though 
PluteUa macidipennis is the most universally distributed of all the 
Microlepidoptera ; there are about 20 species. The known larvse are 

The LyonetiadcB are typically rough-headed, with folded maxillary 
palpi like the Tmeidce, but advanced forms have suffered much degrada- 
tion, and may have lost these structures ; the distinguishing mark 
of the family is the upturned (or Sometimes down-turned) apex of 
forewing in repose, sometimes very strongly marked and striking, looking 
like a deformity, and the basal joint of the antenna often forms an eyecap. 
I have nearly 100 species. Some of these insects are amongst the smallest 
and most delicately marked of the Lepidoplera, Such as Phyllociiistis, 
which is probably rather numerous, requiring close study ; its larvae 
mine flat blotches in leaves. Oposfega, which is probably also mimerous, 
has the most degraded neuration of all Lepidoplera ; its larvse are 
scarcely known. The larvse of Bucculatrix, although of very small 
size, feed externally on leaves, and have a peculiar ribbed cocoon. The 
earlier genera usually have larvae feeding on dry vegetable matter ; 
those of Opogona are often resident in the nests of Termites. The family 
as a whole is very interesting for study. 

The Tmeidce are an extensive group, with normally rough head 
and often folded maxillary palpi, the neuration well-developed and 
simple, the veins of hindwings usually separate. I have over 200 species, 
but some genera are very obscure and need much more study to discri- 
minate the difJerent forms. The species of Melasina are especially 
difficult, and good Series should be taken, but even then two or three 
species may occur commonly together. The larvse usually feed on 
dead or dry vegetable (or sometimes excremental) matter, fimgi, bark, 
dead leaves, roots, etc., but in other countries are occasionally leaf- 



miners. Some are attached to the nests' of Termites or ants. Not 
infrequently they are case-bearers. 

The AdelidcE may be knowli at once by the very long antennae, only 
parallelled in certain Trichoptera ; their brilliant ornamentation of 
purple, gold, and other metallic hues renders them very attractive. 
Over 20 species are known. The larvae are caSe-bearers, often feeding 
habitually on dead leaves, yet attached to certain plants in their primary 

The NcpticiiKdcB are an ancient group of much interest with quite 
peculiar neuration, rough heads, large eyecajjs, and folded maxillary 
palpi ; they are usually very small, and are naturally difficult of 
observation, but occur all over the world. The larvae are leaf-miners, 
and in hot countries pass very rapidly through all their stages ; hence 
with proper precautions they are not difficult to breed. About 8 species 
are kno^vn so far, but very possibly tliey run into hundreds. Effective 
collections of these tiny creatures can only be made by those who 
specialize in them, disregarding the attractions of larger insects. 

The HepialidcB should be mentioned at this point, but owing to 
their size are usually mistaken for Macrolepidoplera. 

Finally, the Micropterygidw are (like the HepialidcE) distinguished 
from all the preceding by the 12- veined huidwings, and from the Hepia- 
lidce by the folded maxillary palpi. They are at present represented 
by a single specimen (Neopseiistis) from the Khasis, a highly peculiar 
and remarkable insect which argues the existence of other Species, 
probably even more remarkable. Some at least of these should be 
looked for at high elevations in the Hima^.ayas, in spring-time, especially 
in Conifer forests, but actually attached either to catkin-bearing trees 
and shrubs or to mosses, frequenting mingled sunshine and shade ; 
not improbably they might be of Tiichopterous appearance, and might 
be overlooked on this account. These insects are so important and 
interesting from their bearing on the origin of the Lepidoptera that no 
jiains should be spared to di^^cover them. 

The Microlepidoptera in India are probably not less numerous than 
the Macrolepidoptera but have attracted the attention of very few 
collectors, partly on account of their small size and partly (probably 
mostly) because there has been no regular guide to the study of these 
small moths. The descriptions of the species and genera are extremely 
scattered. Many have been described in the Bombay Natural History 
Society's Journal and in Exotic Microlepidoptera, a few in the Indian 
Museum Records and others in scattered publications issued outside 


of India, and these descriptions liave included odd species of various 
families as they came to light. There has been so far no general resume 
of our knowledge of the group as a whole, so that Mr. Meyrick's paper 
will, I hope, be of value to the general lepidopterist in India by givino' 
him at least some idea of the characteristics of the various families. 
In his sketch I note that Mr. Meyrick has omitted the Pterophoridse, 
perhaps by oversight, and I have therefore included a brief account 
of this Family in my note on the proposed catalogue of Indian Insects 
in order to supplement his paper. The student of Indian Microlepi- 
doptera should therefore Ite able now to place his specimens at least 
into their proper families with some certainty. The time for a Fauna 
Volume, or series of Fauna volumes, on the Microlepidoptera has not 
yet come. As you see from Mr. Meyrick's paper, he thinks that we 
know at present only about one quarter of the existing species and I 
agree that his figure of ten thousand species is not below the mark ; 
certainly I find that about forty per cent, of my captures are novelties, 
in whatever part of India they are made. But I hojw that sometime 
we may have at least a small guide to the study of Indian Microlepi- 
doptera, as such a publication could not fail to stimulate interest in 
these small but neglected insects. In their variety of habits and Structure 
and beauty, as also in their economic importance, the Microlepi- 
doptera scarcely yield in importance to the Macrolepidoptera, and 
the elegance of the adult insects themselves in such groups as Cosmop- 
teryx, Acrocercops, Lcucoptera, and Nemotois cannot but forcibly remind 
one that Natura maxime in minimis miranda. At Pusa I have got 
together a tolerably good collection of Indian Microlepidoptera, which 
comprises many of the commoner species and I shall be glad to receive 
material from all parts of India and t-e help in identification of speci- 
mens as far as possible. 

We are all, I am sure, nnich indebted to ilr. Jleyrick fen- sending 
in this interesting and valuable paper. 


.By Captain Froilano de Mello {Instiiulo de Analiscs e Vacciiut, 
(Plates 1(58 — 170.) 
It is with a feeling of jn-ide that I come to this Entomological Con- 
ference to expose before its learned members the results of my researches 
on Indian Trichonymphids. I dare say that my audacity will find 
some just excuses in the hope I have been cherishing that this work 

N 2 


is a kind of iiitroductiou which will contribute to a certain extent to 
fill the gap left in this branch of the, nowadays so important, biological 
literature in India. 

But I feel that the time has come for rectifying what I have just 
now said : the priority of tliese studies in India does not belong to me. 
In 1912 one of oiu" colleagues, who gives us the honour of presiding at 
this Conference, was the first to discover in the rectum of Hodotermes 
viarum from Coimbatore. the existence of a very abundant Trichonymphid 
famia. This distinguished Entomologist, whose preparations I have 
latelj' .studied and to whom I owe so much of learned advice, is Mr. 
Bainbrigge Fletcher. To him my best thanks are due. 

The relations between Trichonymphids and Termites are explained 
by the three following theories : — 

(ff) the first one admits the fact as a mere case of accidental para- 
sitism : 

(b) the second finds in these relations a certain influence on the 

differentiation of the termites castes ; 

(c) the third finds in these conditions a symbiotic relationship in 

which the parasites, forming their own bodies by the con- 
sumption of the wood ingested by the termite, would help 
the nutrition of its host. 

I will quote on this subject the words of Bugnion : — " Reproducing 
daily in prodigious quantities, dying every day by millions, these para- 
sites would be digested and would in this way contribute to the nutrition 
of the termite." 

The most important argument on which the theory of Bugnion is 
founded, is not only that the Trichonymphids are harmless to the 
termite, but that the larvae of Calotermes greeni harbour an abundant 
Trichonymphid fauna during the most part of their life in which they 
feed on wood. It happens however that these larvae cease eating wood 
some days before moulting and the Trichonymphids disajjpear at the 
same time. 

In fact, one can see that the termites kept in captivity and without 
wood for nourishment lose their parasites rapidly. But I cannot induce 
you to believe this pretended conclusion of Bugnion. not only for the 
reason that the death can be explained by want of food, but especially 
because I have studied some species of Odontotermes and Microtermes 
that feed on wood without harboiu-ing Trichonymphid parasites in 
their digestive tract. 

Trichonymphids are not found in all kinds of Termites. Some of 
tliem never contain such parasites : the genus Termes, for example. 


Many species from Nova-Goa, Daman, Pragana, Baroda. and Pusa, 
feeding on wood, are also without Trichonymphids. 

The genera that up to this dat-e have been found to harbour these 
parasites are : Lencotermes in France, Philadelphia, Italy, Portugal and 
Portuguese India ; Calotennes in Italy and Ceylon ; Hodotermes at Coim- 
batore in India (1 have already referred to the slides of Mr. Baiubrigge 
Fletcher) ; Coptotennes in Brazil, Ceylon and Portuguese India ; 
Ghjplolcriiics. Arrhinofeniies and Terniitogelon in Ce3-lon ; Neotermes 
in our island of S. Thome in Africa according to the studies of my 
colleague Carlos Franca, published in the last year, and, I believe, 
Eutermes with their Trichonympluds belonging to the genus Leidonella 
in the Ai'gentine. 

I know that the termites from Chili show also Trichonymphids 
but I am sorry I ^^■as not' able to consult and compare the papers on 
this subject. If you find this work worthy of any interest, I pray you 
will be pleased to overlook its deficiencies. 

What are Trichonymphids ? The common meaning of this word 
does not correspond to the zoological classification. It. is generally 
used sensu lato. Some authors consider the Trichonymphids as belong- 
ing to the Mastigophora and others to the Infusoria. I prefer to call 
them the inulticiliate protozoal parasites of the intestine of white ants. 
You will see that the meaning is merely etymological {Irix, hair ; 
nyinpha, nymph). At the end of this paper I will try to establish a 
classification of true Trichonymphids which. I may already remark, 
belong to the class of Mastigophora and can be easily separated from 
the Infusoria which also are found as parasites of the white ants. 

Since 1860, everyone knows that a curious Trichonymphid, called 
Lophomonas hlattarum, has been described in the intestine of Stylopyga 
orientalis, but I have not yet specially studied the parasites of Indian 
Cockroaches and for the present I will consider Lophomonas hlalturnm 
as an additional species of the group of Trichonymphids. 

And as I have spoken of the Mastigophora and Infusoria, it will not 
be out of place to draw your attention to the fact that transitional 
forms are to be found between these classes, represented in the Infusoria 
by the genus Monomasiix of Roux and in the Mastigophora liy the 
genus Caduceia of Carlos Franca. 

My researches refer specially to the parasites of Leucotermes indicola, 
Wasm., the identification of this termite being due to the kindness oj 
Mr. Bainbrigge FJetcher. The intestine of Leucotermes indicola is full 
of an abundant protozoal fauna to which I can apply the following 


words of Leidy. I cite tliem with due homage to the memory of that 
American Scientist : — 

" The brownish matter proved to be semifluid, but my astonishment 
was great to find it swarming with mjrriads of parasites 
which indeed actually predominated over the real food in 
c^uantity. Repeated examinations showed that all indivi- 
duals harbour the same world of parasites, wonderful in 
nimiber, variety and form."' 
Figures 1-G on Plate 168 show the different forms of Tr. agilis. 
This protozoon is composed of a kind of head, hyaline and in shape like 
the head of a mushroom, a kind of neck consisting of two parts, one 
internal, of the form of an hourglass but with the constriction at the 
level of the imion of its anterior and middle third, and one external 
ectosarc, enveloping and protecting the hourglass-like formation. The 
neck is inserted above in the middle of the head protruding into its 
interior and seems like the neck of an open_bottle, and below it is attached 
to the body by its convexity, this articulation being verj- thin and 
extremely mobile. The third portion is the body, oval, globulous, 
sxisceptible of a very great polymorphism and containing a large nucleus, 
sometimes hyaline, sometimes full of more or less abundant chromatic 
granules, and siuTounded by a very distinct nuclear membrane. The 
constitution of the body is thinly granulous and the endoplasm is full 
of wooden particles, irregularly placed.. 

Tr. agilis is covered with flagella, which are disijosed in three series : 
the first one composed of short and immobile flagella. inserted in the 
ectosarc layer around the neck, the second emerging around the inferior 
articulation of the neck, and formed by long flagella, covering the 
anterior part of the body like a surplice ; the third with the flagella 
shorter than the former, inserted cm the whole body and endowed with 
a limited mobility. 

The flagella. of the second series are extremely mobile and this 
mobility, added to that of the inferior articulation of the neck and to 
the sarcodic contractions of the body, gives the parasite the most 
extraordinary forms and is the cause of its extreme polymorphism. 
The flagella of the third series have been considered by some authors 
as the longest, of a fantastic length. It is an optical mistake against 
which I must protest. At first sight these flagella seem really very 
long, because they are numerous and following one another. Sometimea 
they cross one another and the best places to determine their length 
are the lateral borders of the parasite. 

Should they be so extraordinarily long, they would seem stiU longer 
when the Trichonympha shortens : this is never the case and the 


distance from the ectosarc to the free extremity of the flagella is always 
the same, whatever may be the form of the parasite. 

The movements of Trichonympha are very interesting. It advances 
majestically as if searching its way, moving its anterior portion to the 
right and the left, forwards and backwards and throwing away by 
means of the flagella of the second series all the animated and inanimated 
particles that are to be found in its march and when a stronger obstacle 
is obstructing its way, the protoplasm shows a saxcodic contraction, 
the body becomes narrow and elongated and the animal, changing its 
way, progresses again. 

I will draw your kind attention to figure .5 representing the parasite 
seen on its vertical axis. The four concentric circles are : the first the 
summit of the hourglass-like formation, the second the outline of the 
hyaline head, the third the periphery of the flagellated surpUce, the 
fourth the circumference of the body, more or less irregular. 

I was able to study the division of Trichonympha, these forms being 
ver_y rare in the intestines of Termites kept in captivity. My studies 
confirm the observations of Foa in Italy. As you see, figure G shows 
the division of the homglass-like formation before the nuclear division. 
I have seen all the stages of their division and I can definitely affirm 
that the division commences by the hourglass-like formation which is 
followed by that of the nucleus and body. The hourglass-lUje formation 
is therefore a blepharoplast that at the moment of division assumes the 
function of a centrosome. 

I will now compare my description with those of other authors. 
Plate 168, figures 7-15, represent some figures from Plate 51 of Leidy, 
but only those which correspond to Tr. agilis. You will easily perceive 
that their general configuration is very similar to mine. His description 
however is erroneous and the figures incorrect. Leidy thought that the 
constriction, sometimes found in the body of Trichovympha, divides 
this protozoon into two parts, head and body, and some of his figures 
show a line marking this division. Leidy continues : " a large spherical 
nucleus is constantly to be observed situated centrally at the conjunction 
of the two divisions of Trichonympha as seen in figures 1-10." It is 
umiecessary to prove that Leidy has included in this so-called head 
a part of the body. Secondly Leidy does not describe either the hour- 
glass-like formation, or the head of mushroom and these parts are 
wanting in his figures. He thinks that the anterior portion is acuminate 
" and the base abruptly terminating on the line of conjunction of the 
head and body." Concerning the flagella he described four series : 
the first immediately behind the pointed summit of the " head, are 
the shortest, extend upon sides and wave incessantly." These are the 


flagella of my first aeries, but Leidy was not riglit fi'oin the point of 
view of their mobility. The second series of Leidy comes " from a 
circle behind the former, extend backward and outerward and wave 
like those of the first rank." They are the flagella of my miylice. The 
third series of Leidy starts from the head beneath the former, and spreads 
over the body to its posterior extremity or beyond it to an extent pro- 
portionate with the shortening of the animal. Leidy's fourth series, 
" the longest of all the series springing from the head, fold backward 
in a special direction, clearly envelop the body and extend beyond its 
extremity in a twisted fasciculus with divergent ends." 

The mistakes of Leidy have been copied in the various text-books 
of Protozoology. As you see, the figure given in Ray Lankester's 
book (Plate 168, figure 17), for example, is a reproduction from the 
figure 10 of Leidy's original paper (Plate 168, figure 16). 

The figm-e 18 of my Plate 168 represents the Trichoni/mpha of Clrassi's 
description. He has well described the hourglass-like formation and 
the mushroom-like head, but believes that the first is like the neck of 
a bottle, whose very large but not very distinct base, would be situated 
in the body of TricJionjjnipha. constituting the line of separation of his 
so-called striate and non-striate zones. This base would harbour the 
nucleus of Trichonympha surrounded by some rodlets, forming his 
cestello. I have never seen this cesfello. and it is not true that the Jiour- 
glass-like formation has any connection 'with the body endoplasm, 
unless by its articulation. Finally for Grassi all the flagella, short and 
long, come from the anterior striated zone, wliich is evidently a mistake. 

The description of C. Franca is very much like mine. I must however, 
note the following two points : (1) the distinction that Franca establishes 
in the body protoplasm in prenudear and postnuclear segments, with a 
granular structure in the first and alveolar in the second, I never found 
in my specimens. Moreover, it can be easily seen that this distinction 
cannot take place because the position of the nucleus is very variable. 
Fran^a's series of flagella are tlu-ee, but the first comes from the line of 
conjunction of the two segments, the second (my surplice) from 
the borders of the second segment and the third from the anterior part 
of the third segment. These are the longest for him and envelop the 
whole body. I think .that the mistakes are mostly due to the study 
of these parasites in dry stained preparations. Studying the slides of 
Mi. Bainbrigge Fletcher I have seen that the flagella of the third series 
seem to be the longest. My researches have been done in hanging 
drops and vital coloration. I have examined thousands of Tr. agilis 
and you may safely believe my description. By this I have found out 


tlie mistakes of otliers. But I think that it would be desirable to com- 
mence any new researches on this subject by a study of the parasites 
of the American Leucotermes ftavipes. It is quite possible that under 
the name of Tr. agilis a number of different species or varieties have 
been described and therefore each description might be perfectly correct 
in itself. 

In the remaining figures (19-30) of this Plate you will find the re- 
production of the parasites that Leidy considered as young forms or 
■immature stages of Tr. agilis. Please give this subject your kind atten- 
tion. Excepting perhaps figure 30, which seems to me to constitute 
the Microjoenia hemmitoide-s of Grassi, all the others present an almost 
identical constitution, well pictured in his figure 11 (my figure 19). 
Grassi. Biitschli, Delage rejected the conception of Leidy, and C. Franca 
created in 1914 the genus Leidya for his L. metcknikowi. 

The genus Leidya has the following characteristics : nucleus situated 
in the anterior third of the body of the parasite, flagella inserted on a 
double spiral band, starting from the anterior extremity and crossing 
the body in opposite directions. Keeping these fundamental character- 
istics I was obliged to introduce a small modification, that is to say, 
that the flagella envelop the body in the whole or part of its 

You will easily see in Plate 169, figures 31-40, the reason of this modi- 
fication. Four species of Leidya parasitize the intestine of Leucotermes 
indicola : L. metchnikowi of Franga, and L. annandalei. L. kempi and 
L. campanid-a all of which I have studied. With two of them I associated 
the names of the distinguished zoologists Annandale and Stanley Kemp. 
All these parasites present a vivid progressive movement and their 
anterior part is more mobile ; the first three easily take circular forms 
and all present also an interesting helicoidal movement following the 
direction of their spiral turns. Their anterior flagella are shorter but 
it seems that they have all an identical disposition and there is no place 
to describe the siderophile formation giving insertion to the anterior 
flagella of L. m.etchnikou-i of Franca. In stained preparations one can 
easily distinguish the basal granules giving origin to the flagella'. They 
are situated in the inferior face of the spiral band, excepting on the 
anterior part, which, when it is elongated, changes the situation of 
these granules from inferior to interior. My last three species, and 
specially L. campanula, show a curious contractile movement, beginning 
in the basal insertion of the spira and permitting the elongation of the 
jongitudin^l axis of the parasite. The animal progresses thus in a 
shaky way. 


Yoli can easih' see the differences between these four species. L. 
7)ie(cJinikowi (figures 31-33) with the whole body covered with spiia 
and flagella, L. cmvandalei (figures 34-36) with its posterior glabrous 
part, L. hetrifi (figures 37-38) with a tuft of cilia, in this glabrous part, 
which are immobile and are more easily tinged with vital stains than 
the other flagella, and L. cam-pamda, (figures 39-40) a species I have 
characterized by the constancy of its morphology which remains always 
the same in all stages of life of this protozoon. 

Plate 169 gives place to some interesting remarks. One of the figures 
of Leidy shows some spherical bodies that the American author consi- 
dered to be 1//0MTS of sjiores. He makes also reference to the fact of 
wood particles being sometimes surrounded in the body of Trichonym/pha 
by a hyaline substance, and the protoplasm is in other cases stuffed with 
round hyaline bodies. 

I have tried to study the constitution of the bodies contained in the 
protoplasm of Trichony^nqiha and arrived at these conclusions — 

(1) all the circular bodies found in the endoplnsm of Trichonympha 

are identical with the circular bodies found free in the intes- 
tine of the Termite : 

(2) the circular bodies with an internal substance of more or less 

irregular form are wood particles surrnunded by a kind of 
hyaline secretion ; 

(3) circular bodies with an internal substance more or less nucleiform 

are Termite leucocytes or nuclei of Leidya that I have seen 
being phagocyted on more than one occasion by the Tri- 
clioiiympJia ; 

(4) the circular hyaline bodies resembling fat drops which some- 

times fill the endoplasm of Tn'chonyinpha seem to me to be 

fat drops or divisional masses of the protoplasm of cells and 

f)rotozoa phagocyted by Trichonyiv.fha ; 
(•"i) some of the circular bodies that Leidy considered to be masses 

of spores are alimentary masses, well divided. Others 

. . . . — but I must firstly tell what I have observed. 
Three times only, in more than 100,000 parasites, once in the body 
of a T tichonymjjho . twice in that of Leidya, I have seen small spheres, 
formed by a kind of rolled ujj thread (chromatic ?) and animated by such 
a vertiginous circular movement that their parasitic nature could easily 
be recognised. I saw nothing more than the vermicular staige and the 
sphan-ic stage, following one another and the divisional phenomena 
that are represented in the Plate. The vermicular form pierces the 
body of its host and moves freely in the ground under the microscope. 
I cannot say if this Trichonymfluif. parasite may constitute the evolutive- 


stage of some sporozoou and if what I observed belongs only to the 
sexual (male) element of this sporozoon. But as these elements are so 
discoui-agingly rare, I believe it will not be devoid of interest to call 
the attention of protozoologists to them, creating a new provisional 
genus Enchelyspheroides, whose etymology comprises both the stages 
I have observed. I will be glad if others are more fortunate than 
myself in being able to study the whole evolution of the parasite. I 
must add that these bodies have nothing to do with the trichocysts of 

In protozoological literature I have found only three parasitic genera 
of Protozoa : Metclinikoirella , C'auU and Mesn. 1897, a parasite of Grega- 
rines ; T/yaZosaccj/s, Keppene 1899, u parasite of Diroflagellate.s ; and 
Chitridyopsis, Aim. Schn., a parasite of the intestinal cells and of the 
Gregarine of Blaps mortisaga. M}' i^arasite has no similarity with these 
genera and has been provisionally named Enchelysfheroides trichoirym- 
fharum (figure 41), This plate shows also three new* species of para- 
sites of Leiicotermes indicola, belonging to the Infusoria : Opalina termitis 
and its divisions (figures 45-47), Balmtiidimn termitis (figure 42) and 
Nyctotherus fletcheri (figures 48-49), well known genera upon which I 
will not make further remarks ; I must only say that Dobell was in 
1910 the first to describe his N. termitis (figure 50) in Calotermes militaris 
from Ce3don and my species of Nyctotkeri/s to which I have associated 
the name of Bainbrigge Fletcher difiers from that of Dobell not only 
by its size but also by the form of the meganucleus and the situation 
of the micronucleus. 

You see in the same plate two figures more, about which I must 
give some explanations : one is my Pyrsonytnpha grassii, n. sp.* (figure 
43) of Leiicotermes indicola, the other is Grassi's P. flageUata (figure 44), 
parasite of L. hfcifxgxs of Italy, reproduced for comparison. There is 
nowadays a tendency to consider the genus Pyrsonympha as synonymous 
with Dinenympha and this comes from the fact that Leidy described 
under the name P. vertens not only this species but also some stages 
of Dinenympha gracilis. In 1893 Grassi created the family Pyrsonym- 
phidaB with the following characteristics.: flagella dispcsed in spiral 
lines, nucleus on the anterior extremity, no micronucleus, mouth or 
contractile vacuoles, ellipsoidal monaxomic body, aspnmetric poles, 
locomotion bv helicoidal movements. 

* Although referred to as new species in this paper, Captain Froilano de Mello has 
published descriptions of these novelties in a paper entitled " Os parasitas multiciliados 
do caria na India Portuguesa " in BoWuH dp AgricuHura, Aim I, No. ?, pp. 131 — 147 
(Nova Goa : April 1919) and this publication has precedence of the present paper. — 


By these characteristics the family Pyi'sonymphidie seeuis similar 
to that of Holomastigidse of Fran^-a : but I think that the family 
Pyrsonymphidae must siibsist with the following addition : axial fila- 
ment, single or multiple. 

Really, when we study the two sj^ecies of Pyrsonympha described 
before me, we will see that in P. wrtews Leidy describes "in addition 
to the undulatory lines of the surface of the body or the ciliary invest- 
ment, another accessory to movement. . . .usually seen more or less 
distinctly as a cord, narrow fold or doubly contourecl line extending 
from one end to the other." On Plate 170, figure 79, 1 have reproduced 
the P. rerteiiti of Porter, a figure extracted from Eay Lankester's Treatise 
on Zoology. This figure shows a " Specialised (nmscular ?) band running 
through the whole length of the medulla." This apparatus I consider 
to be an axostyle. 

In P. flagellata you see easily the axostyle apparatus, under the 
form of a curved cone, with the base turned to the inferior pole. 

My P. grassii has all the characteristic > of a Leidya but possesses an 
axostyle, whose disjDosition is quite contrary to that of P. flagellata 
and ending apparently near the nucleus to which the base of the axostyle 
seems to form a kind of cradle. 

But in the family Pyrsonymphidae, Grassi included his genus Holo- 
tiiastigotcs, which seems to me a doubtful genus and in every respect 
must belong to the family Holomastigidee ; you will soon see the figures 
of H. elongatvni of Grassi, a parasite of the Italian Leucotennes lucifugus^ 

In Plate 169, figures 51-56, are seen the figures of different positions 
of a new Ini'usorian for which I was obliged to create a new genus. I 
have gladly associated with it the name of Franca. Figure 51 represents 
the dorsal view, figures 52 and 53 the side views with the right lip very 
developed. Figure 54 shows the parasite seen with its mouth in a 
moment of dilatation, figure 55 the ventral face, and figure 56 the view 
fi'om the inferior pole. The micronucleus is situated inside the mega- 
micleus, the endoplasm is full of particles of wood and minute vacuoles. 
There in no anus. All the ciUa are of the same length, excepting those 
of the mouth, which are longer. The striation of the body is helicoidal 
and the centre of this striation seems to be the nuclear region. I have 
named this parasite Franciella termitis and it belongs to the order of 
Heterotricha, suborder Polytricha, group Bursarina. The genus most 
closely allied to it is the genus Bursaria, whose typical species is B. 
truncatella of Fr. Muller. 

Plate 170, figures 57-60, show the Trichonymphids of Coptotermes 
travians from Ceylon, briefly described by Professor Bugnion. You 
will see that numbers 57 and 58 are Leidya metchnikowi, number 60 


Tr. agilis, number 59 seems also a Tr. agilis with the anterior extremity 
bent on a superior plane. As you know, Professor Bugnioii did not 
identify any of the parasites from Ceylon Termites. 

Trichonymphids have also been recorded by Professor Bupnion as 
found in the intestine of Termites of the genera Glyptotennes and Termi- 
logelon. The five figures given by Professor Bugnion in his paper illustra- 
ting the description of Tennitogelon wnhilicalns. Hag., in the Annales 
de la Societe Entomologique de France. Volume LXXXIII (1914), belong 
to TricJwnympha agilif:. 

Plate 170, figures 61-68, represent the parasites of An-filnolermes 
favus from Ceylon according to the figures of Professor Bugnion. You 
see also here Tr. agilis and L. metchnikowi. I cannot say to what species 
figure 66 may belong. 

I will now show (Plate 170, figures 69-74) the parasites of H. viarum 
of Coimbatore from the slides prepared by Mr. Bainbrigge Fletcher. 
I could easily identify the species Tr. agilis and L. metchnikowi. But 
H. viarum contains numerous other species which can only be classified 
by a study in loco. I hope that one of the colleagues that honours me 
by hearing this lecture will apply himself to this task whose interest 
is recognized everywhere. 

I have also reproduced (Plate 170, figures 80-87) the Trichonymphids 
of Calotermes greeni, as given by Professor Bugnion. I cannot identify 
them. These are certainly new genera to be described. But Professor 
Bugnion's figures have not the necessary neatness to encourage a 
classification. His descriptions are also too short. I must however, 
say that the circular form is common to all Trichonymphids en etat 
de soiijfrance and it is not only on this morphology that an identification 
can be based. 

Finally I must tell you that I have studied the parasites of two 
species of Coptotermes collected at Daman and Prifgana, our possessions 
near Bombay. These species of Coptotermes have not yet been identified. 
That of Daman has the following fauna : — Tr. agilis, Leidya metchnikowi, 
L. annandalei, Opalina termitis, and the common Spirochsete of white 
ants or Treponema termitis. The termite of Pragana has Tr. agilis, 
Leidya metclinikoioi,L. annandalei, L. kempi, Franciella termitis and the. 
same spirochaete that I have also found in two other species of Termites. 

I am quite glad to see that Tr. agilis of both these species of Termites 
is just the .same as the Tricliomjmpha of Leucotermes indicola and I dare 
say ttat this protozoon in India and Ceylon has the same characteristics 
that I have already described. 

True Trichonymphids belong to the class of Mastigophora. The 
absence of a micronucleus in some of them, the existence of basal granules 



in the origin of the flagelia, the absence of vacuoles, cirri or membranella, 
prove thit! assertion. The parasites that I have described — excepting 
the Infusoria that I specified — belong to the order of Hypennastigiua 
of Grassi and Foa : forms usually large, with numerous flagelia whose 
disposition is variable. 

To render the systematization more comjn-ehensible and less arid 
I have figured on Plate 170 the illustrations of different genera. You 
have there (figure 95) a Stephanonyinpha of Janicki, belonging to the 
family Calonymphidse : large multimicleate forms, axial filaments present. 
To every nucleus corresponds one blepharoplast giving rise to one or 
more flagelia. 

You see also the Joenia annectens of Grassi (figure 88), the Lopho- 
monas hluttarum of Steiii (figures 91-92), single and in divisional stage, 
and Caduceia theobromw (figure 94), a species described in the last year 
by Franca. They are all mononucleate forms, with an axial rod and 
a well developed basal apparatus — characteristics of the family Lopho- 
monadidse of Grassi. 

You also see (figure 90) the Gi/iiinoni/mpha zeijlanica of Dobell which, 
with Tr. agilis, belongs to the family Trichonymphidaj of Leidy : large 
mononucleate forms. No axial filaments. 

The small figure you see, is a Microjcenia hexamitoides of Grassi, a 
flagellate of the family Octomitidee (Plate 170, figure 89). 

The family Holomastigidee comprises mononucleate forms, without 
axial filaments, and numerous flagelia inserted on spiral lines. The 
a;enera Leidija and Holomastigoies have been included in this family. 

Finally the family Pyrsonymphidae has been modified in this manner : 
mononucleate forms, with flagelia inserted in spiral lines, simple or 
multiple axial filaments, no basal apparatus. 

Order Hypermastigina Grassi and Foa 1911. 


Grassi 1911 

Trichon\ mphida;. 
Lc-idy 1877 

Grassi 1893 

Franva 1914 


CuloinpiiiilM. Foa 

Lophotito'ias, stein 

Leidy 1877. 

Pyrsonympha, Leidy 
1877 (pro part*). 

pim, Grassi and 
Foa 1911. 

Janicki 1911. 

Joenia, Grassi 

Caduceia, Fran?a 

? Leiitktuella. 

Ircnzel 1891. 

DobeU 1910. 

Grassi and Foa 

? Holoniastigotes, 
Grassi 1893. 

Leidva Franca 

I'ligr IO-;i(l). 

PLATE 168. 


PLATE 16d. 


Page 111-21(3). 

PLATE 170. 


Ladies and Gentlemeu, I must conclude. My great disadvantage 
comes from the fact that I am speaking a language that is not mine. 
But I know that you will pardon my mistakes. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, I bring you the hearty salutations of the 
Nation, your oldest Ally, that since the first moment, when all was 
obscure and doubtful in the horizon, sided with you firmly decided to 
triumph or die with you. I bring you particularly the hearty greetings 
of the Portuguese Scientists and my personal feelings could be well 
expressed by the words of the Indian Poet : — 

" / was a foreigner and you have received me as a brother." And to 
reply to this courtesy I will now repeat the wordi^ of the great Shakes- 

" / speak as my understanding instructs me, and as mine honesty puts 
it to utterance." 

We are much indebted to Captain Froilano de Mello for his interest- ^- Fletcher, 
ing lecture and we all appreciate and reciprocate the complimentary 
allusions with which he has concluded. 

It may be considered by some that the study of Protozoa, such as 
the Trichonymphid parasites of Termites, comes rather outside the 
scope of Entomology but in my opening Address at the beginning of 
this Meeting I pointed out how the study of such parasites may throw 
some light on the evolutionary history of the Termites themselves, and 
from this point of view we may take a just interest in such studies. 
This paper is important as being the first attempt to study these para- 
sites in India, and I can only hope that it will lead to further researches 
along a most interesting line of work. 

Explanations of the Plates illustrating Captain Froilano de Mello s paper 
on the Trichonymphid parasites of some Indian Termites. ^ 

PLATE 168. 
1 — 4. Trkliunijiiiyiha nijiUs, different forms. 
5. 2'. ngilix, viewed anteriorlj'. 
0. T. (Ujilis, division process. 
7—15. T. agilis (after Leidy, Jmrn. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philud. (2) VIII, t. 5), ft. 1—9) 

16. T. agilis (after Leidy). 

17. T. agilis (after Lankester, copied from Leidy). 

18. T. agilis (after Grassi and Sandias, Coal. Soc. Termitiili, t. .5, f. 1), 

19 — 30. The so-called young forms of T. agilis (after Leidy, I.e. t. 51, ff. 11 22), 

PLATE 169. 
31 — 33. Ijtiihjn melschnikowi. 
34 — 36. Lcidi/d annandalei. 
37 — 38. Leidya kempt. 


Exflanations of the Plates illustrating Captain Froilano de Mell's pwper- 
on the Trichonymphid parasites of some Indian Termites — contd. 

39 — 40. Leidyri campanula. 

41 Enchelyspheroides trichoiiympfianim. 

42. Butantidium lennilh, n. sp. 

43. Pijrmnympha grassii, n. sp. 

44. Pyrsonympha flngellala (after Grassi). 
45 — 47. Opalina termitis, n. sp. 

48 — 49. Nyctotherus fietcheri, n. sp. 

50. Nycfotlieriis termitis (after Dobell). 
5j — 5(3. Fraiiciella termitis. n. g., n. sp. 

PLATE 170. 

57 — 00. Trichouymphids from posterior intestine of Coptotermcs (after Bugnion, iletn. 

Soc. Zonl. France 1910, p. 114, fig. 1). 
01 — 08. Trichonymphids from ilavus (after Bugnion, Mem. Soc. Zool- 

f™ncel911, t. 3.ff. 6— 13). 

69 74. Triclionymplia-agilis from Hodotermes viarum. 

75 — 78. Holomastigoles elongatum (after Grassi and Sandias, I.e., t. 5, ff. 21 — 24). 

79. Pyrsonympha vertens (after Ray Lankester). 
80 — 87. Trichonymphids from Calotermes greeni (after Bugnion and Popoif, J/em. Soc. 

Zool.' France 1910, t. 5). 

88. Jani'i annectens (after Grassi and Sandias, t. 5, f. 0). 

89. Microjccriia hexamitoides (after Grassi and Sandias, t. 5, f. 10). 

90. Gymnonympha zeylanica (after Dobell, Spolia Zeylan, VII, t. 2, f. 1). 

91. Lophomonas blattarum (after Minchin, Inlrod. Study Protozoa fig. 45a). 

92. L. Idattarum, dividing stage (after Minchin, I.e., fig. iSc). 

93. Steplianonympha (after Franca, Soc. Port. Sci. Nat. VIII, p. 8, fig. Dl). 

94. Caduceia tlieobronue (after Franca, I.e., t. 2, f. 1). 

Btj W. Ormiston, F.E.S. 
(Plates 171—172.) 

The leading work on this Family is still " A revision of the Oriental 
Hesperiidaj " by Messrs. Elwes and Edwards. Unfortunately the authors 
had apparently few Ceylon specimens to examine and so I fear that 
several of our species will require renaming. 

Their work mainly decides questions of specific identity by an 
examination of the preheftsores of the males, and the authors point out 
'■ that a very considerable practice in making this examination and 
great experience in estimating the value of the characters observed, 
are necessary to form an opinion on the subject.'' I confess that I have 

PilqC lO-JS. 

PLATE 171. 


had no previous experience, but the sketches in the Plates exhibited 
herewith are, in nearly every case, the result of the examination of a 
large number of specimens. In no case the sketch made from a 
single specimen. I am sending a set of my slides to the Colombo Museum 
where anyone interested can examine them. They include all the Ceylon 
Hesperiiidse with the exception of C. spilothijrus and G. albojas lata. 
WTien removed from the body of the insect and dried, the clasps almost 
invariably shrivel and curl up, thus entirely altering their outlines as 
seen under a microscope. I have, therefore whenever possible, used 
perfectly fresh undried specimens for my sketches. In cases where 
there are only shght differences between the prehensores of two forms 
it is iiecessaTy to examine a large number of each, to ascertain if these 
differences are permanent or only casual variations. For instance, 
with regard to Padraona dam, Messrs. Elwes and Edwards write that 
Mr. Edwards dissected " fifteen specimens from different localities, and 
found considerable variation in degree, but no differences which can 
be regarded as specific."' Lieutenant-Colonel Evans in his notes on 
Indian butterflies (Journal of the Bombay Nat. His'. Socy.) says that he 
examined 23 males in his collection and found he had five species. I 
have dissected over 100 Ceylon specimens, and I find two very distinct 
forms which show no signs of grading and extremely slight internal 
variation. {See PL 1'/ 1. figs. 27 — 3 ».) I beheve there is also a third but 
I have been unable, so far, to obtain sufficient specimens to prove that 
it is not merely a variety or seasonal form. (8,'f PL 171, figs. 31, :'>2.) 
By the courtesy of Mr. F. Hannyngton, I.C.S., I have been able 
to dissect a few specimens from Coorg and found two forms among 
them which are very distinct from anything I have «een in Ceylon. 
Apparently this group is spht up into numerous local races, and, so 
far as my experience goes, the prehensores will be found a more constant 
and reliable means of separating them than the colouration of the ^Yings. 
I believe that similar local races also occur m the philippina and kutnara 
groups of the genus Parnara. A question which arises is whether 
differences in colour caused by climatic influences are accompanied by 
changes in the prehensores. This of course can only be settled by 
breeduig experiments. For instance, Indian writers treat Caprona 
saraya as a seasonal form of C. ransonnetti, although Messrs. Elwes 
and Edwards point out that their clasps differ considerably. 

In Ceylon C. siamica shows an almost similar divergence fi'om C. 
ransonnetti and would therefore, I presume, be treated as a seasonal 
form. I have examined about a dozen specimens of C. siamica and 
have, so far, found no signs of grading in the clasjjs and am therefore 
inclined to regard it as distinct. (See PL 171,. figs. 9, 10, 11 and 12.) 

VOL. Ill o 



To satisfactorily settle the status of our Ceylon species and races it 
will be necessary to examine a large number of allied Indian forms, 
especially from vSouth India, and I shall be very grateful to any Indian 
collectors who will send me specimens for dissection. 

In this paper we come again on the question, which arose several 
times during the discussion of several Lepidopterous peSts during the 
earlier part of this Meeting, of the separation of superficially-similar 
forms by means of distinct differences in the male genitalia. The 
Hesperiadffi form an especially difficult group for the discrimination of 
species in the ordinary way and we must welcome Mr. Ormiston's work 
on the separation of the Sinhalese species as a solid contribution to the 
Subject. I would therefore call your particular attention to his appeal 
for specimens of Hesperiadre, from Southern India especially, and would 
ask you to send him for examination any specimens that you can spare, 
as further comparison of the forms occurring in India and Ceylon cannot 
but improve our knowledge on this subject. 

Explanation, oj Plates 171- 

1. Hinitnnii iiifeniiif 

■2. Ditto 

3 Tapena Ihwaitexi. 

4. Ditto 

5. Coladenin tiss>i . 

6. Ditto 

7. Tnqiade.i distans 

8. Tagiades atfkus . 

9 & 10. Capronu ramonne 
11 & 12. Caprona siatnica 
13. Snrangesn nlbicilin 
U. Ditto 

15. Baracus rillatu!: . 

16. Ditto 

17. Suastus grp.mius . 

18. Siiasliis minuta . 

19. Ditto 

20. Hi/nrotis adraxliis 

21. Mntiipa aria 

22. Ditto 

23. Paduka lebadea . 

24. Gangara ihyrsii . 

25. Telicotfi bninbiiso'. 

26. Tdkota augias . 

27. Padmonn pseudommm 

-172 illustrating " Genitalia of some Cei/hnese 

Inner face of clasp. 
Dorsal aspect of tegumcn. 
Inner face of clasp. 
Dorsal aspect of tegumen. 
Inner face of clasp. 
Lateral aspect of teginnen. 
Inner face of clasp. 

Inner face of clasps. 

Inner face of clasp. 
Dorsal aspect of tegumen. 
Inner face of clasp. 
Dorsal aspect of tegumen. 
Inner face of clasp. 

Dorsal aspect of tegumen. 
Inner face of clasp. 

Dorsal aspect of tegumen. 
Inner face of clasp. 





Page 1024. 

PLATE 172. 



Eo'-planation of Platen 171 — 172 illustniliiKj ■■Gcnilalia of some Cei/lonese 
flespcnadw " — omit d . 

Dorsal aspect of tcgumen. 
Imiin- face of clasp. 
Dorsal aspect of tegumen. 
Inner face of clasp. 
Dorsal aspect of tegumen. 
Lateral aspect of tegumen. 
Dorsal aspect of tegumen. 
Inner face of clasp. 
Dorsal aspect of tegumen. 
Inner face of clasp. 
Lateral aspect of tegumen. 
Dorsal aspect of tegumen. 
N'cntra I aspect of tegumen. 
Inner face of clasp. 
Later:'! aspect of tegumen. 
Dorsal aspect of tegumen. 
\'entral aspect of tegumen 
Inner face of clasp. 
Lateral aspect of tegumen. 
Dorsal aspect of tegumen. 
Ventral aspect of tegumen. 
Inner face of clasp. 

Lateral aspect of tegumen. 
Dorsal aspect of tegumen. 
Ventral aspect of tegumen. 
Inner face of clasp. 

Lateral aspect of tegumen. 

Dorsal aspect of tegumen. 

Inner face of clasp. 

Lateral aspect of tcgumen. 

Dorsal aspect of tegumen. 

Inner face of clasp. 

Dorsal' aspect of tegumen. 

1 nner face of clasp. — 

Dorsal aspect of tegumen. 

Inner face of clasp. 

Dorsal aspect of tegumen. 

Inner face of clasp. 

Dorsal aspect of tegumen. 

I niicr face of clasp. 

Lateral aspect of tegumen. 

Inner face of clasp. 

Dorsal aspect of tegumen. 

Inner face of clasp. 
Lateral aspect of tefumen 

28. Ftflniona inrittloi 


29. Padmona m/csiohles . 

30. Ditto 

3r. Padmona dnrtii. . 

32. Ditto 

33. Halpe ceijloniai. (or egoia) 

34. Ditto 

3-"). Jlitlpe decornta 

3t>. Ditto 

37. Baoris pencillata 

3S. Ditto 

3n. Ditto 

4(X Ditto 

+ 1. Panuira l-iiiiiani 

42. Ditto 

43. Ditto 

44. Ditto 

4). PuriKiru striata . 

40. Ditto 

47. Ditto 

48. Ditto 

49. Paniara nnrooa 

.")(). Ditto 

."il. Ditto 

.52. Ditto 

.J3. Paniara bada 

.54. Ditto 

-5.5. Ditto 

.56. Punwra cimjala 

57. Ditto 

.58. Ditto 

.59. Ismenc ataphai 

liO. Ditto 

(il. Parala bullcri 

&2. Ditto 

1)3. Parata ale.vis 

(14. Ditto 

(15. IJasara hadra 

(Hi. Ditto 

(17. niiopidocumpki benjamini 

(IS. Ditto 

(19. Bihasis sena 

70. Ditto 

71. Badamia exdamalionis 

72. Ditto 



B/j Professor Charles T. Brues (Harvard University). 

In the Agricultural Journal of Egypt for 1914 (Vol. 3, part 2, pp. 108- 
110) Dudgeon and Gougli described two Braconid parasites of the 
Egyptian bollworm {Earias insulanu) which they referred to the genus 
RJwgas. Sjjecimens presumed to be R. lefroyi had been given this 
manuscript name previously by Ashmead. 

Recently, T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, Esq., the. Imperial Entomologist 
of India, sent me a number of specimens bred from the bollworm in India 
asking me if I thought all were of the same species and whether they 
were RJiogas lefroyi. A comparison of the sjiecimens with the short 
desciption of E. lefroyi and the photograph of the wings which accom- 
pany it, show them to agree very well, and they «eem unquestionably 
to be the species described by Dudgeon and Gough. They do not, 
however, belong'to the genus RJwgas, but are referable to Microbracmi. 
It is evident from Dudgeon and Gough's original figure also that they 
cannot belong to Rhogas as the submedian cell in the hind wing is very 
short and in the front wing is the same length as the median, while 
the basal vein is almost perpendicular to the costa and not strongly 
oblique as in Rhogas. From the description the antennee also are of a 
different conformation from those of Rhogas. 

It appears therefore that this insect must be known as Microbracon 
lefroyi and that the other species described in the same publication as 
Rhogas kitchcncri is probably also a Microbracon. There is of course a 
possibility that the species m.ny have previously been described, although 
I have not been able to find that this is the case. In order to make 
the species more easily recognizable I have drawn up the following 
description from the specimens forwarded by Professor Fletcher. 

Microbracon lefroyi. Dudgeon and Gough. 
Agric. Journ. Egypt, vol. 3, pt. 2, p. 109 (1914) (Rhogas). 

FimaJr. Length 2-3 mm. ; ovipositor slightly longer than the 
abdomen, but not quite so long as the abdomen and propodeum together. 
Podv honey-yellow, varied with black and jiiceous, legs usually some- 
what li'hter and the. sides of the abdomen often much paler. Black 
markings variable ; in melanic specimens they include spot on front 
above base of antennae, ocollar space, occiput, antennae, stripe on each 
of the three lobes of mesonotum, scutellum, propodeum, irregular marks 
on pleurse, abdominal segments three to five, except narrow lateral 


border, aud sheaths of ovipositor ; in light specimens the entire body is 
pale honey-yellow with only the flagellum of antennae, tips of man- 
dibles, ocellar triangle, clonds on the second and third segments, and 
ovipositor black, piceous or brown. Wings faintly to distinctly tinged 
with brown, the stigma and veins fuscous. Antennae 25- to 27-jointed, 
the joints slightlj' decreasing in length to apex, the basal ones barely 
twice as long as thick. Mesonotum shagreened, scutellum shining ; 
propodeum distinctly shagreened, but often more nearly smooth basally 
toward the middle, without median carina except at extreme apex 
which is finely areolate ; mesopleura finely shagreened, with a narrow 
polished strip along its posterior margin. Abdomen broadly oval or 
nearly circular in outline ; first segment twice as wide at apex as at base, 
posterior corners separated by deep grooves, median field triangular ; 
second segment four times as broad as long, with an obsolete median 
carina ; third segment a little longer than the second ; following shorter ; 
entire abdomen excepit corners of first segment finely roughened, without 
distinct punctures or reticidations, except sometimes on the second and 
third segments near the middle ; second suture finely crenulate. Wings 
as figured by Dudgeon and Gough {loc. cit.). 

Male. Length 2 mm. " Similar to the female with the antennas 
24-2.5-] ointed and the head and thorax generally darker ; the abdomen 
ias the sixth segment black and lacks almost all the yellow at the sides 
although the first two segments are yellow and usually paler than in 
the female. 

There is an enormous amount of colour variation in the large number 
of specimens examined, a slight variation in the number of antenna! 
joints and in the sculpture of the j^ropodeum and al)domen but none of 
these seem to be in any way definite or correlated. 

Microbracoii sp. 
In the lot of bollworm parasites are two males from Pusa (3 XII. 
15 ; T. Ram), easily distinguishable fi-om the foregoing. The 
iead is pale yellow with black markings, the antemiaj 29-jointed, the 
propodeum bears a median carina and the abdomen is coarsely some- 
what irregularly longitudinally striate. In the absence of the female, 
it would be hazardous to attempt to identify it. 

This redescription of Microbracon lefroyi will be useful to Indian jj^ Fletcher 
workers, but I may add that we at Pusa are not quite ready to agree 
that all the specimens of Microbracon parasitic on Earias belong to 
M. lejroyi. Indeed, as you will see, Professor Brues considered two 
specimens to represent a distinct species. When this redescription 


came to hand, we went over all our material and made out that we- 
had at least four or five species of Microbracon, differing in habits as- 
well as in appearance and structure, and all reared from Earias, as well 
OS several other doubtfully distinct species reared from hosts other 
than Earias. I may remark here that it is important for us to know 
in what other hosts the Earias-infetiting species are capable to breeding. 
All this material, representing the collections made from rearing during 
many years, was sent to Professor Brues with a letter pointing out the 
differences which we believed to exist ; but unfortunately this parcel 
was lost by submarine action and the whole of our collection was lost. 
I n^ention this because, if he had received this second collection, it is 
just possible that Professor Brues might have modified this paper to 
some extent. As it is, we must wait until we can secure more exten- 
sive material from known hosts. 


Bi/ P. V. Isaac. Afssiula))! lo the Government Entomologisl , Madras. 
Under the terra Melolonthida' there are included for the purposes 
of this paper the four important sub-families of fleurostict Scarahceid(», 
namely : — 

(1) Cetonianaj. 

(2) Dynastinsc. 

(3) Rutelina?. 

(4) Melolonthinse. 

When in the summer of 191G reports were received of damage to 
cinchona seedlings by white grubs in the Government cinchona planta- 
tions at Dodabetta (8.000 feet) in the NUgiris, the study of Melolonthidse 
received fi'esh importance ; and the appearance in 1917 of the volume 
on Rutelina^ in the Fauna of India Series, has been of much help in 
sustaining the interest in the group. 

The species which have in recent times come into prominence are : — 


(1) A>itliracojtIiora enicijera, Oliv. This beautifid insect has been 
found commonly on Lantana flowers and cholain inflorescence in Coim- 

(2) Protcetia avrichalcea, F. This also has been found at Coimbatore 
both on Lantana and cholam flowers. 


Popillia Morion. Xi'WJii. This little shining green insect is a pest 
in its larval stage on cinchona roots in Dodabetta. 


(1) Ilololrichia rcpciila, Sharp. This was found in large numbers 
in the soil in the cinchona plantations at Dodabetta. The grubs injure 
the roots of young cinchona plants. 

(2) Holotrichia sp. This is of the same general appearance as //. 
refetita but is slightly smaller. This was found in gi-eat abundance 
in the cinchona plantations at Dodabetta, in the ground, awaiting the 
South- West-Monsoon to fly out. These are injurious to cinchona seed- 
lings in the larval stage. 

Both these species of Holotrichia were caught in large numbers in 
light traps. 

From individuals of both species confined in cages it was found 
that they lay small white eggs singly and that each female can lay about 
100 eggs. 

(3) Holotrichid rvjojlara, Bi s. This was taken near roots of orange 
plants at Coimbatore. It is believed that the grubs of the species ate 
off the bark, just below ground level, from orange plants and caused 
their death. 

(•1) Serica nilgirensis, Slip. The larvte of these were found in com- 
pany with those of the two Holotricliias mentioned above at roots of 
cinchona seedlings. 

It is hoped to do more work on the group, now that it is safe to trans- 
mit specimens to, and receive comniunications from, experts abroad. 

This paper might have been taken earlier when we were discussing Mr. Fletcher. 
crop-pests. There does not seem to be much systematic work in it, 
although the title was communicated for inclusion in the programme 
under the head of Systematic Entomology. 

In Sylhet I found the bark of orange-trees eaten away near the Mr. Ghosh, 
ground by something. I could not associate this with an insect. It 
might have been due to some bacterial or fungal disease. 

At Coimbatore we were able to observe fresh cuts from day to day Mr. Isaac. 
and the only thing found near these were the Melolontliid grubs. 

Species of Holotrichia are common girdlers and are also accom^^anied Mr. Beeson. 
by Adoretiis and one cannot differentiate their work. I am not, how- 
ever, in a position to add any definite observations. 



By T. V. Eamakrishna Ayyar, B.A., F.E.S., F.Z.S., Acting Government 
Entomologist, Madras. 

(Plate 173.) 

Unlike otlier minor groups of insects it is gratifying to note that 
the group of jumping plant-lice or Psyllidae lias been studied to. some 
extent in India. The previous records are chiefly by Buckton and 
Kieffer and latterly by Dr. Crawford. I am sorry I have not been able 
to see Kieffer's " Monograph of Gall-making Psyllids " published 
in the Annals of the Br^issels Entomological Society in 1905, which would 
certainly have helped in preparing this note, and also given us infor- 
mation as to whether these galls are recorded by him. The early records 
of Indian Psyllids to which we have easy access are in the pages of 
Indian Museum Notes by Buckton and latterly in the pages of the 
Records of the Indian Mxiseum by Crawford. 

The following species have so fax been noted : — 

(1) Psi/lla cislclkita, Buckt., on mango shoots ; Dehra Dun (7. 

M. N. Ill, 1, p. 1.3). 

(2) Petnphigns CEdificator,Jiut\s.t., oiiPistacia terebinthvs ; Baluchis- 

tan {I.M.N. Ill, 1, p. 71). 

(3) Phacopteron lentiginosum , Buckt., on Ganiga pinnnta ; Poona 

and Dehra Dun (I.M.N. Ill, 5, pp. 18-19). 

(4) Psylla obsoleta. Buckt., on Diospyros melanoxylon ; Bombay 

' (I.M.N. V, 2, p. 35). 
In Lefroy's Indian Insect Life. Plate LXXX, we have figures of 
two other undescribed species making galls on Alstonia scholaris and 
Ficus glomerala. There is another species of Psyllid we have in Coim- 
batore, a pretty bad pest of a species of garden Cardia ; it does not 
however make any prominent gall-like structiu-e on the jilant. This 
Crawford has named Etiphaleriis cilri (probably it is the same as found 
on Citrus plants elsewhere). 

The two kinds of galls just before you are : — 
(1) That of PhacojAeron lentiginosmn on Garuga pinnata from 
pepper gardens in North Malabar. As you see, the leaves 
are very badly galled and in the worst cases the plantg 
show nothing but these cylindrical, ovoid or iinger-lilce 
galls which often give the appearance of a cluster of 

Prifie mso. 

Piiqe 1031. 

PLATE 174. 

Fig. 1. — Kulidasa sauutihtalis 

Fig. 2. — Fn1<i<ini nDxlrlariii. Noturai size. 

y'\%. 3. — liiriiiiid hirolorata. Twice natural size 


fruits {see fig. 2). The galls iu nature have a pale 
yellowish-gi'pon appearance with a tinge of reddish-brown. 
Often the plant, which is occasionally used as a standard 
to train the pepper vine on, suffers very much from this 
(2) The other is the gall caused, by an undetermined species ; and 
although I have consulted Crawford's " Monograph of 
American Psyllidaa " I have not been able to find any figures 
or ' descriptions that would apply to this interesting species. 
I have sent it on to Dr. Crawford for correct identification. 
The gall made by this insect is very curious and beautiful 
(see fig. 1). It was found on a wild shrub, Ficiis nervosa, 
in the Taliparamba forest in North Malabar. Any casual 
observer will sm-ely mistake the gall for some natural out- 
growth of the plant. The galls are attached to the mid-rib 
of each leaf and commonly on the upper surface. In struc- 
ture it is oval covered over with hairy and villose processes 
of plant tissue. In nature it is greenish in colour with a 
mixtm'c of light yellow. The galls are not very unlike that 
shown in plate 5 of Ind. Mus. Notes, V. 2. caused by Psijlla but certainlj' shows differences. 
The object of tliis note is simply to create if possible an interest in 
this very interesting study of insect galls in India. 

PJiacopteron lentiginaston is common in all forest areas, not only in Mr. Beeson, 
Dehra Dun and Poona. 

In Travancore Garvga pinnala is popularly called the Mosquito- Mr. Isaac, 
tree as it is believed to give birth to raosquitos from its limbs. 

This tree is of no economic importance. On account of this Psyllid Mr. Ramakrishna 
only galls are found and we do not see any leaves on it when it is attacked Ayyar. 
in this way. 

The whole subject of galls and gall-makers in India is one which Mr. Fletcher 
requires investigation. It is a very wide subject which is at present 
awaiting workers to take it up. One comes across the most curious 
galls at times. I have here [exhibited] a, photograph of a gall which 
occurs commonly on Qvercvs griffUliii at Shillong ; as you will see , it 
forms a curious sort of rosette something like an unexpanded thistle- 
flower. Another gall which I found at Shillong last year was on leaves 
of Rubus assamensis and resembled a small spiny sea-urchin ; from 
this I bred a Cecidomyiad fly. 

Bli. Fletcher, 
lii. RamakrishFa 


lOdI i'Rocl;edi-vgs of the third entomological meeting 


Bi/ T. V. Eamakkishna Ayyar, B.A., F.E.S., F.Z.S.. Actbig Govern- 
ment Entomologist. Madras. 

(Plate 174.) 
Tliough it is a common sight to find swarms of small bugs like species 
of Idiocerus, Helopeltis, Ccdocoris. Empoasca and other minute forms. 
I have not seen bugs of fairly large size as the ones I am referring to in 
this note appearing in such numbers, and it is to know from you 
whether any one else has noted these insects in sucli numbers that I 
speak about these to-day. 

The three Fulgorid bugs arc : — 

1. Fidijom delesserti, Guer. Species" of this genus of large beautiful 
bugs are regarded as more or less rarities. In October 1917, while out 
on a collecting trip to the foot of the Nilgiris, I accidentally came across 
this insect in large numbers. About twenty or thirty of them were 
always found perched on the bark of the stem of huge trees, chiefly 
Ailanthus excelsa and Termiiudia, helerica. The peculiar colouration of 
the tegmina and the head protects them easily and it is very difficult 
to find them on these tree stems even when they are in numbers. Once 
disturbed, all fly away and it was found rather difficult to catch them 
unless very carefully netted. 

2. The other bug. also a Fulgorid, is Kalidasa sanguinalis, Westw, 
(fig. 01 of Dist. Vol. III). This is a smaller form and has more or less 
sanguineous colour. Numbers of this bug were also found always in 
the same situations as the Fidgora. (Plate 174. fig. 1.) 

The same thing — these two bugs found in company — was observed 
later on in Ganjam. In this case the species of Fulgora was F. candc- 
laria, Linn. (fig. 82 of Distant, Vol. III). (Plate 174, fig. 2.) 

3. The third one is a species of Ricania — those bugs which have 
fairly large dark wings with pale white transparent blotches on them. • 
The species concerned here is R. bicolorcda. (PI. 174. fig. 3.) In the 
months of April and May this bug is found in thousands on almost 
every plant along the mountain railway line rumiing from the foot 
of the Ghats up to Hillgrove or Coonoor. I believe Mr. Dutt has seen 
this when he came down to Madras last time. 

[Specimens of the bugs were exhiUiled.] 
Did you find auy Epipyropidse on these Fulgorid bugs ? 
I am sorry to say I did not look for them. 


Fulgora candelaria does not seem to be a very common species as a Mr. Fletcher, 
ride. I have not come across it myself in India although I found it in 
Hongkong twenty years ago. Did you observe any sjiecial function of „ . • ^ 
the cephalic prolongation '. Ayyar. 


Fulgorids are known to transmit fungal or bacterial diseases to jihinls. Mr. Beeson. 
Work is being done in the sandalwood areas on tlie sjiike disease of 
sandal in this coimection. 

Another point of interest about these Fulgorid bugs is their supposed Mr. Fletcher, 
Iiuninosity. Fulgora candelaria was so called because it was supposed 
to be luminous. I think it was Madame Merian in Siu'inam about two 
hundred years ago who recorded that some of these bugs were found 
to be luminous when the box containing them was opened in the dark, 
but since then no authentic corroboration of this statement seems to 
have been obtained. I made inquiries at Hongkong but was unable 
to obtain any confirmation of this supposed luminosity. The luminosity, 
if it does really occm-, may be the result of Ijacterial disease and not 
to the action of photogenic organs. 


B>/ T. V. RAMAKRI.SHNA Ayyar, B.A., F.E.S., F.Z.S.. AditKj GovemmeM 
Enlomologifit Madras. 

{I'late 17.J.) 

In exhibiting herewith some sjjccimens of these curious insects 
collected from South India I would add a few remarks. 

The group Euniastacina' is, as most of you know, a sub-famil}' of 
the well-known Ortho25terous family Acridiidse. The insects included 
in this sub-family are all very curious and abnormal in structure as 
compared with other grasshoppers {.wc figure). 

The striking features of these insects are the extreme shortness of 
the antennae, the curious posture and structure of the wings (some are 
apterous) and the peculiar leafiike projected formation of the prothorax 
in some forms. Almost all of them are comparatively small in size, 
ranging from half an inch to not more than a couple of inches in length. 
.Almost all the Indian species recorded are from tlie Hills of Burma, 
Kashmir and South India. 

Mr. Kirby in his Fauna Volume on Acrid iidcc has described all the 
forms known up to 1914. Since then Candido Bolivar has described 
three new South Indian forms, from some material we sent from Madras, 



in the Spanish journal Trab. Del Museo Nac. de Cienc. Nat. (Ser. 
Zoologica, Num. 16) (1914). These three species are PhyVocoreia rama- 
krishnai and Bennia burri from the Western Ghats. South Kanara, and 
Mastacides nilgirisicus from the Niigiris. 

Extremeiy little is known of the bionomics of these extraordinary 
creatures. I found them in damp localities on hill-sides and on low- 
growing brushes. Their peculiar slow and sudden movements often 
reminded me of the chameleon. I have not seen any of these in flight, 
but they hop about very effectively. Some of them have very good 
protective colouration — green, brown or speckled to suit the sur- 
roundings. I believe they are plant feeders, since I found one or two 
species feeding on Terminalia leaves. 

Though these do not appear to be of any economic importance so 
far noted, this is a group of insects worth studying, as almost nothing 
is on record regarding the life-historv or habits of these insects. 

Mr. Ramakrishna 

Mr. F/etcher, 

Mr. Ramakrishna 


Mr. Fletcher. 

I have here [exhibifed] some specunens of Eumastacinse. 

Incidentally I would plead for a catalogue of our own as the figures 
of this group in the Fauna volume are not reliable on account of their 
being ascribed to the wi'ong species 

We have very few specimens of these grasshoppers in the Pusa 
collection. I got a few when I was in Burma and Ramachandra Rao 
has collected a few during the com-se of his Lantana deputation. 

The description of these species was published in a Si^anish journal. 
It took me three years to get it translated. . 

You say that almost all the species recorded from India are from 
the Hills of Burma, Kashmir and Southern India. I do not know 
about Kashmir-, but my Burmese specimens were taken at a compara- 
tively low elevation on the railway-line between Maymyo and Lashio, 
and I note that two of your species were taken at Taliparamba and 
Tamarasseri, neither of which are at any height above sea-level. When 
I was in Ceylon I remember finding one sj^ecies at Trincomali alsa and 
that is at sea-level. 



By C. C. GiioSH, B.A., Assislavl. to (he Iinperird Eiiloinologist. 
It is intended in this paper to deal with a few points regarding the 
existing facilities for publication of communications on entomological 

Page 1033. 

PLATE 175. 

Phyllochoreia rantakH^hnni, Bol. (x3). 


subjects, to point out liow far the existing publications satisfy the needs 
of different classes of readers and to discuss whether there is room for 
a publication solely devoted to entomology in India. 

Readers of entomological publications may be placed under two 
categories : — (1) entomologists and (2) non-entomologists, i.e., the lay 
public. In the first category are included the workers in as well as 
outside India. The departmental Memoirs and Bulletins, and the 
journals dealing with zoological matters generally, such as the Journah 
of the Asiatic Society and the Bombay Natural History Society and 
Records of the Indian Museum at Calcutta are accessible to this class. 
All these publications afford ample facilities for publishing all communi- 
cations on entomology, but as none of them, except the Departmental 
Memoirs and Bulletins, is solely devoted to entomology, the compara- 
tively small entomological contributions are buried among the more 
voluminous matters dealing with general zoology. Besides, these 
publications are hardly available to the Provincial Entomological Assist- 
ants working in the mofust-dl. The Dejiartmental Memoirs and Bulletins 
are meant to be records of work which is more or less complete and which 
is either of too popular or too technical a nature. The time has there- 
fore arrived to consider whether it will be useful to have a periodical 
publication solely devgted to Entomology, in which reports of observa- 
tions and investigations, of trials of preventive and remedial experi- 
ments, notes on life-history and similar matters, which cannot by them- 
selves form the subjects for separate Bulletins and Memoirs, can be 
published. Such matters are extremely important and in fact form the 
bricks with which the edifice of Economic Entomology in India has to 
be built up. At present only a very small proportion of such observa- 
tions, etc., is actually recorded. Out of this recorded matter again 
only a small proportion is actually published and that too in such a 
scattered manner, in Departmental leaflets, annual administration 
reports, provincial year-books, and the pages of the Asiatic Society and 
Bombay Natural History Society's Journals in India as well as of various 
journals outside India, that it is hardly accessible to all workers. Even 
if a worker is enthusiastic enough to collect this scattered information 
from all these various and not easily accessible sources, much of it is 
necessarily brief and incomplete and not as valuable as it may be and 
ought to be, because in administration reports and even in the annual 
reports of the Entomological Department much room cannot be provided 
for detailed treatment. 

Mere records of catches are useful ; descriptions of the methods used 
in collecting are highly interesting ; observations of habits in actual 
field conditions in nature are extremely valuable ; and the worker.s 


engaged in iieUl iuvestigations throughout the country have ample 
opportunities of contributing to our knowledge in these matters. But 
for want of facilities for publication either such things are not recorded 
nowadays or even if recorded they are consigned to files. After a time 
the interest due to freshness of the observation becomes stale even to 
the observer himself and he gradually loses the stimulus of recording his 
observations. If he knows that there is an organ which is his own and 
in which all things, interesting and useful, however small and described 
however briefly, will find a corner under his own name, he is not likely to 
let slip any opportunity for observations and recording them. A person 
not in the habit of recording them will be tempted to do so when he sees 
his fellow workers doing it and getting the credit for it. The healthy 
rivalry which will thus be evoked will be of immense benefit to Economic 
Entomology in India. This will also improve the equality of the work. 
Wien one is going to put down a thing in black and white for publica- 
tion, under all the chastening influences of the prospect of criticism, 
•one is naturally compelled to go deeper into it. 

A publication of the nature suggested here will be of very great use 
to the working entomologists as it will be a sort of a meeting gi-ound for 
them and serve the purpose of a perpetual conference of the kind in 
which we have been partaking at present. A record of observation 
on a particular insect in a particular aspect in one Province will evoke 
interest in it and lead to observations on that aspect in the other 
Provinces. Besides it frequently happens that more than one of us are 
engaged on the same problem in different Provinces. We follow our 
own lines in complete ignorance of what others are doing or what pro- 
gress has been made. The suggested journal will remedy this defect. 
It may be argued that we may co-operate through correspondence. 
But this is only possible when we know what others are doing and at 
present there is no means of distribution of this knowledge. Besides 
some workers may justly look forward to recognition. Recognition of 
one's efforts however insignificant always acts as a stimulus and the 
proposed journal will give an incentive to young entomologists when 
they see that their efforts are being recognized. In this manner many 
things will come to light, which although probably small in themselves, 
may form important links for work another may be doing. We there- 
fore see that a journal solely devoted to the subject of entomology is 
not only desirable but will serve a very useful pm-pose in furthering 
the work of the economic entomologists in this country. To begin 
with, it may form a part of the Agricidfural Journal of India or can 
be issued as a separate publication under a distinctive name such as 
the " Indian Entoinologist." A separate publication would of course 


be preferable even thougli it be of a small size and issued as a quarterly 
■or even a half-yearly magazine. There will be no want of materials 
for it. The following among other sources can be mentioned here : — 

(1) Records of observations of the kind pointed out above and 

which all entomological workers have the opportunity of 
making but very few of them at present make. 

(2) Reports of investigational tours undertaken by all workers with 

regard to particular insects or jiroblems. 

(3) At present rearing is not done in all the Provinces. For want 

of rearing the work remains defective. It is hoped that 
this defect vn\l be remedied at an early date. The records 
of rearing and notes on life-history thus made in different 
Provinces under different climatic conditions will siijjply 
ample and extremely useful materials. 

(4) Life-histories which are fully worked out. 

(.5) The Conference in which we have met is now a permanent 
function. The Proceedings and at least some of the papers 
read in these conferences can most fittingly be included in 
this journal. 

(6) In order to enhance its educative value, useful communications 
on Indian Insects appearing in other journals may be re- 
printed in it. * 

Now we tiurn our attention to the non-entomological readers, includ- 
ing the large body of the agricultural public. The educated professional 
classes also fall under this category as practically all of them possess 
lands which they or their relations cultivate. The prevalent ignorance 
of even the elementary facts of insect life has been dealt with in my 
paper on " Some aspects of Economic Entomology in India," in which 
the necessity has been indicated of the compilation of simple elementary 
books on entomology in all the Indian vernaculars and of the introduc- 
tion of entomology as a subject for nature study in the primary schools. 
It will not be an exaggeration to say that the publications of the 
Agricultural Department, however highly applauded and valued here 
and abroad, are not of much practical importance and use to the great 
body of the Indian agriculturists. Iii order to make my point clear 
if is only necessary to remind you of the small percentage of English- 
knowing people in the country. The publications, being in the English 
language, can be expected to be read only by this small percentage. 
It would be interesting to find out how many do actually read them. 
I for one would be inclined to regard their number to be very small. 
At any rate it may safely be asserted that in the case of technical 
Memoirs, etc.. this number is practically nil. Unfortunately it has to 


be admitted that the Agi-icidtural Department has not 3'et been success- 
ful in reaching the public in most cases and as members of a Service 
intended to help the agricultural public, it is our duty to find out why 
and in what respects we fail to reach them. Many of the officers of 
this Department have peculiar notions about bringing the results of 
agricultural research to the notice of the public. One recorded it as 
his opinion that those who did not know English could not be said to 
be educated and the matters in which this Department dealt were so 
abstruse that they woidd not be intelligible to the so-called " unedu- 
cated " people even if presented to them in their own vernaculars. 
This reveals a want of knowledge of the actual conditions. Without 
going too far it will be sufficient if we inquire how many of the coolies 
we engage in the Pusa Farm know how to read and write their own 
vernacular. From my experience of Bengal and Bihar it can be said 
that it is a common practice with all cultivators to read or hear read 
the epics of Ramuyana and Mahabharata , both written in not very 
simple verses. Therefore the fault is with us if we cannot present our 
subjects in a simple, clear and intelligible manner, and not with the 
cultivators whom we wish to inform. They know their agricultiu:al 
problems thoroughly, although they may not be able to express them 
in the manner in which we can. All important matters relating to 
agriculture can' hardly fail to interest them. The public can be reached 
through various available agencies. 

Although newspapers and magazines are not yet as widely read in 
India as in some of the Western countries, from my experience of Bengal 
I can say that the vernacular weekly papers are most widely circulated 
and they find their way to remote villages. Any information intended 
to be spread cjuickly cannot be better done than through the medium 
of these weekly papers. Four weekly papers of Calcutta can be named 
which togethei can carry the information throughout the whole of 
Bengal. It depends on us to supply them with the information. Other- 
wise wrong information or correct information awfully distorted is 
lilvcly to be spread. As an instance the following incident may be 
mentioned. A vernacular monthly magazine on one occasion published 
the information that damage to stored rice could be iKeveiited by the 
application of carbon bisulphide and gave the direction that carbon 
bisulphide was to be tied in a piece of cloth and kept in the midst of 
the stored rice. This information was quoted in many papers, and 
necessarily widely circulated, with what result you can imagine. It 
seems therefore highly necessary that instead of remaining cor.tented 
with giving useful information on Economic Entomology in books 
which seldom find their way to the remote villages, we should frequently 


communicate such information to the daily and weekly and especially 
the weekly vernacular papers. This will go a great way in popularizing 
Economic Entomology. We therefore come to the following conclu- 
sions : — 

(1) For the great body of non-entomological readers in India there 
are means of diffusion of useful information and we should 
make more use of these means than we have been doing in 
the past. 
(2) At present there is not sufficient means of satisfying the needs 
of the working entomologists for whom a journal solely 
devoted to the subject of Entomology has become a necessity. 

There is no objection to sending communications to the vernacular Mr. Ramakrishna 
papers. But, as regards this proposed Journal, the first question is Ayyar. 
the material and money required to run it. Is there any likelihood 
of getting help fi'om the Government ? Considering its usefulness, 
Government ought to help. 

I agree with what Mr. Ghosh has said regarding the scattered material Mr. Fletcher, 
and the scattered methods of publication adopted at present and I have 
already referred to this point in my note on the expansion of entomolo- 
gical work in India, printed as Appendix K to the Report of the 
Indian Industrial Commission. I consider that all entomological work 
should be published in one set of publications issued by Government. 
But I really do not see the necessity just at present for a Journal as 
proposed by Mr. Ghosh. A Journal might start off well but would 
soon break down from want of material. As things are at present it 
is difficult to get material for publication. Some of us are too busy 
on every-day routine and new investigations to have spare time to 
write. In 1916 I issued a Bulletin of one hundred .short notes on Indian 
Insects and appealed for material for a second hundred such notes. 
Very few came in in response to my appeal and, after waiting for about 
two years, I had to sit down and complete the second hundred notes 
myself by writing up various life-histories and so on to complete the 
Bulletin, which has now gone to the press. Material of the nature 
indicated by Mr. Ghosh, as to be published in the proposed Journal, 
can in nearly all cases be included in such Bulletins and in this way 
we have a collected mass of material which is accessible to everyone. 

Such Bulletins are published at such long intervals as to prevent Mr. Ramakrishna 
their utility. Ayyar. 

Not necessarily ; the frequency of publication depends entirely on Mr. Fletcher, 
the material available. If each of you would send in only one note 
VOL. m p 


Mr. Ramakrisbna 

Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Eunhl Eannan 
Mr. Ghosh. 

Mr. Fletcher. 
Mr. Senior- White. 

Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Ramakrishna 


Mr. Fletcher. 

each month we could get out three or four such Bulletins every year 
without any difficulty. 

The difficulty about these Bulletins, each containing one hundred 
Notes, is that you have to wait to complete the hundred Notes each 
time. How will these Notes appear ? 

The Second Hundred Notes are appearing under no definite author- 
ship. Those Notes which have been contributed from outside have 
the contributors' names appended to them. 

Another cjuestion that arises in connection with this proposed Journal 
is, who would run a paper of the nature suggested ? 

I think that the cjuestion of such a pubhcation might well be post- 
poned until the question of an entomological Bureau has been decided. 

It is important that we should reach the general public and now we 
cannot do so. As I have said, the vernacular papers do not publish 
anything, or if they do publish it is usually wrong. 

I do not see that this proposed Journal would improve things in that 
respect. At present our Agricultural Department Bulletins and Memoirs 
and Reports have a very large circulation and are sent to all the prin- 
cipal newspapers in India but many of these ^publications are never 
even noticed in the newspapers. 

It is dangerous to send Bulletins, etc., to be abstracted by editors 
of newspapers. We should send them ready-prepared articles. There 
are other difficulties as regards running such organs as Mr. Ghosh 
suggests. The subscription list of Spolia Zeijlanica is not more than 
120. If a paper, as suggested by Mr. Ghosh, is decided upon, then it 
should be obhgatory for all the members to send their contributions 
only to this paper and nowhere else, and all systematists should be 
asked to be prepared to publish the work done on Indian material in 
this Journal. 

I am afraid that there are serious practical difficulties about that 
proposal so long as the entomological workers in India are scattered 
about in different Departments and Services as they are at present. 
Probably the systematists would not object as a rule to have their 
work pubhshed in India and I think this should be done wherever 
possible. But, as a matter of fact, to give an instance, when I put 
up Dr. Hancock's paper on Tetriginse fi-om the Pusa Collection for 
pubhcation in our series of Memoirs, there were objections raised to 
its inclusion on the ground that it was systematic work. 

\^Tiat is the difference between a Memoir and a Bulletin ? 

We have always refrained from attempting a definition of either, 
but, roughly speaking, the series of Memoirs is intended to take in 


completed or advanced work, whilst the Bulletins include incomplete 
or preliminary work. 

But I know of cases where one part of a Memoir has been published Mr. Ramakrishna 
in one year and a second part has appeared three years later. I sent •"yy^- 
a i^aper of mine to be publi.shed as a Memoir and I was told that it 
could only be published as a Bulletin. 

I presume that you are referring to the paper on the Coccidae of Mr. Fletcher. 
Southern India, That seemed to me to be a collection of short notes 
on different species rather than an intensive study of one or more species, 
and therefore it was a Bulletin. I am sorry if we offend on occasion 
but we try to do our best. 

Bulletins do not supply our needs and this .Journal, that I have Mr. Ghosh, 
proposed, should be a common ground for the discussion of entomolo- 
gical matter. I know that there is no real difficulty in contributing 
to the vernacular jjapers, although this has to be done with permission ; 
yet it has not been done so far, and we ought to do it regularly. These 
Bulletins of one hundred Notes should be replaced by a Journal such 
as I propose. 

We could start it as a part of the Agricultural Journnl of India, Mr. Misra. 
quarterly or half-yearly in separate parts. We could send in notes 
of general interest such as a discussion on the value of topping cotton- 
plants against bollworms. Or a portion of the Agricultural Journal 
of India should be set apart for Entomology. 

Would it not be better to bring forward a definite proposal on the Mr. Afzal Husain. 
subject of this Journal ? 

I will bring forward a Resolution. Mr. Ghosh. 

I do not see the necessity for setting apart a portion of the Agri- Mr. Fletcher. 
cultural Journal. I am sure that the Editor is always pleased to receive 
and insert any contributions on entomological subjects without being 
necessarily tied down to setting aside a portion for entomological 

I suppose that any contributions could be sent to the Agricultural Mr. Ramakrishna 
Journal. Ayyar. 

Mr. Andrews, how can one get the pubUcations of tbe Indian Tea Mr. Senior- White. 
Association ? On applying to the ordinary booksellers one is usually 
told that these publications are not in stock. 

Our pubheations are obtainable from the Secretary of the Indian Mr. Andrews. 
Tea Association. 



Mr. Ghosh. I Ijcg to propose tlie following Fesohition : — 

Resolution 4. " The Third Entomological Meeting is oi opinion that it would be 

desirable to have a Journal solely devoted to Entomology and 
Government should undertake publication of it. Definiio pro- 
posals regarding its size and time ol publication will be decided 
by a Committee." ' 

Mr. Ramiao. 

Mr. Ghosh. 

Mr. Kunhi 

The Chairman. 

Mr. Beeson. 

Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Ramakrishna 

Resolution 5. 

I second that Resolution. 

[The Resolution, on being put to the Meeting, rons derhtred carried by, 
12 votes against 6'.] 

I propose the following Committee be ajjpointed in accordance 
with the terms of the Resolution just carried, viz.. the Imperial Ento- 
mologist, the Forest Zoologist, the Government Entomologist, Madras, 
and Mr. Andrews. 

We need not hurry on with this matter. We had better wait for 
the decision as regards the centralization scheme. 

I am afraid that is rather out of order now as the Resolution has 
been carried. We cau only now consider the appointment of the 
Committee proposed in it. 

Whilst thanking the gentleman who proposed my name for this 
Committee, I beg leave to decline on personal and official grounds, as 
I have already voted against the scheme. 

Whilst cpiite prepared to give any assistance that I can to such a 
Journal if and when it is started, I must also decline to serve on the 
Committee, as I have already opposed the scheme and the acceptance 
of a place on the Conmiittee would stultify my attitude regarding this 
proposed Journal. 

When the Heads of Sections do not agree with this scheme, it would 
not be possible to run the Journal. I therefore propose the following 
Resolution : — 

" The Resolution last passed may be recorded but action on it may be 
postponed until something definite has been decided about the 
organization of ihe Central Entomological Institute." 

Yit. G'cosb. I second this Resolution. 

[The Resolution, on being put before the meeting, loas declared carried, 
only one vote being recorded against jV.] 

P.iric 1043 

PLATE 176. 



Bii A. \V. Slater (Mutuu/er. Calcutta Pholotijpe CompcDuj). 
(Plates 170—179.) 

There are many processes used in reproduction for printing, but in 
ilie present day photo or process engraving has quite Superseded all 
other methods, and it is quite rare to find any publication in which 
the illustrations are produced other than by a photographic process. 

It is not intended in this article to give a history of the art of repro- 
duction or a detailed treatise on every stage of each process but just 
a general outline of the jJi'ocedure in the principal processes used and 
to point out from the engraver's side little points that should be thought 
of in preparing originals or in the choice of the process to be employed. 

Nearly all illustrations are in those days produced by either Line 
engraving, Half-tone engraving or Three-colour engraving. 

These all come under the heading of process engraving which is 
the process by which drawings or photogi-ajjhs are, by the aid of photo- 
graphy, transferred to metal, afterwards being etched by chemical 
action, the result being a block from which a very large mimber of 
copies can be printed. 

The choice of the process to be used must of necessity depend on 
the nature of the drawing, photo or picture to be reproduced. 
Line Blocks. 

Line engravings or line blocks are made from pen and ink sketches, 
i.e., black and white drawings in hne, without any shading except that 
obtained by the varying thickness of the line of the drawing. Before 
considering the points which go to make a good original a brief descrip- 
tion of the process will be interesting. 

In the first place a negative is made somewhat similar to an ordinary 
photographic negative except that the wet plate process, in which the 
operator prepares his own plate, is used. 

This negative must be perfectly black and white with clear white 
lines on a black ground. It is at this stage that the attempt to reproduce 
the grey or faint lines, described later, afiects the result as, in the 
endeavour to clear the negative by chemical action, all the lines are 
liable to lose their true value and thicken up. 

The negative is then printed, a piece of sensitized metal (usually 
zinc) being placed into contact with the negative in a printing frame 
and exposed to the action of the light. The effect of the Ught passing 
through the clear parts of the negative is to make the coating on the 
plate insoluble in water. When sufficiently exposed the plate is covered 


with a coating of greasy ink and then placed in water, it is then wiped 
carefully with cotton wool and the coating which has not been acted 
on by light, being soluble, washes away, taking the ink with it, leaving 
the inlc on the parts which have been acted on by light. The ink image 
on the zinc plate should now be a true representation of the original 

The thin film of ink is next reinforced by very fine powdered asphal- 
tum and is now ready for etching. After examining the plate to see 
if the lines are all correct the plate is now placed in a weak solution of 
acid which etches the parts not covered by the ink image. Considerable 
care and skill are required at this stage as a little carelessness means 
the loss of fine lines. 

After a short etch the image on the plate is again strengthened to 
enable it to stand a stronger solution of acid, this process of etching 
being repeated till the white spaces are deep enough to make it im- 
possible for them to take ink fi'om the printing machine roller. 

After trimming away the superfluous metal and mountmg on wood 
the block is ready for the printer, each line of the drawing which has 
been reproduced standing in relief from the rest of the metal. 

The following are the points to be observed in jireparing originals 
for line work. All drawings should be made with clear black lines on 
white paper or card. Eough paper shoidd be avoided. Care should 
be taken that all the lines are drawn firmly ; scratchy or grey lines, 
produced by the ink bemg thinned down, are not permissible. 

Drawings for the line process are better if made larger than the 
required size, reduction giving sharper and clearer results. It should 
be bome in mind that each line reduces in breadth as well as in length. 
All lettering should be neatly and clearly put in, care being taken to 
make all lettering sufiiciently large to stand reduction. This point is 
often lost sight of, the result being that lettermg which appears perfect 
on the original is unreadable when reduced. All lettering and in fact 
every line of the original should be perfect and complete, as alterations 
on the finished block are extremely difficult. 

The most suitable scales of reduction are one half or two-thirds the 
size of the original. 

Half-tone process. 
The Half-tone process is used when it is desired to show the grada- 
tions fi'om black to white with the interverung tones. This is also a 
photographic process but to obtain the desired effect it is necessary to 
make a special negative wliich is broken up into dots varying in size. 

I'niji 1044. 

Plate showing comparison between a half-tone from a wash drawing, and 
a line block of the sanre subject. 





These dots in tlie negative are obtained by placing in the camera, 
between the lens and sensitive plate, a screen consisting of two pieces 
of glass which are engraved with parallel lines and joined together so 
that the lines cross at right angles. 

There are various rulings varying from 50 to 200 or more lines per 
inch and the finer the screen the finer the illustration, provided the 
conditions for printmg the block are perfect. 

It is however seldom desirable to use a screen finer than 150 lines, 
especially in India, as owing to climatic and other conditions it is diffi- 
cult to print blocks made with an extremely fine screen. From the 
negative a j^rint is made on a sensitized piece of copper or zinc by ex- 
posure to light. 

The light passing through the dots of the negative renders the solution 
on the metal insoluble so that it is covered with a mass of dots the 
reverse of the negative. 

These dots form the printing surface after the metal between thera 
has etched away. 

The etching requires considerable skill, as to obtain the real tone 
value it is necessary to stop out various parts during etching ; otherwise, 
except from a very bright and brilliant picture, the result would be 
flat and lifeless. 

It should be explained that a half-tone block must receive from the 
printing roller an even coat of ink all over and that it is impossible to 
ink one part lightly and other parts with a tliick layer of ink. 

The eifect is obtained by varied sizes of dots ; the very fine dots in 
the high lights impress only a small dot on the paper, while in the darker 
tones and shades the dots are larger and in a given area more ink is 
impressed on the paper than when the dots are smaller. 

A reference to the diagram illustrated on Plate 177 will make this 

After the plate has been etched it is mounted on wood and is now 
ready for the printer. 

We will now consider what to avoid in preparing originals for repro- 
duction by the half-tone process. 

Wash drawings or photographs should be of the best possible. A 
bright clear original with all the detail clear and distinct will give the 
best result. 

With skill good results can be obtained from flat photograj^hs but, 
if possible, they should be avoided, as they create difficulties at every 


stage of the process and it is almost impossible for a workman to keep 
details which are only shghtly discernable on the copy. 

Photographs of subjects with a lot of fine detail should be taken in 
a good light and a white background used, care being taken to avoid 
shadows. A good well-diffused light is preferable to sunlight. Avoid 
unnecessary reduction in the case of originals with a lot of fine detail ; 
on the other hand, a good bold subject will be improved by reduction. 

Photographs should be packed flat and should not be roughly 
pasted on paper. Negatives are not necessary if good clear prints are 

Three-Colony Engraving. 

The three-colour process is an adaptation of the half-tone j^rocess 
and the procedure is the same except that special colour-sensitive plates 
are used and greater skill is needed at all stages. 

The principle of the three-colour process is based on the theory that 
all colours are composed of yellow, red and blue, which, while not 
scientifically true as? applied to light, is nearly correct when applied to 

Three-colour negatives are, briefly, made as follows : — Each negative 
retains only those rays of the desired colour. Thus the negative showing 
the yellow values excludes the blue and red rays. The yellow rays 
are excluded from the red and from the blue negatives. The rays not 
wanted are cut off by means of light filters. The etching of three- 
colour illustrations is similar to half-tone etching. 

Three-colour work, as the name implies, requires three printings. 
First the yellow plate, then the red, lastly the blue, each colour " regis- 
tering " on the previous impressions, thus completing the picture in 
its natural colours. 

To print three-colour illustrations is an exceedingly delicate task. 
The amount and colour of the ink must be carefully regulated and, 
as many impressions are usually taken, the printer must be cautious 
to maintain uniformity. As the colours fit exactly on top of one another 
the merest stretchmg or shrinkage of the paper will be disastrous to 
fine work. 

Originals for this process should be in colours and complete in all 
detail and should be made on smooth card. The degree of reduction 
depends entirely on the original. A very well drawn original with a 
lot of fine detail should be reproduced to the same size but as a rule it 
is best to make the copy for reduction to two-thirds. 

r,i,i, ii}4ii. 

PLATE 179. 

■h i 


Hints on the making of originals.. 

The following brief remarks are comuiou to all processes ; 

All originals should be as perfect as possible. When giving instruc- 
tions for reduction linear measurements are understood ; thus, " half 
size" means reduce to half the length and breadth, not half the ai-ea. 

. Originals can be enlarged if necessary but this should be avoided 
if possible. 

It is advisable to indicate by a short note if any particular point 
in a scientific illustration requires special attention so that the engravers 
can obtain the best result. 

Other methods of reproduction. 

Having considered the processes wliich are most commonly in use 
at the present time we will briefly refer to other methods of reproduc- 
tion which are available. 

Photozincography is the process which is the most useful f(H' large 
work such as the reproduction of maps and can be carried out in black 
and white or in colours. 

A good drawing or sketch ' in black ink on white paper or tracing 
paper can be enlarged or reduced by photography and a printing plate 
prepared. This process is more economical in large size than the line 
block process. 

Colours are introduced by different printmgs, each colour havuig to 
be printed separately. 

Originals should show all the required lettering and detail and a 
separate rough sketch showing the colours required should be supplied, 
or a proof in black can be supplied by the printer which can be coloured 
by hand as a guide. 

Wood Cuts or wood engraving are, as the name implies, blocks made 
of wood. This is purely a hand process the quality of the work depend- 
ing entirely on the engraver. It is not recommended as it is very diffi- 
cult to obtain good work in India owing to the scarcity of good workmen. 
Briefly, a drawing is made on a piece of box-wood and all the parts 
which are not required to print are cut away from the wood by hand. 

Photogravure is a most artistic process but it is slow and expensive. 
This is also a photographic process but differs from others in s() much 
that, instead of the printing surface being in relief, the plate is prepared 
so that the image is etched into the copper plate to varying depths 
according to the original. Printing ink is forced into the etched portions 
and naturally the places which are deeply etched take up more ink. 


The plate when inked is passed through a machine with a sheet of papet, 
the result being that all the ink is taken up by the paper. 


We gave an exhibition of lantern-slides of Indian Insects the other 
night. Has anybody anything to say on this subject ? Our main 
difficulty at present is to get them coloured. The arrangement which 
we used to have has broken down and we have great difficulty in getting 
this work done satisfactorily. 

Cannot your artists do it ? 

They could only do it in their spare time. We always have more 
work for the artists than they can get through. After our owii arrange- 
ment fell tlurough I arranged with the Calcutta Phototype Company 
to have this work done in Calcutta so that the finished coloured slides 
could be supplied by them and Mr. Slater got hold of a man who said 
he could do them ; after about three months this man only produced 
about half-a-dozen shdes and, on inquiry, it w-as found that he had sent 
these to Japan to be done. So we did not progress much as regards 
getting them done locally. If any of you know of anyone who would 
be prepared to colour these slides, we should be glad to be informed. 

What do you pay for colouring a slide ? 

One rupee and eight annas. It takes time and care but the materials 
are not costly. 


By C. F. C. Beeson, M.A., I.F.S., Forest Zoologist. 

Everyone who has to deal seriously with entomological literatiu-e 
adopts some method of recording references to the subjects in which 
he is interested or expects to be interested. Each of us has apparently 
evolved a system that suits his own immediate requirements, and in 
consec|uence there is considerable variety in, the systems now in use ; 
e.g., some use a card catalogue with a dichotomous or numerical index ; 
some prefer entries in specific and general ledger files ; some use loose- 
leaf notebooks and others iixterleaved publications. 

It seems to me that if entomological work in this country is to be 
centralized or co-ordinated it is also desirable to centralize or standardize 
methods of recording references to literature. It would be of immediate 


assistance to the individual worker if a standard system of classifying 
references were available, and it w-oiild also prepare the way for the 
introduction of an official catalogue of literatm-e on Indian entomology 
which will have to be maintained by a Central Institute. 

For entomological literature numerous skeleton schemes are already 
in existence based on the well-known Dewey decimal system of classify- 
ing literature. It is hardly necessary to point out the merits of a decimal 
system, but it may be repeated that it is : — {] ) less expensive, (2) most 
easily understood, remembered and used, (3) practical rather than 
theoretical, (4) capable of almost unlimited expansion, and admirably 
adapted for the needs of the student or specialist. 

Examples of decimal methods that have been used successfully are 
the Bibliographia Zoologica, Concilimn Bibliographicum, the Ivtenm- 
tional Catalogue of Scientific Literalure, and the Zoological Record. 

As to the relative merits of the existing systems I can offer no 
remarks ; on the contrary, it is hoped that this note may produce an 
expression of opinion by those who have had occasion to test one or 
more systems. I attach a statement showing the scheme of classifica- 
tion used for literature on Forest Zoology at the Forest Research Insti- 
tute. It resembles very closely that used in the International Catalogue 
of Scientific Literature, i.e., a binomial association of decimal groups 
combined with phylogenetic classification. While it works satisfac- 
torily for present requirements I do not think it will do so permanently. 
A scheme to be entirely comprehensive must provide for all possible 
contingencies, which may arise in future. The sj^ecialist or professional 
user of a specialized library can usually find the material for which he 
is searching, without the aid of a logical or completely comprehensive 
scheme, provided the index is elaborately cross-referenced. But, since 
the subject indexing of libiaries must be carried out in this country 
by a clerical staff of moderate intellectual attainments, a more or less 
mechanical method is essential. 

I suggest that it is desirable to adopt a standard cassification of 
entomological li' ?,rature in India,* and that a phylogenetic system on a 
decimal basis if. likely to prove the most efficient. As to the details 
of the subject heads and the numerical notation, exjieit opinion is 
necessary, and it is therefore desirable to consider the catalogue of the 
Bureau of Entomology and the London Library Subject-Index as 
possible models and to invite the opinion of their librarians. 

* Attention is drawn to the report of the Proceedings of the All-India Conference 
of Librarians held in January 1918, at which was considered tlic possibility of intro - 
dvicing a uniform system of subject-indexing in libraries in India. 




ilnin suhj<yls. 
(U General Zoology. 
0.'! Protozoa. 
05 Mctazoa excluding 

Arthroijoda and Vertebrata. 
07 Arthropoda general. 
00 Crustacea. 

11 Araclmida, Myrio])oda, etc. 
13 In.secta general. 
1.5 Aptera, Thysanoptcra. 
17 Anoplura, Siphonaptera. 

19 Coleoptera. 
21 Biptcra. 

23 Hemiptera [Rhynchota]. 
25 Hymenoptera. 
27 Lepidoptera. 

29 Neuroptera. 

30 Isoptera. 

31 Orthoptera. 

33 Vertebrata general. 

35 Pisces. 

37 Amphibia, Reptilia. 

39 Aves. 

41 Mammalia. 

Snblimth of iiiaiii xiihjecls. 
01 Treatises, Text-books, Manuals. 
03 Bibliographies, Catalogues, Lists, 

05 Reports of Institutions. Departments. 

Congresses, Museums. 
07 Pliilosophy, History, Biography. 

09 Technique, Methods of Research. 

10 Nomenclature. 

1 1 Systematics, Monographs, Faunse. 
13 Anatomy, Morphology, Physiology. 

15 Ethology, Ecology, General 

Bionomics. Life histories. 
17 Aetiology, Variation, Evolution. 
19 General Economics. 
21 Geography, Travel. 
23 Control Measures, Insect'cide*. 

Mr. Beeson. 
Mr. Fletcher. 

Mr. Beeson. 

Mr. Andrews. 

This paper cannot be of much use to this productive Meeting but 
I put it forward with the idea of eliciting information. 

I am rather doubtful myself as regards the present necessity for 
the introduction of such a scheme. One difficulty is the fact that a 
publication may fall under several distinct heads at the same time. 
Another difficulty, so far at least as concerns the main subjects of the 
classification of literature on Forest Zoology as given by Mr. Beeson, 
is that this classification does not go far enough. Neuroptera for example 
includes very diverse groups which are usually regarded nowadays as 
Orders and will undoubtedly be given ordiiial rank by general consent 
in the near future. This system therefore presupposes the permanency 
of our classification, which is far from being the case. 

I do not suggest this for general adoption. A modification of the 
system is essential. You must have cross-references, letter-files, and so 
on, to complete it. 

I keep a card index also and started it by Families and put all the 
information for a particular sj^ecies under that species. I number 


according to tlie sections suggesteil by Mr. Beeson. If a genus is split 
up, you have simply to remove your card and change your guide card. 

Our experience is that cards are not satisfactory except (I) when Mr. Fletcher, 
the work of a Section or Department is comparatively in its infancy 
and (2) for purely systematic references. All our economic work is 
recorded on the File system, the Files being kept arranged ia systematic ^ 

order, and each species having its File, wliich includes all the information 
we have on it, whether published or unpublished, and including corres- 
pondence about it and any illustrations that have been done. On 
ku-ning up a File we have at once the whole information we have on 
the subject of the insect concerned. Systematic work is entered on 
card-catalogues or interleaved copies of " Fauna "' volumes, ^nd general 
notes are entered into interleaved copies of Indian Insect Life and 
South Indian Insects. It is very rarely that any publication fails to fit 
into one of these systems but, for the few that do not, a general 
alphabetical card-catalogue is quite sufficient. 

The main difference between Mr. Be?son"s scheme and that adopted 
at Pusa seems to be that he considers that subject-indexing of entomolo- 
gical literature can be carried out by a clerical staff, whilst we act on 
the assumption that this is technical work that must be done by a 
properly trained man. I should be very sorry to have to rely on 
references as extracted by merely clerical labour. Recently in our 
own library I found a monograph on dragon-flies put away by tlie 
librarian under the heading of Diptera and that sort of thing is bound 
to happen constantly when merely clerical labour is devoted to classi- 
fication of entomological literature. 

I beg to propose the following resolution : — Mr. Beeson. 

" That this Meeting considers it desirable to adopt a standard classi- Resolution 9. 

flcation of Entomological Literature for India. 
" That, if such a scheme be adopted, it would be of considerable 
advantage that it should, if possible, con'form with the scheme 
in use at the Imparial Bureau of Entomology, London, and that 
the Director of that Bureau be approached for informotion on the 
" That such information be circulated to those interested in the sub- 
ject in India, and that the matter be brought up for discussion at 
the next Entomological Meeting." 
I second this Resolution. ' jlr_ Andiew*.- 

[This Resolution, on heing ful to the Meeting, ivas carried mianimousli/.] 



B>j T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, R.N., F.L.S. F.E.S., F.Z.S., Imperial 

(Plates 183—182.) 

Until about a year ago India was a free dumping-ground for the 
plant-feeding pests of the whole world, and that we have not received 
more of them than we actually have done is probably only one more 
example of the good luck attendant on the usual " muddle-through " 
policy of the British Emphe as a whole. Anj'body was at liberty to 
Ijring into India any living plants of any kind — fruit-trees, ornamental 
plants, rul^ber-stumps, sugarcane-setts, etc. — and to bring with them 
any insects which happened to be living on or in them, so that there 
was every chance of our receiving, not only insects already known to 
be bid pests in other countries but also the many insects which were 
liable to develop into bad pests under novel conditions of climate, food 
and absence of enemies which they found awaiting them in India. Here 
we may remark that it is almost always the insects which have been 
introduced into a new country that become the worst pests of that 
country even in cases when they did, and still do, comparatively little 
harm in the countries fiom which they were brought. In. its own 
country, in which it has lived for innumerable thousands of generations, 
the numbers of any insect tend to remain constant on the whole, as 
any undue increase is checked by natural causes of which parasites and 
predators form a considerable proportion. But an insect introduced 
into a new covmtry providing sufficient food and a climate to its liking 
is introduced, more frequently than not, without the parasites and 
predators which keep it in check in its old home, with the result that 
it increases disproportionately and becomes a serious pest. The same 
tendency is of course true of animals other than insects and of plants. 

We in India know of at least three bad pests which have been intro- 
duced of comparatively late years. One is Phtlwrimwa opercidella 
which was originally brought into Bombay about 1905 or 1906 with seed 
potatoes from Italy and spread all along the Western Ghats and then 
southward into Madras and northward into the Central and United Pro- 
vinces and Bihar and which now causes damage amounting in the 
aggregate to lakhs yearly. Another is Eriosoma {Schizoneura) lanigera 
which has been brought into all the fruit-growing districts on imported 
apple-trees and which has done serious damage already and is likely 
to do more in the future as fruif-cultm-e extends in India. Coccus 
viridis is another example. These three insects have all become bad 
pests in India and there is no doubt but that all were introduced. 


What other insects may have been introduced and may turn up 
as pests we do not know, but it is to be hoped that there will be none 
in this category. 

As showing the frequency and ease with which pests may have been 
introduced into India with plants, I can quote a few cases which have 
■come under my personal notice : — 

(1) A parcel of sugarcane setts received from Antigua was found 

to contain two living larvas and a cocoon of SphenopJionis 
sacchari, a weevil which is well-known as destructive to 
cane in the West Indies and Guiana. 

(2) Another parcel of sugarcane setts received from Java contained 

a living example of a beetle which was ajjparently Hvlaniara 
picescens, described by Van Deventer as a cane-jiest in 

(3) Apple-trees imported from England and guaranteed free from 

Eriosoma lanigera by the exporters were found on arrival 
to be badly affected with this Aphid. 

(4) Young coconut trees imported from Ceylon were badly affected 

with an Aphid not otherwise known from India and almost 

certainly imported with the plants (see South Indian Insects, 

pp. .506-507). 

These are only a few cases, but you will realize that they are cases 

which only came under notice more or less accidentally and that they 

formed a very small proportion of the total imports. It is impossible 

to imagine what insects may not have been brought into India in the 

past on the innumerable parcels of crop- and garden-plants imported 

by Government Departments and private individuals. 

This danger was perceived many years ago and the first action taken 
was in 1906 when, owing to the special danger of importation of the 
Mexican Cotton-boll Weevil, orders were issued by Govermnent direct- 
ing that all cotton-seed imported from the New World should only be 
admitted into India after fumigation with carbon bisulphide at the 
port of entry, and this regulation was in force until superseded by later 
legislation. The regulation, however, was not very effectively carried 
out, as at least one case came to my notice in which an Agricultural 
Officer imported cotton-seed from America through the post without 
its being fumigated. 

Further action as regards plant imports other than cotton-seed was 
initiated in December 19(jp by the Bombay Chamber of Commerce, 
■which addressed to the Bombay Government a letter pointing out the 


danger of the introduction into India of insect pests, more particularly 
through the importation of plants from foreign countries, and rec]uesting 
Government to take the matter into serious consideration and to adopt 
early measures for the protection of the staple agricultural ])roducts of 
India. The Government of Bombay thereupon referred the matter to 
their local Agricultural Department and to the Inspector General of 
Agriculture and obtained from Ceylon information regarding the 
measures adopted there. Correspondence then followed between the 
InsjDector General of Agriculture and the Imperial Mycologist and 
Imperial Entomologist regarding the pests and diseases likely to be 
introduced and the best means of preventing their introduction into 
India, and the two latter Officers in July 1910 prepared a combined 
schedule of dangerous plants the importation of which into India 
should be controlled, and this combined schedule with the jOTevious 
corresjjondence was circulated by the Government of India to Local 
Governments and Administrations for their opinions on the proposals 
made. These opinions were on the whole favourable and it is interest- 
ing, on reading over them, to note the cases in which examples are 
given of piractical experience of receiving insect pests on imported fruit- 
trees. A Committee was then appointed by the Government of India 
to consider the whole subject and to make recoinmendations. It met 
at Pusa in November 1911 and consisted of Messrs. B. Coventry 
(Inspector-General of Agriculture), E. J. Butler (Imperial Mycologist), 
A. Howard (Imperial Economic Botanist). T. Bainbrigge Fletcher 
(Imperial Entomologist), A. T. Gage (Director, Botanical Survey), 
R. F. L. Whitty (Customs Department, Bombay), and R. D. Anstead 
(Planting Expert. South India). This Committee recommended (1) 
that plant imports likely to introduce insect pests should be fumigated, 
(2) that importation of plants from foreign countries should be permitted 
at the seven principal ports only, (3) that all living plants, excepting 
only culinary vegetables or fruits intended for consumption and 
seeds and a few other specified exceptions, should be fumigated 
with hydrocyanic acid gas at the place of entry, (4) that the Govern- 
ment of India shoidd address Foreign Governments and Native States 
owning sea-ports in India on the subject of introducing restrictions 
similar to those applied in British India, and (5) that no action need 
be taken with regard to the land frontiers of British India other than 
those of Foreign Governments and Native States owning sea-ports in 

It was supposed that the importation of plants could be regulated 
under Section 19 of the Sea Customs Act (VIII of 1878). but it was found 
that the Sea Customs Act co\ild not be used in the manner proposed 


and that separate legislation to deal witli the matter was necessary, 
and a " Bill to prevent the introduction into British India of any insect, 
fungus or other pest which is or may be destructive to crops " was 
published in the Gazette of India of 13th September 1913 and considered 
by a Select Committee whose Report was presented to the Council of 
the Governor General of India on I6th January 1914 and passed into 
law, as Act II of 1914, on 3rd February 1914, as follows : — 

Act No. II of 1914. 

" An Act to prevent the ivtrodudion into British India of any i^isecty 
fvngus or other pest, vhiih is or may he destructive to crops. 

" Whereas it is expedient to make provision for preventing the intro- 
duction into British India of any insect, fungus or other pest which 
is or may be destructive to crops ; It is hereby enacted as follows : — 

" 1. This Act may be called the Destructive Insects and Pests Act, 
Short title. 1914. 

" 2. In this Act, unless there is anything repugnant in the subject, 
Pcfinitions. or Context : — 

(a) " crops " includes all agricultural or horticultural crops 
and trees or bushes ; 

(?)) " import " means the bringing or taking by sea or land ; and 

(c) " infection " means infection by any insect, fungus or 
other pest injuriou.? to a crop. 

" 3. (1) The Governor-General in Council may, by notification in the 

Gazette of India, prohibit or regulate, subiect to 

Power of Governor- , ^ • ^. -, ,.,. , 

General in Council to regu- sucli restrictions and conditions as he may 

late or prohibit the import impose, the import into British India, or anv 

of articles bkely toinfect. . .i r -n ^ , ,i ■" 

part thereot, or any specified place therein, 

of any article or class of articles likely to cause infection to any crop. 

"(2) A notification under this section may specify any article or 
class of articles, either generally or in any particular manner, whether 
with reference to the country of origin, or the route by which imported 
or otherwise. 

" 4. A notification under section 3 shall operate as if it had been 

issued under section 19 of Sea Customs Act 

Operation of notification 1878, and the officers of the CJustoms at every 

under section 3. . •' 

port .shall have the same powers in respect 

VOL. Ill o 


of any article with regard to the importation of which such a notification 

has been issued as they have for the time being in respect of any article 

the importation of which is regulated, restricted or prohibited by the 

law relating to Sea Customs, and the law for the time being in force 

relating to Sea Customs or any such article shall apply accordingly. 

'■5. (1) The Local Government may, subject to the control of the 

Governor General in Council, make rules for the 

Power of Local Govern- detention, inspection, disinfection or destruc- 
ment to make rules. r ■ , 1 r • 1 ■ 

tion of any article or class ot articles in respect 

of which a notification has been issued under section 3 or of any article 
which may have been in contact or proximity thereto, and foregulating 
the powers and duties of the ofiicers whom it may appoint in this behal 
'■ (2) In making any rule under this section the Local Government 
may direct that a breach thereof shall be punishable with fine, which 
may extend to one thousand rupees. 

• 6. No suit, prosecution or other legal proceeding shall lie against 
Protection to persons any person for anything in good faith done or 
acting under Act. intended to be done under this Act." 

A Notification of certain draft rules proposed to be made under 
this Act was pubUshed in the Gazette of India dated 21st March 191-1, 
but these rules did not provide for fumigation and, so far as insect pests 
were concerned, dealt only with sugarcane, cotton seed, and living 
rubber and coffee plants. 

Then followed over three years of correspondence regarding various 
details before there was issued on 7th November 1917, nearly eleven 
years after the subject was first mooted, a Government Order under 
this Act, which, with subsequent small amendments, reads as follows : — 

"No. l:3-C. 

Department of Revenue and Agriculture. 


Delhi, the 7th November 1917. 

■ ' In exercise of the powers conferred by section 3, sub-section (i) of 
the Destructive Insects and Pests Act, 1914 (II of 1914), the Governor 


■Oeneial in Council is pleased to issue tke following order for the purpose 
of prohibiting, regulating and restricting the import into British India 
of the articles hereinafter specified. 

1. In this order : — 

(i) " official certificate " means a certificate granted by the proper 
officer or authority in the country of origin ; and the officers 
and authorities named in the third column of the Schedule 
are the proper officers and authorities to grant in the countries 
named in the second column the certificates required by the 
provisions referred to in the first column thereof ; 

"plant" means a living plant or part thereof but does not 
include seeds ; and 

"prescribed port"' means any of the following ports, namely 
Bombay, Calcutta, Dhaneshkodi, Karachi, Madras, Negapatam, Rancoon 
and Tuticorin ; 

(/(') all provisions referrhig to plants or seeds shall apply to all 
packing material used in packing or wrapping such plants 
or seeds. 

" 2. No plant shall be imported into British India by land or sea by 
means of the letter or sample post, provided that sugarcane for planting 
intended to be grown under personal supervision of the CTOvernment 
Sngarcane Expert may be imported by him by such post. [Gazette of 
7«f7?'«, Pt. I, p. 155, 9th February 1918]. 

••3. No plants other than fruits and vegetables intended for con- 
sumption, potatoes and sugarcane shall be imported into British India 
by sea except after fumigation with Hydrocyanic Acid Gas and at a 
prescribed port : 

•■ Provided that plants which are infested with living parasitized 
insects and are intended for the introduction of such parasites may be 
imported without such fnmigation if they are accompained by a special 
certificate from the Imperial Entomologist to the Government of India 
that such plants are imported for the purpose of introducing such para- 

•• 4. Potatoes shall not be imported into British India bv sea. unless 
they are accompained by — 

(i) a certificate from the consignor stating fully in what couutrv 
and in what district of such country the potatoes were 


grown and guaraiiteeuig that warty disease was not known 
to exist on the farms where the potatoes were grown ; and 
(ii) an official certificate that no case of warty disease of potatoes 
has been known during the twelve months preceding the 
date of the certificate within five miles of the place where 
the potatoes were grown. 

'• 5. Eubber plants shall not be imported into British India by sea 
unless they are accompanied by an official certificate that the estate 
from which the plants have originated or the individual plants are 
free from Fomes semitostus and Sphcerostilbe repens. 

'• 6. Sugarcane shall not be imported into British India by sea unless 
it is accompanied by an official certificate that it has been examined 
and found free from cane borers, scale insects, Aleyrodes, root disease 
(any form), pine apiple disease (Tkielaviopsis Ethaceticus), " Sereh " and 
cane gunuBosis : 

Provided that canes for planting intended to be grown under the 
personal supervision of the Government Sugarcane Expert may be 
imported direct by such expert without such certificate. 

" 7. Coffee plants shall not be imported into British India by sea 
from America (including the West Indies) except by the Madras 
Department of Agriculture. 

'■ 8. Seeds of coffee, flax, bershn and cotton shall not be imported 
by land or by sea by letter or samj^le post. 

•' 9. Coffee seeds shall not be imported into British India by sea from 
America (including the West Indies) except by the Madras Department 
of Agriculture. 

" 10. Flax seeds and bershn (Egyptian clover) seeds shall not be 
imported into British India by sea, unless the consignee produces before 
the Collector of Customs a license from a Department of Agriculture in 
India in that behalf. 

"11. Cotton seeds shall not be imported by sea except after fumiga- 
tion with carbon bisulphide and at a prescribed port. 

" 12. Nothing in these rules shall be deemed to apjjly to any article 
brought by sea from one port in British India to another. [No. 520-232 
of 1.3th June 1919.] 

E. A. MANT, 

Secretary to the Government of India. . 

phoceedings of the third entomological meetjkg 1059 
" The Schedule." 
[Paragraph 1 (;').] 




France .... 

Japan (incliultng Formosa) 

Italy . . . 

British East Africa . 

Ceylon .... 
Malay Peninsula 

Dutch Indies . . . 

Belgian Congo 
I British East Africa . 
j Uganda Protectorate 


South Africa . 

I Dutch Indies . 

j Pliilippine Islands . 
I Japan (including Formosa) 

Egypt . 
West Indies . 

British Guiana 

United States 
Ceylon . 
Malay Peninsula 

British East Africa 
Queensland . 

The Board of Agriculture and Fisheries, 

The Board of Agriculture for Scotlaui}. 

The Department of Agriculture and 
Technical Instruction for Ireland. 

The Ministry of Agriculture. 

The Norwegian Board of Agriculture. 

The Ministry of .^crricnlture. 

The Department of Agriculture and 

The Ministrj' of Agriculture. 

The Department of Agriculture. 

The Departments of Agriculture, 
Victoria, South Australia, New South 
Wales, Queensland, Tasmania and 
Western Australia. 

Tlie Department of Agriculture. 

Tlie Department of Agriculture, Fede- 
rated Malay States. 

The Department of Agiiculture, Indus- 
try and Commerce. 

The Department of Agriculture, 

The Union of South Africa Department 
of Agriculture. 

The Department of Agriculture, Indus- 
try and Commerce. 

The Department of Agriculture. 

The Bureau of Agriculture. 

The Department of Agriculture and 

The Union of South Africa Department 
of Agriculture. 

The Ministry of Agriculture. 

The Imperial Department of Agricul- 
ture, Barbados. 

The Department of Science and Agri- 

The Department of Agriculture. 

The Department of Agriculture, Fede- 
rated Malay States. 

The Department of Agriculturs. 

The Department of Agriculture and 


The efiect of this Order on the various classes of Plant Imports is 
shown in the Table on next paga. 

Eoughly speaking, so far as insect pests are concerned, the regulations 
amount to this : — 

(1) There is no restriction on the importation by land or sea of 

seeds other than seeds of coffee, flax, bersim and cotton. 

(2) There is no restriction on the imjjortatiou of an3- plants what- 

ever through the land frontiers of India except through the 
letter or sample post. It is not considered that there is any 
great danger of new pests being brought in along the ordinary 
trade routes across the frontiers of Northern India and 

(3) No plants, except seeds other than those specified above, may 

be sent into India by letter or sample post. This regulation 
is enforced because the contents of letters and sample packets 
are not declared by the senders and there is therefore no 
regular means of checkmg their contents. 

(4) Fruits and vegetables (except potatoes) intended for consump- 

tion are admitted without restriction except by letter or 
sample post. 

(5) Potatoes, sugarcane, nibber plants, coffee-plants and seeds, 

flax seed, hershn seed and cotton seed are only admitted 
subject to special restrictions. 

(6) All other Hving plants are onlj' admitted through sjiecified 

ports of entry after fumigation. 

(7) Plants merely sent from one port to another, both being in 

British India (e.g.. from Calcutta to Eangoou) are not 
subject to any restrictions. 

As regards the land frontiers and Foreign Governments and Native 
States owning sea-ports in India, the French and Portuguese possessions 
and the Travancore, Cochin, Baroda and other States have expressed 
then willingiress to cooperate by introducing the necessary restrictions 
on plant imports from overseas. In the case of Portiiguese India such 
articles will not be despatched from the Portuguese Customs House 
until they have been examined by an expeii: officer of the Agricultural 
Inspecting Department, such preventive measures being taken as mav 
he considered necessary. The French ports, I understand, propose to 
adopt restrictions similar to our own. Travancore proposes to confine 
the importation of plants to the port of AUejipey. Junagadh State 
issued an Order in May 1918 on the same lines as the British India 
Notification, fumigation to be at the port of entry. Cambay, Sachin. 





Canes for plant- 
ing imported 
direct by the 
Govern ni e n t 
Sugar cane 
Expert and in- 
tended to be 
grown under 
his p'Tsonal 
supervision are 

Is importa- 
tion by 
letter or 
sample post 





^ — ~" 


Yes (i) A certificate from 
the consignor stating 
fully in what country 
and district of tliat 
country the potatoes 
were gro\vn and gua- 
r.ant«eing that warty 
disease was not known 
to exist on the Farms 
where the potatoes 
were grown ; and 

(ii) A certificate from an 
officer of the Board or 
Ministry of Agriculture 
or other similar Gov- 
ernment Department 
of the country, to the 
effect that no case of 
warty disease of pota- 
toes has been confirm- 
ed during the 12 
months preceding the 
date of the certificate 
within 6 miles of the 
place In Avhich the 
potatoes were growni. 

Yes. A certificate from 
;in ofiicer of the Board 
nr Ministry of Agricul- 
ture or otlier similar 
lio\.Tnment Depart- 
iiiriit Ul tlie cnuntrv nf 
urhiiii lli:it it has been 
rMiiiiin.a and found 
Iri'' truiii cane borers, 
scale insects. Aleii- 


Is it subject to 


s. ^ 

Is importation 
restricted to 
certain ports 


is the im- 


r. . '-J 



>< > 



No. except 
through the 
letter or sample 


Kind of riant 


1. Votatoes 

2. Sugarcane 






— "tj 3 


The imporls of 
these from the 
New World 
(inrluding South 
America and 
tlie West Indies) 
can only be 
made by the 
Madras Depart- 
ment of Agri 


Is import a- 

tion by 

letter or 

Bample post 




S S 2 

X X X 





Is it subject to the pro- 
Is it subject to duction of special certi- 
Fumigation i hcates. If so, what 
1 cortiScates 

Todes, root disease 
(any form), pine apple 
disease (Thielamopsit 
Macdiens) " Sereh " 
and cane gummosis. 
No ... . 

Yes. A certificate from 
the Government My- 
cologist of the countrj' 
of origin that (he 
Estate from which the 
plants have originated 
or the individual plants 
are free from Fomes- 
.semitostus and Splije 
rostilbe repcns. 



Yes, with Hy- 
drocyanic Acid 






Yes. Bombay, 
Calcutta, Miid- 
ras, Karachi. 
Negapatam and 





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PLATE 180. 

Fumigation Box. SItetch showing construction and external measurements. 










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Janjira, Nawanagar, Porbandar, Morvi, Jafrabad, and Bhavnagar 
States have not considered it necessary to introduce restrictions, as 
living plants are usually imported through Bombay. The danger of 
importation of pests through sea-ports other than the principal ones in 
British India is comparatively small and it is to be hoped that no such 
cases will arise. As regards other land frontiers, no serious danger is 
anticipated at present and therefore no restrictions have been imposed. 

In the case of plants received from overseas, they arrive either (1) 
on freight, (2) by post or (3) brought m by passengers. 

Packages brought in on freight are necessarily landed through the 
Customs Department to whom the necessary statements of contents 
have to be made. It is probable therefore that all such cases of importa- 
tion are dealt with as a matter of routine. In the case of living plants 
which are to be fumigated, the packages contauiing them are opened 
and placed, with all packing materials, in a fumigation box, the lid of 
which is then fastened down securely and a charge of gas given by 
means of the small box attached to the side of the large one. The 
construction of the fiimigation box is shown in (Plates 180 — 182. The 
internal measurements are : — 

(0 Main Box, 8'6" long, 3'6" high, 3'3" broad = 90- 6875 c. ft. 
(il) Clentrating f'liamber. — VZ" long, 1'3" broad, 1'3" high =: 1-9531 
c. ft. 
the internal capacity of the two boxes being therefore 98-6-in5 
c. ft. 

The construction will, I think, appear sufficiently plain from the 
photographs. The planks are joined with a J" to secure gas-tightness 
{see section of generating chamber, where part of side of main box is 
shown). If any cracks appear, they can be closed with putty, caulked 
or pasted over with stout paper. All that is required is a gas-tight box. 
The lid fits on to a ledge on imier edge of the sides, a gas-tight joint 
being secured by a strip of felt or other similar material secured onto 
this ledge. The main and generating chambers are separated by a 
sheet of perforated zinc to prevent any parcels under fumigation faUing 
into the generating chamber ; wooden or metal bars would do equally 
well. The generating chamber is provided with a lead tray to catch 
any acid that may be spilled ; its lid is bored with a small hole fitted 
with a cork. 

For convenience of transport, the perforated zinc sheet, generating 
chamber and lead tray are best removed and packed inside the mam 
box which may be strengthened for transport by additional wooden 

rnqc 1064. 

PLATE 13t. 


Pagr InO; 

PLATE 182. 


For use, the parcels to be fumigated are placed in the main chamber 
and its lid tightly fastened down. The weighed quantity of sulphuric 
acid and water is placed in a glass beaker or earthenware jar in the 
fumigating chamber and the weighed quantity of potassium cyanide 
is wrapped loosely in a piece of thin paper tied by a string of which- 
one end is passed through the hole in the top of the fumigation-chamber, 
which is then closed up. All being ready, tlie packet of cyanide is easily 
pulled up by means of the string and dropped into the vessel of acid, 
a glass strip being provided on either side of the fumigation-chamber 
through which it can be seen that the packet reaches the acid and that/ 
the gas is jjroperly evolved in the form of bubbles. The cork is of course 
replaced as soon as the packet has been dropped in. 

The gas evolved (Hydrocyanic Acid (!as) is colourless and non- 

On completion of the time required for the fumigation process, the 
nuts holding down the lid of the main box may be slacked off and turned 
back. If the lid is properly tight, practically no gas should escape 
during this process and no danger should therefore be run by the operator. 
The lid can then be lifted, which is best done by raising it from son^e 
little distance by means of a rope attached to the handles of the lid 
and passing through a block attached above the Fumigation Box. 

Fumigation should not be done in a closed room but in an open shed 
or verandah where the gas liberated from the Fumigation Chamber will 
be rapidly dissipated without any danger to any one in the vicinity. 
If reasonable care is taken in opening up the box after fumigation, no 
danger can ensue, but of course if the operator (or others) deliberately 
inhales the gas, the consequences may be serious. With the help of a 
block and long lead to raise the lid whilst keepmg at a reasonable distance, 
and of course to windward if there is any breeze, and with care not to 
approach the box imtil all the gas has been dissipated, and with due 
regard to selection of a locality so placed that the released gas will not 
blow into any offices, etc. (it is very quickly dissipated and rendered 
harmless in the open air), there is not likely to be any danger. 

The following directions for fumigating plants embody the necessary 
information : 

1. Remove the covers of the cases, wrappings of packages, etc., and 
spread the plants out in the trays together with all moss, wrappings, 
etc., in or with which they have been packed, taking care that the coa- 
tents of each package are kept .separate. The plants should be spread 
out loo.sely so that the gas will be able to penetrate between the plants, 

2. Close up the plant-chamber, wedging the door or lid securely. 


3. Place the vessel containing the requisite quantity of water in 
the small external gas-generating chamber. Add the acid to the water ; 
never pour the water into the acid, or it will react violently and spatter 
about. Take the weighed quantity of cyanide, wrap it loosely in a piece 
of thin paper tied by a string of which one end is passed through the 
hole in the top of the fumigation-chamber which is then closed up. 
All being ready, the packet of cyanide is easily pulled up by means of 
the string and dropped into the vessel of acid, and the hole on top of 
fumigation-chamber corked up. Note the time. 

Quantities of chemicals required. 

For each Fumigation Box (100 cubic feet) : — 

Water ......... I fluid ounce. 

Sulijhurio Acid . . . . . . . . 1 ,, ., 

Potassium Cj'anide (98 per cent.) ■ . . . . jounce 

For larger Chambers : — 
According to size, at the rate of — 

Per 100 cubic feet of 
internal capacity. 

4. After three-quarters of an hour open the door or lid of the plant 
and fumigatiug chambers, taking care not to breathe any of the gas 
■whilst domg so, and leaving them open for at least a quarter of an hour 
before making any attempt to remove the plants. The trays may then 
be removed and the plants exposed to a current of air for another quarter 
of an hour, after which they may be repacked. 

Note. — In all cases when an agent of the consignee is in attendance, the unpacking 
and repacking of the plants will be done by such agent. 


1. Living plants must not be watered immediately before fumigation 
as wet foliage is liable to be injured by gas. If received wet, they should 
be allowed to dry before fumigation. 

2. After fumigation plants should be protected from the sun for 
t^everal hours, preferably until the following morning. Do not therefore 
.spread plants out in the sun's rays after fumigation to dissipate the gas. 
It is better to carry out fumigation at night if possible. 

3. Sulphuric Acid is strongly corrosive and will burn into the skm, 
flesh or clothing. If acid should accidentally be spilt on to the hands, 
plunge them immediately into a bucket full of water. If acid sliould be 


1 fluid ounce. 

Sulphuric Acid . 

1 „ 

Potassium Cyanide (08 pc: 

I cent.) 

J ounce 


sp'.Hsihed on to the clothes, pour lupiid iimmonia on to the spot to neutia- 
lizo the acid. 

4. Potassium Cyanide is a deadly poison if taken into the system, 
either if swallowed or introduced through any cut or wound in the 
skin. It is better therefore not to touch it with the bare hands but to 
wear gloves or to handle it with forceps. 

5. Hydrocyanic Acid Gas, produced by the action of SuJphuric 
Acid on Potassium Cyanide, is extremely poLsonous if inhaled. It is 
colourless, non-inflammable, and has a faint smell something like that 
of peach-kernels or of some metals when these are struck t'^>gether. 
Great care must be taken to avoid breathing in any of the gas before 
it has all escaped. Should symptoms of poisoning be noticed the patient 
should be immediately removed and placed in the open air. 

In the case of plants received from overseas by post, under a Govern- 
ment of India Notification dated 15th December 191,7, the Chief Post 
Office Officials at the specified ports of entry are empowered to search 
or cause search to be made amongst all articles in course of transmission 
by post to any place in British India for all plant imports whose entry 
is regulated under the Pest Act and to deliver to the Customs Depart- 
ment all postal articles reasonably believed or found to contain such 
goods'. Parcels from abroad are of course accompanied by a declaration 
stating their contents, and the entry of plant imports (except non- 
specified seeds) by letter or sample post is prohibited. Any plant 
imports, whoj^e entry is regulated under the Pest Act and which are 
found in the Foreign Mails, are therefore handed over to the Customs 
Staff for necessary action. 

Living plants brought in by passengers are subject to the same 
1 est rictions as if they come ui on freight, and o re required to be fumigated 
or to be accompanied by the certificates recpired under the Act. It 
is probable that the regulations are not very strictly enforced in all 
cases and that there is still some danger of pests being brought into India 
hi this way. 

Turning now to the actual working. of these regulations, it wa- 
originally proposed to erect a regular fumigatorium at each port of 
entry and to have a special man, belongmg to the Agricultural Depart- 
ment, at each such port to carry out the worli. In view, however, of 
the small quantity of plant imports at all ports except Bombaj^ it was 
decided that the fumigation could be done by the Customs Staff in 
special boxes designed for this purpose, and on issuing the Notification 
under the Act Government directed that the work of fumigation should 
be entrusted to the Customs Staft' as an experimental measure for n, 

1008 rRi)ci;EDi-xc;s of the third extomologicai. meeting 

period of one year iu the first instance. This period has now elapsed 
End presumably the Customs Staff will continue the work, as no practical 
difficulties seem to have arisen in doing it. 

A few unforeseen contingencies which have arisen may be mentioned 
here. A case occurred in which a parcel of water-lilies was brought 
into Calcutta ; as it was not possible to fumigate wet plants of this sort 
and as there seemed no danger of their introducing pests, they were 
allowed in without fumigation. A trade in sugarcane from the Persian 
( iulf to Karachi was also reported ; as the cane was intended for eating 
purposes in Karachi and as it seemed unlikely that any new pests or 
diseases would be introduced, this was also allowed to be landed. A 
more serious case occurred in Bombay in June 1918 when some ten 
thousand maimds of cotton seed from Mombasa was brought to Bombay ; 
it was not possible to fumigate this large quantity with carbon bisulphide 
in accordance with the regulations, as the apparatus at hand was in- 
•eufficientl}' small, and it was passed to the consignees without fumigation 
on their giving a bond that it would be used for oil-making in Bombay. 
A report was also received that unginned cotton, amounting to 50,000 
Bengal maunds during the past year, is received at the port of Porbandar 
(Por bandar State) from the jjorts of Gwadar and Cliobar in the Persian 
Oulf, but no action seemed necessary in this case as we are not likely 
to receive from the Persian Gulf any pests that we have not got already. 
I have also come across one case where plants were fumigated and 
proved to have living insect pests on them on receipt by the consignee ; 
in this case, the packing material had not been fumigated and the plants 
were consequently reinfested ; steps have been taken to prevent a 
recurrence of this. 

Penalties for infringement of the regulations governing the importa- 
tion of plants into India are provided as follows : — 

f:{i) Section i of the Pest Act (II of 1914) prescribes that a Notifica- 
tion issued under Section 3 of the Act shall operate as if it 
had been issued under Section 19 of the Sea Customs Act. 
(ii) Under Chapter XVI, Section 167 («) of the Sea Customs Act 
goods which ate landed at ports other than those prescribed 
for the landing of such goods are liable to confiscation. 
Plant imports, therefore, which are landed otherwise than 
at Bombay,' Calcutta, Dhaneshkhodi. Karachi. Madras, 
Negapatam, Rangoon or Tuticorin are liable to confiscation. 
((■(■/) Under Chapter 167 (8) of the Sea Customs Act, the importation 
of prohibited goods may involve confiscation and the imposi- 
tion of a fine not exceeding thrice the value of the goods or 
one thousand Rupees. 


(if) Section 5 (2) of tlie Pest Act (II of 1914) empowers Local 
Governments to punish breach of any rule made under 
Section 5 by a fine which may extend to one thousand 

With reference to the importation of insect pests I may mention Dr. Gougb. 
^that the scale-insect that we are fighting in Egypt was found by me 
on some oranges that I had at the Taj Mahal Hotel in Bombay. It 
would be best for the Government of India to take measures against 
the importation of fruit from Egypt. Our importation laws are ad- 
ministered by the Entomological Department and not by the Customs 

AVhat is the name of this scale ! Mr. Ramakrishna 


Aspidiotiis ficus. Dr. Gough. 

But we already have that in India and it is widely distributed and Mr.Fletcher. 
has been foimd in Calcutta on palms. 

I might say that it is not possible to avoid all insects coining in. Dr_ Gough. 
Samples without value do get in without our knowledge. With us the 
matter is simplified as our only ports of entry for fruit are Port Said, 
Alexandria and Suez. 

With us the ports of entry are so scattered and at such enormous Mr. Fletcher. 
distances apart and the importations of plants at some ports are so small 
and infrequent that it is at once imeconomic to keep an entomological 
staff at each port to do the fumigation and impossible to suj^ervise the 
work properly in the absence of a proper Entomological Service. That 
is our difficidty at present.. If we can only get a properly organized 
Entomological Service with a sufficiently large staff it should be possible 
to arrange for at least the proper supervision of this work if not for 
doing it entirely. An Entomological Supervisor, for example, in going 
his rounds to inspect the work of the Provincial Entomological Assistants, 
could take in these ports on his rounds and see that the work was being 
done properly. 

I should like to draw the attention of the Meeting to a paper read Mr. Ramakrishna 
by me at the last Science Congress at Bombay on " Some Foreign Insect ^y^*^- 
Pests not required in India." 

One point about a paper of this sort is that it is comparatively easy jj^ Fletcher 
to make a list of foreign pests that we have not got and do not want 
to get, but we do not know in all cases whether what is a pest in one 
coimtry will actually be a jjest in another country. As I have pointed 
out in my paper, an insect whicl^is more or less harmless in its own native 
home often becomes a bad pest when introduced into a new country, 
and probably the opposite is sometimes the case. As regards foreign 



Mr. Senior-White. 

Mr. Fletcher. 

pests likely to be brought into India. I have often wondered why we have 
not got Plodia interpunctella into India, but we do not seem to have it. 

In this connection one thing that we want is a regular insect-survey 
of the various plant-nurseries in India. Probably such a survey would 
reveal a number of hitherto unknown and unsuspected pests which 
have been introduced with plants and are being distributed throughout 
the country. But, until we get a i^roper-sized entomological staff, 
it is hopeless to try to start work of this sort. 

Coolies travelling between Ceylon and India may bring in pests. 
Tlie Customs Department cannot stop that. 

The Act covers all plants whether brought in by hand or otherwise. 
I know that these coolies do sometimes bring plants with them but 
the Customs Dejiitrtment should deal with that under the Act. 


Mr. Fletcher. This subject is down on the programme for general discussion and 

has been considered by a Committee under the chairmanship of IVIr. 
Higginbottom and composed of all those present at this Meeting who 
are engaged in teaching work at the various Colleges. As I explained 
to the Committee, my idea in including this subject amongst the Agenda 
was that some of those engaged in teaching might benefit by discussing 
with other teachers the syllabus of the course in Entomology and also 
b}^ seeing the various diagrams and models used in teaching at other 
Colleges and brought to this Meeting, at my suggestion, for exhibition. 
As most of those who are most interested in the subject have already 
discussed this cj[uestion in Committee, and in the absence of Mr. Higgin- 
bottom. I will now read the — 

" Befott o/ tlie Committee on Entom.ohgical Education in Agrictdtuml 

" Considering the great economic importance of insect pests to 
Indian Agriculture, we recommend that all Agricultural Colleges should 
make provision for the teaching of Entomolog3^ 

"The aim of the teaching of Entomology in Provincial Agricultural 
Colleges should be to give the students a sufficient knowledge of ento- 
mology to be able (1) to recognize the common pests and to know some- 
thing of their life-history and the control measures applicable to each, 
and (2) to be in a position to report intelligently regarding the occurrence 
of any imusual pests. 


" To this end we recommeud that the coiu'se should iuchide, in 
addition to the lecture and laboratory work, a sufficient amount of 
practical work in the field to acquire a knowledge of the insects under 
field conditions and of the actual methods adopted to control them. 

■' In view of the demand for coloured plates showing the life-histories 
of Indian insects for the use of their classes of students, we recommend 
that all Agricultural Colleges requiring such plates should make an 
annual estimate in anticipation of their demands and that such estimates 
should be forwarded to Pusa by 1st January in each year to be consoli- 
dated into one indent in order to reduce cost and expedite delivery of 
these plates." 

This Report is now before the Meeting. Has anyone any remarks Mr. Fletcher, 
to make on it ? 

What is the cost of these coloured plates, supposing that we require Mr. D'Abreu, 
only one copy of each ? 

That is the difficulty which we sought to avoid in the last paragraph Mr. Fletcher, 
of the Report. It is as much trouble to the printer to get the blocks 
in register to print off a single copy as it is to print off a thousand, and 
he would probably charge you at least one rupee each for single copies. 
If we can know the demand, we can get a number printed at one time. 

The lines suggested by the Committee seem to meet the requirements. Mr. Ghosh. 

In the Agricultural Colleges the aim is to train farmers and fruit- 
growers and not entomologists. We want to give these students a 
training which will be of real practical value to them, for example, they 
should be able to distinguish a pest from a non-pest ; any insect biting 
off a few leaves does not become a pest. If the student cannot make 
a distinction in this direction he is likely to magnify small things and 
to adopt preventive and remedial measiu-es which are not at all called 

Secondly, they should be able, at least in all ordinary cases, to trace 
the real culprit when they observe any injury to their crop or orchard ; 
for instance, when they see the top-shoot of a brinjal plant droop they 
should have sufficient knowledge to see that the ladybird-beetle grub 
feeding on the Aphids on the leaves is not responsible for it. 

Thirdly, they should be able to distinguish the beneficial from the • 

Fourthly, they shoidd have just a general knowledge of the external 
anatomy of insects so as to be able to place the insects at least in then: 
Orders. This amount of systematic work is (piite sufficient for them. 

In order to make them familiar with common insects, their mode 
of feeding and causing damage, merely telling them of these insects or 
giving a description of their damage, however elaborate the description 

VOL. Ill R 

1072 rnocEEDiNGS of the TninD entomological meetdtg 

Sardar Harchand 

may be, or showing tliem figures and Lllustrations or dry specimens iu 
the cabinet, does not do. On the other hand, when once the student 
is shown the Aphids, the mealybugs and scales or caterpillars in the 
field, no student of average intelligence will make mistakes about them. 

The laboratory work required of the students would be confined to 
the insects collected by the students themselves. They should be 
expected to rear those which can be reared and as the rearing goes on 
they should be made to make notes on life-history. This is the place 
where they can easily be taught the differences between a bug and a 
moth and those between a moth and a beetle or those between a fly 
and a beetle. 

All measures of control are based on life-history and habits and 
the students' attention should be particularly drawn to those points. 

If it is thought that entomology does not warrant so much time 
to be devoted by the students, in answer I may say that by the method 
which I advocate, viz., studying entomology mostly in the fields, the 
students whUe engaged in entomological observations, unconsciously 
make very valuable observations on the crops themselves. The obser- 
vation concentrates their attention on the crop. Or, to put it inversely, 
whUe carrying on their work in the fields the students should be en- 
couraged to make observations on the insect and fungal pests. They 
should collect those insects which should be under rearing so that the 
students may have an opportunity of following tjie insects in their 
course of life-history. Rearing can be done in batches, e.g., six boys 
rear the leaf-roller, another batch of six may rear the stem-borers and 
so on, whUe all can see the insects being reared by the whole body of 
boys. The staff to help the students should be a demonstrator and a 
laboratory keeper. The rearing will be done vmder the supervision of 
the demonstrator. The students should be required to visit the rearing 
place compulsorily once every day to see how the insects progress. If 
they camiot spare the time to feed the insects and clean the cages, the 
laboratory keeper can do that for them. 

I propose a Resolution : — 

" That the Report of the Committee appointed to consider the question 
of Entomological Education in A^Ticultual Colleses be approved." 

I second this Resolution. 

[The Resolution, on being fid to the Meeting, was carried unanimously.'] 

I suggest that cabinets of the various insect-pests and the life-histories 
of the insects of particular localities be prepared for use in schools. In 
Mysore we circulated such cabinets and they created very great interest. 


Stories of insects in simple language and illustrated by coloured plates Harchand Singh, 
should be prepared for use in our schools and also be inserted in the 
elementary text-books. They are sure to interest the children. 

The ignorance of the facts of insect life is really very great and some- Mr. Kunhi 
thing nnist be done. Kannan. 

It is no use making cabinets and having book's if there are no teachers Mr. Afzal Husain. 
to explain them. In all school primers there are chafiterson animals and 
insects, but the teachers find them useful only for dictation as they 
contain some difficult technical words that childreii cannot spell correct- 
ly. We must first train the teachers. 

In Baroda we have village museums. Mr. Patel. 

[The general opinion of the Meeting was that theoretical lectures are 
of no Mse.] 

As a member of the Ceylon Board of Agriculture I have to deal ^'- Senior-White, 
with the rail/at in connection with insect pests and my experience shows 
that it is little use to have coloured plates and books ; you must show 
the actual insect. The best thing is to teach general entomology and 
agriculture in the training colleges for teachers. 

I have dealt with this subject in my paper on " Some aspects of ^^- Ghosh. 
Economic Entomology in India." 

In the Central Provinces we have been keeping show-cases in villages. Mr. Khare. 

What about that reader for use in the Central Provinces and for Mr. Fletcher, 
which I wrote some chapters on insects ? 

I do not know anything about it. Mr. Khare. 

By C. C. Ghosh, B.A., Assistant to the Imperial Entomologist. 
In this paper it is proposed to deal with a few ideas which have 
occurred to the writer with regard to Economic Entomology in relation 
to Agriculture in India. The cjuestion is dealt with from the view- 
point of the Indian cultivators. The aim of the Agricultural Economic 
Entomologist is to protect the crops against insect pests. The success 
of his work depends on the adoption of proper and efficacious method.s 
of control or prevention. The efficacy of the methods depends on the 
thoroughness of the study of the pests in all their relations, including 
proper experiments and verification of the preventive and remedial 
measures suggested by the life-history and behaviour of the insects 
concerned. Even when the methods recommended to deal with them 
are based on such study, another essential condition of success is their 
proper application. This presupposes on the part of the constituents 

R 2 


of the eutomologist capacity to iiiulerstaud aud to carry out the recom- 

Measures of control and prevention against insects may be broadly 
placed under two categories. In one, definite results can be expected 
by the adoption of certain definite measures. If the Scales, Mealy- 
bugs aud Alem'odids, etc., are sprayed with certain spray-fluids, we 
can see the results at once. The insects are killed and the plants saved. 
Great progress has been made in this respect in America and other 
countries. Although similar results can be expected and are obtained 
in India, a good deal of work has yet to be done to test the fumigants 
and sprays under Indian conditions of temperature and moisture and 
especially to find out simple things which the Indian cultivator can 
make up and use with small expenses within his means. In the other 
category such definite results can hardly be expected and mider it are 
included the majority of the pests, caterpillars, grubs, bugs and the 
whole host of insects affecting garden, vegetable and field crops. In 
their case, the measures of control and prevention, however carefully 
and accurately they may have been worked out, can only approximate 
to certainty in their results. With regard to most of these, although 
the Agricultural Department with a recognized entomological staff has- 
now been in existence in India for about a decade and a half, Economic 
Entomology may be said to be still in its infancy. It has not yet been 
possible to make out a complete survey of the pests, although most of 
the prhicipal ones have been discovered. Of the known ones again, 
on account of the paucity of workers, it has not been possible to carry 
out the intensive study necessary to understand them in all their aspects, 
viz., in relation to the agricultural practices followed for cultivating 
the crop or crops concerned, the climate, presence and absence of alter- 
native foodplants and various other conditions, a correct study of which 
is necessary to grasp their real nature. Insects like all other living 
creatures are influenced by varying conditions of early or late rainfall, 
drought, scarcity or abundance of food and presence or absence of 
enemies. Therefore, unless we are able to keep) them under careful 
observation for a series of years our knowledge of their real behaviour 
is extremely defective. It has not yet been possible to devote such 
study to them and in fact no attempts at th" study of most of them have 
yet been made. Our recommendations to combat them are therefore in 
most cases based on general observations and deductive inferences. 
For instance, borers in sugarcane cause " dead heart." On the principle 
of " catch and kill," to diminish the number of borers, recommendations 
have been made to cut out the shoots with " dead heart." Similar 
measures are recommended for borers in rice which cause dry ear. 


Although the principle of '" catch and kill "" is apiilicable in many cases 
with successful results, recent experiments have proved that it is hardly 
of use in the case of sugarcane and rice just mentioned. In sugarcane 
" dead hearts " have been found to be caused by various agents which 
are not got rid of simply by the removal of the shoots with " dead 
hearts," and- in fact this remedial operation has a retarding effect on the 
crop. Similarly removal of rice plants with dry ears has been found 
to be hardly helpful to the standing and of doubtful utility to the future 
crop. When we come to verif)^ our own recommendations we find that 
they do not always possess the merits we claim for them. Recommen- 
dations based on general imj^ressions and imperfect knowledge of the 
pest are bound to be vague and even useless and not applicable to all 
cases and localities. These remarks apply to most of the insects we 
have to deal with. This defect is due to imperfect study which 
again is ascribable not to inefficiency of the experts who have made 
the recommendations but to want of facilities. 

The constituents of the Agricultural Economic Entomologist in 
India have absolutely no knowledge of insect life. To them a cater- 
pillar is an insect which is born and dies as such. The moth or the 
butterfly resulting from the same caterpillar is a separate insect taken 
to be born and to die as the moth or the butterfly. This ignorance 
of insect life is not simply confined to the uneducated classes, but is 
equally prevalent among the educated classes also. Moreover, the 
maj ority of the cultivators o^mi only a few acres of land which is scattered 
in small plots, often half or even one-third of an acre in area or even 
less. And in addition to this, they are proverbially poor. Any measure 
of insect control involving an outlay of expenditure is either inexpedient 
on account of the scattered nature of the plots under cultivation or 
beyond the means of the cultivator. But although totally ignorant of 
the elements of insect life, the Indian cidtivators owing to the accu- 
mulated experience of ages have in many cases evolved methods of 
cultivation best adapted to the successful growth of the crops which 
are liable to be seriously affected by insects or fungal diseases. Take 
for instance the " wilt disease "_ of tobacco at Rangpur, which the 
wiiter had the opportunity of investigating from the entomological 
point of view. The soU is turned over frequently with the hand plough. 
The cultivators believe that they are removing the extra moisture 
from the soil by this operation, but really they conserve moisture by 
preparing a sort of a surface mnlch. Scientific investigation corroborated 
the same process to be efficacious to a great extent against the disease 
as the germs are frequently exposed to the sun and are thus killed. 
Similarly in the " Kolerofja " disease of betel-nuts in Mysore, the people 


have a method of covering the bunches of the nuts by tying over them 
the broad leaf-sheaths locally called Kottes. Scientific investigation 
revealed the fact that the spores of the disease are spread by rainwater 
and A-oWe-tying is efficacious against it. In Gujarat, against the cater- 
pillars which bore the tobacco stem and cause a swelling in it, the culti- 
vators follow the method of making an incision in the swollen part 
which in many cases cures the disease and enables the plants to grow 
normally, the plants remaining stunted if not cvu'ed. The entomologist 
cannot yet suggest a better method. - In the case of the plant 
(Orobanche) parasitic on roots of tobacco in Bihar, scientific investiga- 
tion recommended the stojipage of the ratoon crop. In spite of the 
root parasites the cidtivators make a profit out of the ratoon cro^J and 
therefore they are not prepared to give it up. But they have a method 
of evaduig the parasites by not growing tobacco for consecutive years 
in the same place. In extreme cases cultivation of particular crops, 
which they have not been able to protect, has been given up. The 
writer knows of a locality in the Ranigani Subdivision of Bengal where 
no aus paddy is cultivated, although it grows well there, as it cannot 
be protected against the rice bug, Leptocorisa varicornis. 

The agricultural practices followed by the cultivators are usually 
suited to the local conditions. Although with regard to many pests 
we are not in a position to suggest really efficacious measures, whatever 
recommendations to deal with an insect are made, they must take into 
account the local conditions and the current agricultm-al practices or 
thej^ become not only impracticable and useless but make the cultivators 
lose confidence in the entomologist. What would one think of drowning 
rice plants in order to kill caterijillars of Chafra mathias feeding on 
their leaves by raismg a high mound all roimd the field and filling 
it with water ? Ridiculous is too mild an adjective for this recommen- 
dation. Yet it has been made by an entomologist who probably never 
saw the conditions under which rice is cultivated. It also illustrates 
the fault of making recommendations on the strength of general imiDres- 
sions and imperfect study, which are likely to magnify small things 
beyond proportion. The Vliapra mathias caterpillars are a very minor 
pest, hardly requiring any treatment in most cases. While in the case 
of most of the injurious insects we have not yet been able to find out 
practical methods of prevention of control, in the case of some of the 
pests at least, simple measures, quite within the means of the cultivators, 
are efficient. For instance, removal and destruction of eggclusters or 
congregated young caterpillars of Diacrisia on jute or of the white 
butterfly (P. brassiccp) on cabbage will check their increase. The Red 
Cdtton Bug may be shaken ofl' into a pan of kerosiuized water. Timely 


destructiou of the top-shoot borers of briiijal may diinitiish futui'e 
damage. The surface caterpillars among vegetable crops or in the 
field may be piclied off by children by tiu-oing over the surface of the 
soil. Enough time and labour can almost always be spared by the 
members of the cultivator's family for such measures. Many wonder 
why he does not adopt them. He does not adopt them because he 
does not understand the reason of the thing. He cannot comprehend 
how the destruction of the caterjjiUars feeding to-day will ensure safety 
of the new crop or to the crop at a later stage. He does not understand 
that insects like all other living creatures are born of parents and not 
out of air or water and are endowed with a power of rapid development 
and growth, and a fecundity not commonly met with among animals, 
beatts or bii'ds he ordinarily sees. When he will understand that ten 
caterpillars feeding to-day have the power of giving rise to about five 
thousand a mouth later, he will of his own accord and without any 
advice from the entomologist, seek out the ten or even two and destroy 
them. Therefore the best service the entomologist can at present 
render to the cultivator is to acquaint him with the elements of insect 
life. The attitude of apathy, indifference or resignation, at present so 
common on his part, can be dispelled only by this knowledge, and his 
co-operation secured, without which the entomologist however much 
backed he may be otherwise, cannot be successfid in his work of checking 
the pests. While it is true in many cases that no reforms can be safely 
or widely introduced into the agricultm'al system without the willing 
and intelligent co-operation of the farmer, which CLi^i only be expected 
from him if his education has been directed in that line, it is hardly 
so in entomology. Even small children without education can see 
and grasp the elementary things of insect life as they do of cattle. Only 
the things have to be pointed out to them. In this respect the ento- 
mologist is much more favomably situated than the ijiycologist or the 
bacteriologist and need not requisition the services of a microscope. 

Insects have a charm both for the young and the old. It will not 
be easy to approach the old people at once, but they can be apj^roachcd 
through the children. As an instance of how children can quickly 
grasp the elements of insect life, the writer mentions here his experience 
with a child about eight years old. This child oae day found a golden- 
colouied glistening chrysalis of the common butterfly Evflosa core, 
hanging on a leaf of oleander. She was asked to keep it in a tumbler 
and she saw how the butterfly emerged from it. She was further asked 
to search the oleander bush and she found eggs and caterpillars of the 
same butterfly. She saw the caterpillars hatching from the eggs and 
was made to feed and rear them in a tumbler. She saw the comiection 


between the egg, tlie caterpillar, the pupa and the butterfly. This 
aroused her interest in insects and she collects them from all sorts of 
plants. Soon after her experience with the above butterfly one day 
she found two pupae of the oleander hawk-moth (Deilcphila verii) under 
cover of old leaves lying on the road side. She brought them to the 
writer and accurately described them as the pupse of some large cater- 
pillars although she had not seen such pupa? before. As against this 
method of teaching, the wTiter remembers while reading in his under- 
graduate days that the word " caterpillar " in a text book was explained 
as referring to an unl<nown creature living on the surface of the earth 
and he had not had the opportunity of recognising it in the ubiquitous 
" shiia fokn " until he joined the Agricultural Department. 

In India insects are present everywhere and they form the best 
subjects for Nature Study for small children. But the instruction 
should be on proper lines. In Bengal villages and almost everywhere 
in the country most of the cultivators" boys attend the village falhftliaJas 
(primary schools) for shorter or longer periods according to the means 
of the family. All families make an attempt to teach the boys at least 
how to read and make small calculations. WhDe attending the path- 
shalas the boys can be shown the common insects by the Gum- (teacher).' 
For this purpose the Giirit himself has to be taught when he attends 
the Guru training-schools. Elementary text books written in the 
plainest language in the vernaculars will be of help in this direction. 

When the cultivators WA\ imderstand insect life they will know the 
complexity of the problem and the difficulties of the entomologist and 
will not expect wonders from him. The -ivinter has heard the Ento- 
mological Assistants in the Provinces being styled by the people as 
" doctors." The people expect that plant-diseases due to insects are 
capable of being cured by these entomological " doctors "' with the 
application of medicines, if not by incantations and inanlras, as they 
see human diseases cured by medical men and more recently cattle 
diseases by veterinary surgeons. In this coimection it may be pointed 
out that most of the provinces have an Entomological Assistant, whose 
time is wholly taken up and he himself spent up. in moving from place 
to place, under orders to check insect outbreaks wherever they occur 
throughout the Province. 

The position of the Entomologist in India is at present this. In 
the case of most of the pests he cannot suggest really efiicacious measures 
on account of not having facilities for pro]icr study. In the case of 
some insects, for instance. Aphides. Scales, etc., the efficacious measures 
either involve an outlay not within the means of the cultivator or lack 
facilities for adoption. The results of preventive measures are not 


apparent at once and jircventive measures do not appeal to the people 
as. to quote one example, they do not see the connection between the 
hibernating caterpillars in jxar stalks and the brood of the same insect 
in the crop of the next spring. In some cases the entomologist cannot 
do more than recommend the methods wliich the cultivators themselves 
follow. Frequently again for want of facilities for local investigation 
the advice given through correspondence has no reference to actual 
conditions and therefore turns out to be impracticable. All these 
difficulties in the way of the entomologist are not apparent to tlie ordi- 
nary people. In some quarters therefore there is a tendency to belittle 
the importance of the entomologist in the economy of the Agricultural 
Department. This is hardly justifiable as the entomologist is judged 
before he is given facilities for equipping himself for the work he is 
expected to be able to do. 

In Agricultural Economic Entomology in India there are two distinct 
lines on which ijrogress is urgently needed, first investigational and the 
second educational. We have to push on vigorously the investigational 
part which can be carried on without the co-operation of the people. 
The investigation of a pest must be carried on in its natural environ- 
ment in the locality where it occiirs, in order to enable the investigator 
to see it in its real perspective. The mango fruit weevil (CryplorrJiyn- 
chus gravis) or the Rice Hispa which occur and cause extensive damage 
in Eastern Bengal and Assam cannot be investigated wdth imported 
individuals at Pusa, where they do not occur or occur only as curiosities. 
It will be years before the investigational part can make much progress 
even if we proceed at a much faster rate than we are doing at present. 
But in the educational part we can have very good results in the course 
of a short time, if only we can utilize the agency indicated above. If 
with the co-operation of the Educational Department Nature Study 
with insects be made a compulsory subject in primary schools, the 
knowledge of insect life will spread quickly. Through the boys attending 
the jmlhshalas it will spread into their families and those of their neigh- 
bours. If a proper beginning on these or similar lines be made, progress 
is expected to be very rajiid and this will help the Economic Entomolo- 
gist immens?ly in his work of checking the ravages of insects. 

Mr. (.!hosh's paper contains many facts which are obviously true. Mr. Fletcher, 
We require, in the first place, very detailed work on the natmal history 
(in its widest sense) of the innumerable insect pests which cause in the 
aggregate money losses amounting to hundreds of millions of rupees 
every year in India alone. For that we require a very large increase 
of staff, and, in my opinion, such an investigational staff should be 



centralized in order to obtain the best economy and efficiency. That i& 
the first thing we want — a thorough linowledge of the insects concerned 
— and it is not a bit of good to reconnuend control nieasiu-es before we 
have this thorough knowledge. We can of course recommend what 
Mr. Ghosh calls the " catch and kill " j^olicy, as in the case of bagging 
of grasshoppers, but measures of that sort are mere temporary palliatives 
and are not control-measures as I regard the word " control." In the 
second place, there is room for a considerable amount of education on 
the part of the raiyat as regards the life-histories and methods of life 
of the commoner insects. That is in some resjDects simpile work, only 
requiring organization, but it is rather outside the scope of the investiga- 
tional staff and could well be left to Provincial activities provided that 
it was done in close co-operation with the entomological side of the 
work in order to ensure accuracy. But I think strongly that the investi- 
gational work must come first. Otherwise, if you start to tell the raiyat 
this and that about insects, the first thing he will want to know will be 
the practical question of control. If your investigational work has got 
far enough to have elucidated definite lines of control, the raiijat will 
then be willing to listen to what you have to say, if you can tell him not 
only about the life-history but also about the control ; but, if your 
information stops short at the life-history and you cannot answer his 
questions about control, I doubt whether he will see the practical value 
of what you have to tell him. As far as Nature Study is concerned I 
quite agree that insects form a suitable subject for use in India but 
many of the lessons on insects in text-books in use in India are, I think, 
founded on insects which are not Indian and this point requires amending 
and the text-books checked by competent entomological workers. 

I think that \ve might have a Resolution on this subject. I have 
drafted one and, if it meets with general approval, perhaps Mr. Ghosh 
would like to propose it. 

I propose the following Resolution : — 

" Tills Meeting- 

(1) considers, in view of (he gr-sa*: importance o£ a knowledge of 
I'lsects and insect life-histories to ths peoples of India, that 
readers for use in the primary schools in India should, as 
fa" as possible, contain s mply written accounts of some of 
the insects commrnly found in the Provinces concerned. 

(8) suggests that entomology sh.uld figure prominently in all 
courses of Nature Study, and 


(3) recommends that the educational authorities shcuM enlist the 
help of entoniologi(^al workers in th3 preparation cf such 
accounts in their readers or text-booiis." 

I second this Resolution. Mr. Kunhi 


[We Resolution was -piil lo (he ileeiing and carried ■unaniinousli/.] 


We now come to the last subject on our Agenda-paper, the orgaui- nir. Fletcher, 
zation of entomological work in India and in the first place I may perhaps 
explain why this subject was placed on the list of Agenda after the 
programme was primed. When Sir Claude Hill, the Hou'ble Member 
in charge of the Revenue and Agriculture Department, was at Pusa 
last month I showed him the programme of subjects for discussion at 
this Meeting and he asked me whether we would not discuss my organi- 
zation scheme, to which I replied that my scheme had alreacty gone 
up to Government officially and that subsequent proceedings seemed 
to me more a matter for executive action. Sir Claude Hill however 
said tliat Government would welcome any discussion on it at this 
Meeting, at which so many entomological interests would be represented, 
and it was therefore included in the prtigramme. 

The C|uestion of the means of improvement of entomological work, 
and particularly of entomological research, has been in my mind for 
many years and you must not think that this proposal of mine is a 
hasty or ill-considered one. Since taking over the duties of Imperial 
Entomologist in 1913 I have visited all the Provinces with a view to 
acquiring a first-hand knowledge of their requirements and of how these 
may best be met and I may remind you that I have myself served as 
Government Entomologist in the only Province that has yet created 
Buch a post. I have been able therefore to regard this question not 
only from the point of view of what is best for the Indian Empii'e as a 
whole but from the Provincial aspect also. One's first idea is, perhaps 
naturally, the creation of Provincial Stafi's. but more mature considera- 
tion convinced me that better progress would be made by an equal 
number of men working together rather than by the same number of 
men working separately — in other words, by a strong Imperial Staff 
rather than by numerically equal but much less efficient Provincial 


Staffs ; and sonic three years ago I liad the details more or less worked 
out in my own mind. Two years ago the Government of India called 
for proposals for an expansion of the Pusa Research Institute and I 
then drafted my proposals for the centralization of all the varied ento- 
mological work being done in India, as I considered that the question 
should be considered as a whole and not only as regards Pusa alone. 
These proposals were submitted to Government and were considered 
by a Committee which met in Simla in May 1918 and reported favourably 
on them. They were also prmted in the Report of the Indian Industrial 
Commission which also endorsed them. It is now for this Meeting to 
consider them and make any criticisms on them. I may say that for 
my part I shall welcome any criticisms that you may have to ofTer. 
I will now read the Report of the Committee appointed to consider this 

'■ Report of Comniillee on organization of entomological work in India. 

" No alternative proposals having been received, the Committee has 
considered the proposals contained in Mr. Bainbrigge Fletcher's scheme 
(Appendix K to Report of Indian Industrial Commission) on which 
they offer the following remarks : — 

(1) The Committee considers that the centralization of entomolo- 

gical research work in India is very desirable. 

(2) As regards the Agricultm-al and Forest Departments, the 

Committee considers that the dimensions of the Service 
projiosed are not large enough to commence the work satis- 
factorily, in view of the importance of entomology in India, 
and that an increase in the numbers proposed is necessary 
and that an increase in the rates of pay proposed for the 
lower grades is also necessary. The Committee offers no 
remarks as regards other Departments. 

(3) The Committee considers that the staff of the central entomolo- 

gical institute should be imperial {i.e.. employed directly 
under the Government of India). 

(4) Provincial staff's will be required, in addition to the staff of 

the central entomological institute, and we consider that 
they should work itader the local Agricultural or Forest or 
other Departments, as the case may be, reporting to the 
central institute through such local Departments. ' 


(5) As regards the location of the entoiiiologioal institute, we consi- 
der that Coimbatore is the most suitable locality that has 
yet been suggested. 

E. A. Andrews, 

C. Beeson, 

Sam Higginbottom, 

Lewis H. Gough, 

T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, 

C. S. MlSRA,* 

T. V. Eamakrishna Ayyar,"}" 


Y. Ramachandra Eao."}" 

" As a representative of the Forest Department I wish to record my 
opinion on the suitability of Dehra Dun as an alternative locality after 
Coimbatore. Dehra Dun compared with Coimbatore is equally accessible 
and habitable, and is rapidly becoming a scientific centre of great im- 
portance. As regards the preservation of an insect collection climatic 
conditions are not prohibitive although the}- are far less suitable than 
those of Coimbatore. Imjiroved methods of storing would nullify dis- 
advantages arising from high humidity. As regards facilities for ex- 
perimental breeding of insects Coimbatore appiears to epitomise various 
soil and locality conditions better than Dehra Dun. although the 
qualifications of the latter are high. In my opinion facilities for this 
work are not essential at a Central Institute, as seasonal history investi- 
gations require to be carried out in experimental stations in the field. 

(Sd.) C. Beeson. 

" I feel that Coimbatore is too far South to be central, but I cannot 
suggest any other place that offers so many advantages with so few 
disadvantages. I feel that the neighbourhoods of Poona, Indore or 
Rutlam, Bangalore and Jubbulpore are worth considering. 

(Sd.) Sam Higginbottom. 

" In view of the function that the Central Entomological Bureau is 
expected to fulfil in the future it is desirable that it should be located 
in or near a centr;^! place easy of access to all workers in Entomology 
from difierent parts of India. Its proximity to an Institute dealing 
with cognate subjects of Agricultural Bacteriology, Chemistry, Botany, 

* Subject to note appended. 
t Subject to the note appended. 


Mycology, etc., from a broad or Imperial point of view is also desirable. 
In my opinion tliese conditions are fulfilled at Piisa. If, however, ade- 
quate provisions are made, it will be possible to keep the specimens 
iu as good a condition as it will be possible to do elsewhere. 

(Sd.) C. S. MisRA. 

. ■' We consider that as far as the Agricultural side of the Scheme is 
concerned, the work of the Entomological Assistants in the Provinces 
is better controlled and directed tlirough a Provincial Entomologist 
than through a Deputy Director of Agriculture, necessarily preoccupied 
with his own work. We consider also that no iDrovision has been made 
in the scheme for the training of Indians for posts in the Superior Service.* 
As regards officers coming under Class II of Mr. Fletcher's scheme, we 
consider that any grade less than Ks. 100—150—1.5—300, 300—2.0—500, 
will fail to attract the best men required for efficient work in the Pro- 
vinces as well as for final recruitment into the Imperial Service on 
attainment of the maximum of the grade. 

We also consider that unless the Provincial Entomological Staff 
is also made Imperial, it would seriously detract from the merits of a 
Centralised Entomological Research Institute. 

(Sd.) T. V. Eamakrishna Ayyar, 


(Sd.) Y. Ramachandea Rao." 

With regard to this Committee Report, no alternative scheme was 
submitted to the Committee and I take it that no one has any other 
scheme to propose. 

The Committee is unanimous regarding the desu-ability of the centrali- 
zation of research work in entomology in India, and when one considers 
the demand for investigational work in entomology in connection with 
Agriculture, Forestry, and Medical and Veterinary Science in India 
and with the more systematic side of the subj ect, as well as the enormous 
extent of the subject of entomology generally, which renders it quite 
impossible for any one worker to be really a master of more than one 
small section of the whole science, and when one further commences 
to multiply the various workers in these sections by the number of 
Provinces into which the Indian Empire is divided for purely adminis- 

* This sentence was amended at the General Meeting to read as follows : — Provision 
should be made at the Central Entomological Institute for the reception of a limited 
number of post-graduate students desirous of acquiring a knowledge of the methods 
-employed in entomological research work. 


trative purposes, you will iiud that, if expansion is to take place on 
the present decentralized lines, we shall have thirty or forty or more 
entomologists all working separately, each provided with expensive 
laboratories and libraries and collections, which are necessary if any 
good work is done, and each man with his work diffused, incomplete 
and often redundant. To me there seems no question but that an 
equal number of men all belonging to one Central Institute would accom- 
plish far more and far better work, because each man could be employed 
on a particular line of work, and at far less cost to the State on account 
of the centralization of laboratories, libraries, collections and records 
generally. Such items as recruiting would be greatly facilitated by 
the establishment of a centralized service on account of the more regular 
occiu"rence of vacancies and because a centralized Service with a hicrh 
reputation would attract a better class of candidates than odd vacancies 
in various Services occurring at infrequent inter\'als. There are numer- 
ousother advantages of centralization and practically no disadvantages, 
but I do not propose to say any more on this subject now because these 
points have been dealt with in my Note which you have had an oppor- 
tunity of seeing. 

As regards the numbers required to commence with, this point was 
also endorsed by the Simla Committee. As regards the dimensions 
proposed originally in my scheme it should be remembered that those 
numbers represented a bare minimum to commence with and were 
largely influenced by the practical difficulty of recruiting larger nuiubers 
of really competent men, but if the various Departments require more 
workers (as apparently they do, the Forest Department, for example, 
having now asked for five men instead of the three allowed for in my 
■scheme) than this minimum must be increased accordingly. No remarks 
have been offered regarding the numbers proposed for work on the 
special problems of Departments other than the Agricultural and Forest 
Departments, not because the Committee considered the proposed 
numbers sufficient but simply because no representatives of such other 
Departments were present at this Meeting. As regards the rates of 
pay proposed in the lower grades, we shall probably all agree that they 
-err on the low side, particularly in these days, and that some increase 
is necessary. 

There is no difference of opinion as regards the necessity for the 
employment of the staff of the Central Entomological Institute directly 
under the Governiuent of India. There are very few insects which are 
respecters of Provincial boundaries and it is obvous that, to get the 
best results, problems must be studied in as broad and imperial a manner 
as possible. 


I do not think there is any difference of opinion regarding the neces- 
sity for permanent Provincial Staffs in addition to the Staff of the 
Central Entomological Institute, but there is a sharp difference of 
opinion, clearly shown in the note of dissent ajipended to the Committee 
Report by Messrs. Ramakrishna Ayyar, Kimhi Kannan and Rama- 
chandra Rao, regarding tlie employment of those Provincial workers. 
The majority of the Committee consider that such Provincial Staffs 
must work under the Provincial Officers (Agricultural, Forest, or others, 
as the case may be) whilst the minority consider that these men, although 
permanently stationed in the Provinces, shoidd work directly under 
the Central Institute without any direct subordination to the local 
authorities. This latter scheme woidd not work in practice in my 
opinion, because it would lead to constant friction with the Provincial 
authorities and because it would be extreiflely difficult for the Central 
Institute to keep in sufficiently close touch with the various local workers 
scattered all over India and Burma. 

As regards the location of the proposed Entomological Institute, 
there is also considerable difi'erence of opinion, which again is clearly 
shown in the various notes appended to the Report of the Committee 
My own view is that Coimbatore is the most suitable locality that has 
yet been suggested. It is not ideal altogether, but it approaches the 
ideal more closely than any other locality that I know of. If a more 
central place could be found, climatically and otherwise equally or 
more advantageous than Coimbatore, such a place would undoubtedly 
be preferable, but I do not know of any such place nor has anyone else 
as yet made any really useful suggestion regarding this. The main 
objection which is usually raised regarding Coimbatore is its supjoosed 
inaccessibility but I thinlv that this bugbear of inaccessibility has been 
greatly exaggerated and this wUl be minimized in the near futiure when 
air transport has come in as a regular method of travel and despatch 
of mails. I just ask you to consider for a moment the facilities for 
transport in India one hundred, or even fifty, years ago and compare 
them with the present day and I will further ask you to try and look 
ahead another twenty or fifty or a hundred years and try to imagine 
the way in which distances will be reduced by improvement in means 
of transport. It woidd be folly to my mind to put up large and expen- 
sive buildings in any locality which we are not absolutely satisfied will 
be thoroughly suitable. We have found that out by bitter experience 
at Pusa and have no wish to repeat an experiment of that sort. I hold 
no special brief for Coimbatore and, if anyone can satisfy me that another 
locality will be more suitable, I am quite willing to be convinced. 

The Committee RejDort is now before you for consideration. 


May I know if the whole of my note of dissent will be printed ? I jfo. Misra. 
should like to see the whole of it printed. 

There was no desire to cnrtail this note but, as I read it, I understood Mr. Fletcher. 
that only the concluding paragraph was intended to be added. The 
following is the full note appended by Mr. Misra to tjie Report of the 
Committee : — 

" The Committee appointed to consider the question of reorganiza- 
tion of the Entomological work in India consisted of the following besides 
myself : — 

Mr. T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, Imperial Entomologist. 
Mr. C. F. C. Beeson, Forest Zoologist. 

Mr. E. A. Andrews, Entomologist Indian Tea Association, Tocklai. 
Dr. L. H. Gough, Director of Entomology, Egypt. 
Mr. Knnhi Kannan, Senior Assistant Entomologist, Mysore. 
Mr. T. V. R. Ayyar, Acting Government Entomologist, Coimbatore. 
Mr. Y. R. Ramachandra Rao, Assistant to Government Entomolo- 
gist, Coimbatore. on Special Deputation on Lantana work. 

" In my opinion the localization of the Central Entomological Bureau 
in a Central place would have far reaching effects on the future develo]!- 
ment of Entomological work in India and I think shifting the work 
from Piisa to extreme south would not secure this object. By locating 
the Central Bureau at Coimbatore the inconvenience felt by entomolo- 
gical workers in the North, East, and We^t of India would be so great 
that they might hereafter bring to the notice of the Provincial Govern- 
ments concerned the. necessity of having a separate Bureau for the 
North of India, and as a number of workers in Entomology are here, 
I hope you would be pleased to obtain their views by announcing the 
minutes of the Committee and then making a suggestion to the Govern- 
ment, who will no doubt obtain the views of the Local Government 
before deciding upon the localisation of the Bureau. As suggested by 
the majority of the members in the Committee, I think, Coimbatore 
would not meet the situation. Pusa is in one extreme and Coimbatore 
is in the other. I think, if proper provisions are made, it is possible to 
keep the specimens in good condition at Pusa. The conditions of 
storage of specimens at Pusa in the past have been rather peculiar and 
it is to these causes niore or less that they have not remained so good 
as they should have been. I also think, if it is at all decided to shift 
from Pusa, Jubbulpui' would meet the requirements much better than 
Coimbatore. It is central from all parts of India, it commands access 
to the neighbouring rice, wheat, sugarcane, cotton tracts and other 
important crops, and access to the neighbouring Pachmarhi Hills, the 



Mr. RamakrisLna 

summer Head quarters of the Chief Commissioner of the Central Pro- 
vinces, is also easy by rail. As for provision for special investigations 
on tea, coffee, cinchona in South India, Assam and Burma, I think, 
the requirements would be amply met with, by the establishment of 
field laboratories of special workers on the subjects as considered by 
the Committee. Besides this, I think, the proximity of the Bureau 
to a Central Institute like Pusa dealing in cognate branches of Agri- 
cultiire. Chemistry, Bacteriology, Botany, Mycology, etc., from a broad 
or Imperial point of view would be found desirable. A future worker 
on insecticides or chemotropism of insects would like to be in fi'equent 
personal tovich with the head or workers in the Central Chemical Bureau. 
" In view of the above, I beg to submit the followmg to be appended 
to the miuiites of the Committee regardmg the locahzation of the future 
Central Bureau of Entomology in India : — 

'' In view of the function that the Central Entomological Bureau is 
expected to fulfil in the future it is desirable that it should be located 
in or near a central place easy of access to all workers in entomology 
from different parts of India. Its proximity to an Institute dealing 
with cognate .subjects of Agricultural Bacteriology, Chemistry, Botany, 
Mycology, etc., from a broad or Imperial point of view is also desirable. 
In my opinion these conditions are fulfilled at Pusa. If, however, ade- 
quate j)i'ovisions are made, it will be possible to keep the specimens 
in as good a condition as it will be possible to do elsewhere. " 

In their note to the Committee Eepbrt Messrs. Ramakrishna Ayyar, 
Kunhi Kaiman and Ramachandra Rao have also raised the question of 
the provision of training for Indians. This jioint was not raised in 
Committee or we might have said something about it. As it was, we 
were considering the question of centraUzation more from the point 
of view of research. I do not know at present how this question of 
training can best be provided for. I feel strongly that to make a reall}- 
first-class entomologist you must at least start with a man who has 
an innate keenness for the subject and that it is useless to put classes 
of students, who have not got this aptitude inborn in them, through 
courses of instruction and expect to turn out uniform and fijst-class 
results. We may be able to pick up a few really keen men from here 
and there and give them special training, but that is quite a different 
thing from regular teaching courses. Another thing is that the proposed 
Central Institute is intended to be primarily a Research Institute and 
the first thing r^e want at present is to find out information before talking 
of imparting it to others. 

At least facilities shoidd be aft'orded for attracting research students. 


Any students desirous of knowledge for its own sake would always Mr. Fletcher, 
be welcome and the Director would keep his eyes open and be eager 
to secure any really promising man for the Entomological Service. 
But I maintain that you cannot make a man an entomologist by merely 
passing him through a course of training. Such a man will never be more 
than a routine worker unless he has real keemiess in him to start with. 

That means that you are going against the whole system of education. Mr. Afzal Husain. 
It must be admitted that a centralized Institute of the kind suggested 
is very desirable. During this Jleeting we have constantly been remind- 
ed of the very great difficulty of getting our specimens identified. We 
have lost a large collection through enemy action and boxes full of our 
insects have been with specialists outside India for years. We do 
want a central place for India, an Institute such as the British Museum 
(Natural History) is for the whole Empire, where specialists can work 
and our insects be identified. But this scheme does not take into 
account the pure side of the Science, I mean research in physiological 
and embryological problems of Entomology. These problems may have 
no immediate application but are very interesting and important. 
Without pure science we cannot go very far with our applied science. 

I do not know whence Mr. Husain has derived this idea. The Central Mr. Fletcher. 
Institute would of course deal with the class of problems he mentions, 
provided that the staff could tackle them. lu cases where particular 
problems concerned sciences outside of entomology, such a.S the trans- 
mission of fungal disease by insects or work in which the co-operation 
of a chemist wa.s necessary, my idea is that we should either send an 
entomologist to work with the mycologist or chemist, or borrow a mycolo- 
gist or chemist to work at the Entomological Institute. The exact 
arrangements to be followed in any particular case would have to be 
arranged at the time. My scheme allows for complete mutual colla- 
boration with other Departments and for work on every aspect of 
entomology, pure and applied, and I cannot understand the idea preva- 
lent in some quarters, that the Entomologists want a Central Institute 
merely to go inside and lock the doors and pore over specimens of insects 
and shut themselves of? from zoological and other work. Entomology 
is a branch of Zoology just in tlie same way as Zoology is a branch of 
the Natural History of a hundred and fifty years ago. Yet we do not 
hear nowadays of a botanist or a mineralogist claimmg that Zoology 
is a part of his work because he is equally a student of Natural History. 
We Entomologists merely claim that we are speciahsts in a Science, 
which is big enough nowadays to stand on its own legs as a science 
separate from Zoology, and that we know what is required to be done 
and we prefer to do it in our own way. 



Mr. Afzal Husain. 

Mr. Andrews. 

Mr. Afzal Husain. 

Mr. Andrews. 

Mr. Kunhi 

As has been already pointed out by tli.e Committee which considered 
this scheme at Simla, this proposed Institute does not provide facilities 
for the teaching of Entomology. I have been through a complete 
course of trainmg in Zoology in this country, but we did extremely little 
of Entomology. If we want a large staff, we nmst train the men. I do 
not agree with Mr. Fletcher when he says that ordinary graduates of 
tlie Indian Universities can teach Entomology in the Agricultural 
Colleges. We must have really capable people to teach, men who can 
stimulate their pupils. I might refer to my own teacher, Lieutenant-' 
Colonel J. Stephenson. His influence and teaching have been responsible 
for the development of Biology in the Punjab. Now we find his pupils 
going to England for specialization in the subject in which he instnicted 
them. All the Zoological posts in Northern India are held by his pupils. 
This demonstrates how a teacher can influence his pupils. We want 
men like him to be teachers in these Agricultural Colleges. In England, 
which is not an agricultural country, the Universities are erecting 
special chairs for Entomology. Entomology is a vast subject and 
cannot be taught by giving a short course of lectures. At Cambridge 
we have a course of lectures extending over two terms and that is only 
for pure Entomology. There is another course of applied Entomology 
extending over three terms. Professor Lefroy's course is a one-year 
course ; he does morphology during the first term, systematic entomology 
(luring the second term, and applied entomology in the third term. 
If we want to help the growth of entomology in this country, we must 
start with the teaching of entomology. It is not essential that an 
Institute like the one suggested should only be for research work. Teach- 
ing keeps the mind young. 

The comparison of the proposed Institute with Cambridge and 
Oxford is not applicable. Cambridge and Oxford are primaiily educa- 
tion bodies and keep up research as a secondary thing. The proposed 
Institute may better be compared with Rothamsted and many American 
institutions which are primarily for research. 

It is strange to hear that the Universities in England are merely 
educative ; they are as much for research work as they are teaching 
institutions, if not more so. 

I do not beheve in the .system of education in this country. Educa- 
tional mstitutions should be private concerns and based on competitive 
principles so that we get better education. 

This scheme, that aims at preventing unnecessary expenditure, 
should have a teaching side. It should give the benefit of research 
work to students and this can be done best in the Central Institute ; 
of course, the research should be of an advanced nature. 


Some of the Provincial Agricultural Colleges have served as a ratliei' Mr. Fletcher, 
awful warning not to lay too much stress on the teaching side too early. 
Many of them were started in a hurry and commenced to give courses 
before they had any knowledge of what to teach as regarded local condi- 
tions. Teaching will come later on. 

The demand for entomologists was created in England and these m^ Andrews, 
chairs of Entomology were established to meet that demand. First 
let us have a well-organized Research Institute and create a demand 
and then in the near future education will have to be provided for. 

Surely teaching was done before the Research Institutes were started. Mr. Afzal Husain. 

The first thing is to have specialists and, if they find time, they can Mr. Andrews, 
give courses of lectures. Mr. Lefroy's course was started as a temporary 
measure and it was afterwards made permanent when it was found 
successful . 

We should have a provision that if a body of well-qualified candidates Mr. Senior-White, 
not more than about half-a-dozen, come forward, the specialists may 
give courses of lectures. They camiot be expected to sit down and teach 
elementary things. 

If it is in order, we should like to amend the sentence in the Com- Mr. Ramakrishna 
mittee's Report, i.e., " We consider also that no provision has been Ayyar. 
made in the scheme for the training of Indians for posts in the Superior 
Service," so as to read as follows : — " Provision should be made at the 
Central Entomological Institute for the reception of a limited number 
of postgraduate students desirous of acquiring a knoweledge of the 
methods employed in entomological research work." 

If you all three, who signed this Note, are agreed to amend it in Mr. Fletcher, 
this way, I am quite prepai ed to accept the amendment. 

This amendment exactly expresses what we want. In the Tat;i Mr. Kunhi 
Research Institute, the professors do research work and also guide Kannan. 
the research work of students. 

Mr. Andrews has taken the case of a few men who have to give a Mr. Atzal Husain. 
long course of lectures. There are men who do research work but also 
give a short course of lectures in their own subject. 

Training m entomology requires more than lectures. The Central Mr. Fletcher. 
Institute should be modelled more after the lines of the very successful 
Bureau of Entomology in the United States of America, which does no 
teaching work as such. 

There is another aspect. Entomologists become experts after a Mr. Aizal Husain. 
long period of work when they are practically old men. Wheie are 
the experts to be got for this Institute ? This point has been brought 
forward in the Report of the Industrial Conunission. 



Mr. Fletcher. There certainly will be difficulty in gettiug together a body of experts 

in various lines and it will necessarily be a gradual process. 
Mr. ASzal Husain. Therefore it is best that we start training men in this country. 

Mr. Andrews. In an Institute of this kind men fresh from College are better drafted 

ou to special subjects so that they come without a bias and specialize 
in that subject in the course of time. 

The doors of the Institute should be open to all. 

There must be some limit to the number of students to be admitted. 

Some of us have cbafted another note dealing with the points that 
concern most of us and especially the Provincial Assistants. In a 
discussion that we had before this General Meeting we came to certain 
conclusions which we have incorporated in this note, which we should 
like to have included in the Proceedings. 

Provided that the note is signed by its supporters, there is no objec- 
tion to its inclusion in the Proceedings, as it comes to the same thing 
whether you each speak on the subject or whether you read a note. 

The following is the note : — 

" In our opinion that part of the scheme which contemplates investi- 
gations of special crops and problems by the appointment of Special 
Experts who will include in their sphere of investigations the crops or 
problems as they affect the country as a whole is good. By such investi- 
gations, the experts will be able to investigate problems as they affect 
different parts of the country and will thus be able to make efficient 
recommendations. But in our opinion the success of such organization 
is indissolubly comiected with the appointment of Provincial Entomolo- 
gists who will keep themselves in touch with the Special Experts and 
will also attend to the adoption and carrying out of the measures recom- 
mended by them. This will do away with the extra burden which would 
otherwise have fallen on the shoulders of the Deputy Directors of Agri- 
culture, who having no expert knowledge of the subject take only a 
half-hearted interest in the recommendations and give a step-motherly 
treatment to the Entomological Staff entrusted with the execution of 
the recommendations. 

•■ The scheme as outlined in the recommendations of the committee 
appointed during the present session contemplates continuation of the 
present system whereby the Entomological Assistants do not get oppor- 
tunities and encouragement for work but are at times even employed 
to do non-entomological work. 

•• By the appointment of a Provincial Entomologist the question of 
dual control will be avoided ; and the Special Expert dealing with a 
problem affecting different Provinces will not be expected to become 
conver.sant with the language, habits and agricultural practices of the 



j)eople of different Provinces. In our opinion recognisance of the 
above factors is essential to the success or otherwise of the suggestions 
of the Special Expert. By the presence of a Provincial Entomologist 
the Special Expert Avill have the advantage of a local organization and 
will be left fi"ee to deal with research and the consideration of the 
subject or subjects from a broad or Imperial point of view. 

•■ In oiu" opinion the requirements of Entomology will be amply met 
with if the Special Experts were attached to the Imperial Agricultural 
Research Institute, Pusa, where they would remain in touch with other 
experts in Botany, Chemistry, Bacteriology, Mycology, etc. In our 
opinion close intimacy between experts dealing with Imperial or broad 
questions is essential for the special subjects being investigated in all 
tbeir bearings, so as to yield substantial results. 

■■ The diliicuities experienced in the past with regard to the preserva- 
tion of insect sj)ecimens due to humidity can be overcome by the improved 
methods of storing at present introduced at Pusa. 

" In our opinion, special investigations for the following are required 
and we suggest these for immediate consideration on the strength of 
■ our experience gained during the last decade ov more. 

(1) Cereals. 

(2) Sugarcane. 

(3) Cotton. 

(4) Store Pests. 

(5) Fruit Pests. 

(6) Termites. 

(7) Parasites. 

(8) Lac. 

(9) Bees. 

" In our opinion any scheme which does not provide for the adequate 
training of the Indians for the Indian Agricultural Service cannot be 
considered satisfactory. Hitherto the conditions of service in the 
Department have not at all been attractive to the best graduates of the 
Indian Universities. Therefore, in any futvu-e scheme of development 
in Entomology the aim should be to attract such students as would 
after necessary training in research be able to carry out research work 
on their own initiative. | 

'■ We fm-ther think that in order to attract the best Indian graduates 
in Class II of the scheme it is necessary to start them on an initial salary 
of not less than Rs. 200 and after a probationary period of a year to 
confixm them on Rs. 2.50. Thereafter they should go up to Rs. 500 
after a reasonable period of service. 



Mr. Fletcher. 

Resolution 9. 

Hit. Ramachandia 

lit. Fletchei. 

'■ The opinions embodied in this note relate exclusively to Agricul- 
tural Economic Entomology. 

Ra.mrao 8. Kasargode. 

R. Madh.wan Pillai. 

E. S. David. 

J. L. Khare. 

C. U. Patel. 

T. N. Jhaveri. 

P. C. Sen. 

P. V. Isaac* 

V. C4. Deshpande. 

C. C. Ghosh. 

Harchand Singh. 

G. R. DuTT." 

Many of the points referred to in this note have already been dis- 
cussed and it scarcely seems necessary to go over all that ground agaui. 
I need only remark that the unsuitability of Pusa as an entomological 
centre is not based solely on the difficulty of preservation of specimens, 
as seems to be implied in this note. 

We have had a long discussion on this Committee Report and. as 
you have seen, there are differences of opinion on certam points, such 
as the question of Provincial staffs and the location of the proposed 
Central Institute, but those differences of opinion are clearly shown 
in the Report itself and I have no doubt mil be fully considered by 
Government before any final action is taken. I now propose : — 

" That the Report of the Committee on organization oi Entomolo- 
gical work in India, as amended, be accepted.'' 

I second that Resolution. 

[The Resolaiion was put to the Meeting and carried itnammovsly.] 
That is the last item on our programme and it now only remains to 
close this Meeting. In my Opening Addi'ess I asked you to give me 
yoirr views regarding the next Meeting, its duration and the date and 
place at which it should be held, but I have not received' any suggestions. 
Its duration must depend largely on the business to be got through and 
a fortnight has been none too long for this Meeting. As regards date, 
the end of the cold weather is the most suitable time for most of us. 
As Pusa is at present the central entomological station and many of 

* Excepting that I am in fuvoiu' of Coimbatoif 
aaree with what is said herein. 

the loeahtv for the Institute, I 


yoii require to consult collections and records, the next Meeting will 
probably be at Pusa in the beginning of February 1921. 

It has given me very great pleasure to have seen so many people 
here attending this Meeting. We have got through a good deal of 
hard work together and I hope that the visitors have enjoyed their 
stay here. Many have come from great distances, not without incon- 
venience to themselves. We thank them for the share they have taken 
in making this Meeting a success. I shall look forward to the next 
Meeting, when we hope to have a larger gathering still. 

I am voicing the opinion of all jn-esent and also of those who have Mr. Beeson, 
come and gone when I say how much we are indebted to Mr. Fletcher 
and in expressing our opinion that such Meetings are productive of 
various new ideas, as we get to know what other workers are doino ♦ 

and what is left undone. We shall go away in a state of mental exhila- 
ration. At this Meeting, considerable importance has been given to 
subjects beyond merely Economic Entomology, such as methods of 
breeding, etc. One of the main advantages of centralizing Entomology 
would be the privilege of collaborating. We are alive to the tremendous 
amomit of work entailed in the preparation of these Meetings. On 
behalf of the Meeting I propose a vote of sincere thaioks to Mr. Fletcher. 

I should like to second this vote of thanks with verj' great plea.sure. Mr.Andrews. 
I have had the privilege of attending all three of these Meetings. The 
first was a success, the second was a greater success, and the third has 
been a greater success sfill. These conference's are an indication of 
what might be attained by centralization. I thinlv that the increasing 
success of these conferences shows what centralization can do. I thank- 
Mr. Fletcher very cordially for the trouble he has taken in making this 
Meeting a success and in giving us all so much hel]i. 

I should like to thank Mr. Fletcher not only for help in the Meeting Mr. Ramakrishna 
but also for various kinds of help during our stay here. Ayyar. 

In addition I beg to thank Mr. Fletcher for helping us in the identi- Mr. Senior-White,. 
fication of our specimens. And we also owe thanks to the Heads of 
the other Sections at Pusa for their kindness in giving us the opportunitv 
of seeing something of the work of their Sections. 

I wish to thank Mr. Fletcher and the British Government for giving Captain de Mello. 
me the opportunity of coming to attend this Meeting. 

On behalf of the Indian States we join with the others in thanking Mr. Kunhi 
Mr. Fletcher for the help he has given us. Although we have not been Kannan. 
able to contribute much, yet we have learnt a great deal. I hope that 
the practice of inviting us will be continued. 


Mr. Flotcher. I feel that you have rather overwhelmed me with thaiiks for the 

little that I have been able to do. I am very glad to liear that you 
consider that the Meeting has been a success and. for making it so, 
you must remember that the help given me by my staff has contributed 
not a little to this end, besides the numerous contributions that you 
yourselves have made. We have been very glad to have you all here 
and hope that you will all be able to attend two years hence. It now 
only remains for me to declare this Meeting closed. 


List of Resolution's passed by the Third Entomological Meeting. 

Resolution 1 (page 7). 
The Entomological workers assembled at this Meeting desire to 
express their sense of the loss to Entomological Science sustained by 
the untimely deaths of their former co-workers in India, the late Edward 
John Woodhouse and Charles William Mason. 

Resolution 2 (page 782). 
This Meetuig considers that there is considerable danger of the 
introduction into India of bee-diseases by the umrestricted importation 
of bees, beeswax, and honey from countries infected with such diseases, 
and that such importation should therefore only be permitted under 
necessary restrictions. 

Proposed by Mr. T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, Imperial Entomolo- 
gist, Pusa. 

Seconded by Mr. C. C. Ghosh, Assistant to the Imperial Ento- 
mologist, Pusa. 

Carried unanimously. 

Resolutions {]iage 998). 
That the Report of the Committee appointed to consider the ques- 
tion of the preparation and publication of a catalogue of Indian Insects 
be approved. 

Proposed by Mr. T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, Imperial Entomologist, 

Seconded by Mi-. Ram Rao S. Kasergode, Assistant Professor of 

Entomology, Poona. 
Carried imanimously. 

Resolution 4, (page 1041). 
The Third Entomological Meeting is of opinion that it would be 
desirable to have a Journal .solely devoted to Entomology and Govern- 
ment should undertake publication of it. Definite proposals regarding 
its size and time of publication wUl be decided by a Committee. 

Proposed by Mr. C. C. Ghosh, Assistant to Imperial Entomolo- 
gist, Pusa. 

( 1097 ) 


Seconded by Mr. Earn Rao S. Kasergode, Assistant Professor 

of Entomology, Pooua. 
Carried by a majority of twelve against six. 

Resolution 5 (i^age 1041). 
The Resolution last passed may be recorded but action on it may 
be postponed until sometliing definite lias been decided about the 
organization of the Central Entomological Institute. 

Proposed by Mr. T. V. Ramakrishna Ayyar, Officiating Ento- 
mologist to the Government of Madras. 
Seconded by Mr. C. C. Ghosh. Assistant to the Imperial Ento- 
mologist, Pusa. 
Carried by majority — 1 vote against it. 

Resolution 6 (page 10.j()). 
That this Meeting considers it desirable to adopt a standard cla.ssifica- 
tiou of Entomological literature for India. 

That, if such a scheme be adopted, it %yould be of considerable advau- 
taae that it should, if possible, conform with the scheme in use at the 
Imperial Bureau of Entomology, London, and that the Director of 
that Bureau be approached for information on the matter. 

That such information be circulated to those interested in the subject 
in India, and that the matter be brought up for'^sion at the next 
Entomological Meeting. 

Proposed by Mr. C. Beeson. Forest Zoologist. 

Seconded by Mr. E. A. Andrews, Entomologist to the Tea 

Carried unanimously. 

Resolution 7 page 1071). 
That the Report of the Committee appointed to consider the Cjuestion 
of Entomological Education in Agricultural Colleges be approved. 

Proposed by Mr. T. Bainbrigge Fletcher. Imperial Entomologist, 

Seconded by Sardar Harchand Singh. Superintendent of Dairy 

Farms, Patiala State. 
Carried unanimoiisly. 

Resolution 8 (page 1079). 
This Meeting (1) considers in view of the great imj^ortance of a 
knowledge of insects and insect life-histories to the peoples of India, 


that readers for use iu the primary schools in India should as far as 
possible contain simply written accounts of some of the insects commonly 
found in the Provinces concerned, 

(2) suggests that entomology should figure prominently in all coiurses 
of Nature Study, and 

(3) recommends that the educational authorities should enlist the 
help of entomological workers in the preparation of such accoimts in 
their readers or text books. 

Proposed by Mr. C. C. Ghosh, Assistant to the Imperial Entomolo- 
gist, Pusa. 

Seconded by Mr. K. Kunhi Kanuan, Senior Assistant Entomolo- 
gist, Mysore State. 

Carried unanimously. 

Resolution 9 (page 1093). 
That the Report of the Committee on Organization of Entomolo- 
gical Work in India, as amended, be accepted. 

Proposed by Mr. T. Bainbrigge Fletcher, Imperial Entomologist, 

Seconded by Y. Ramachandra Rao. 
Carried unanimously. 


All scientific names of insects are indexed under both specific ond generic nauic;-, but page re- 
ferences are only given under the latter. 

All names in italics are treated as synonyms and should be looked up in this Index under the 
names given in roman letters. 

An asterisk indicates that a figure of the insect referred to is given on the i)age cited. 

Names of plants have not been indexed nor have those of the birds quoted in Pilr. D'Abreu's 

abdominali*. Aulacopbora. 

„ Serine! ha. 

aberrans, Pyriila. 
Abidama producta, 272, 354. 
ablutella, Eaphimetopus {Antrasiia). 
abruptalis, Syngamia. 
abruptella, Trichophaga. 
abyssinia, Spodoptera. 
aeaciaria, Boarmia. 
Acanthophorus serraticornis, 087. 
Acanthopsyche bipars, 138 ; A. cana, 334 

338 ; A. punctimargiuaUs, 334 ; A. sub 

teralbata, 138. 
Acanthopsyche (Mahasena) theivora. 
acerata, Anarsia. 

Achaja Janata. 80. 335, 340, 347, 933. 
achalinus (portentosus), Brachytrypcs. 
Acherontia lachesis, 95, 333, 339, 340; A 

Styx, 95, 333, 340, 347, 898. 
acidula, Gracillaria. 
Aclees cribratus, 204, 577. 
Aclcrda japonica, 295. 
Acmseodera burmitina, 987*. 
acoccphaloides, Keodurtus. 
Acontia graellsi, 80 ; A. intersepta, 79 ; A. 

malvje, 79 ; A. transversa, 79, 335, 339. 
Acria gossyi)ieUa, 636. 
Acrida turrita, 305. 
Acridiidse as crop-pests, 304 ; eaten by birds, 

Acridu^a^ eaten by birds, 860. 
Acrocercops semula, 851 ; A. aUactopa, 852 ; 

A. auricilla, 162, 852 ; A. austcropa, 851 ; 

A. barringtoniella, 851 ; A. bifrenis, 852 ; 

A. brochogramma, 852 ; A. cathedrfca, 162, 

585, 851 ; A. crystallopa, 852 ; A. cylicota, 

852 ; A. desiecata, 852 ; A. diatonica, 852 ; 

A. elaiihopa, 852 ; A. crioplaca, 852 ; 

A. extenuata, 852 ; A. gemoniella, 162 

594, 851 ; A. geometra, 862 ; A. hemiglypta, 
852 ; A. hierocosma, 162, 582, 852 ; A. 
hyphantica. 852 ; A. isodelta, 851 ; A, 
isonoma, 162, 585, 851 ; A. labyrinthica, 

852 ; A. loxias, 852 ; A. lysibathra, 852 ; 
A. macroclina, 852 ; A. ordinatclla, 161, 
851 ; A. orthostacta, 851 ; A. pentalocha, 
585, 851 ; A. phseospora, 162, 580, 851 ; 
A. pharopeda, 853 ; A. phractopa, 852 ; 
A. prosacta, 162, 851 ; A. quadrifasciata, 

851 ; A. resplendens, 851, 1006*; A. scan- 
dalota, 853 ; A. sccnias, 853 ; A. scriptulata, 

853 ; A. supples, 564, 851 ; A. syngramma, 
162, 323, 584, 852 ; A. telcstis, 162, 580, 

852 ; A. tenera, 853 ; A. terminalise, 161, 
564, 851 ; A. tricyma, 851 ; A. triscalma, 

853 ; A. ustulatella, 852 ; A. vanula, 853. 
Acroclita cheradota, 841 ; A. nsevana, 841; 

A. vigescens, 842. 
Acrolcpia manganeutis, 854. 
Acrotylus inficita, 306. 
actcea (aetens), Ehyncolaba (Tliciclru). 
aetiEon, Lytta. 
acteus, Rhyncolaba. 
Aotias seleiie, 99* 323. 
actiniformis, Ceroplastcs. 
acuta, C'hiloloba. 

„ Leptocorisa. 
acutissimus. Coccus, 
acutissimuni, Lecaniuni. 
acutus, Agrilus. 

,, Gelasimus. 
Acythopeus eitrulli, 206, 320, 595. 
Adelida;, 856, 1007. 
adersi, Lecaniiim. 

Adisura atkinsbni, 61, 323, 344, 453, 933. 
adoniduin (longispinus), Pseudococcus. 
Adoretus bicaudatus, 175 ; A. bicolor, 176 

A. caUginosus, 177, 361*; A. duvauceli^ 

175, 566, 576, 578, 591, 593 ; A. horticola! 

176. ?66. 576, 578, 501, 593 ; A. lasiopygus, 



170, 078, o82 ; A. lobiceps, 175 ; A. nitidus, 

598 ; A. ovalis, 176 ; A. versutus, 176, 361, 

566, 576, 578, 591, 593. 
Adoxophyes fasciata, 639 ; A. privatana, 

336, 337, 338, 339, 341, 840. 
adrastus, Hyarotis. 
adulatrix, Stathmopoda. , 

adusta (raaidis). Aphis. 
advena, Silvanus. 
iedia, Heterusia. 
fedificator. Pemphigus. 
Mgetia, ommatiseformis, 159. 
^geriadje, 1.59, 1004. 

iegrotalis [bipnitctalis], Psara {Pticliyzanclci). 
segyptia, Orthacanthaoris. 
segyptiaca, Icerya, 287. 

„ Simaethis. 

segyptium, Hyalomma. 
semiila, Acrocercops. 
renescens (armigera), Hispa. 
.Eolesthes holosericea, 222, 580; JE. iuduta, 

leolopa, Lobesia. 
.^oloptis (Aiolopus). 
Moloscelis (StatlimopodaJ theoris. 
.•Etherastis oirciilfita, 160, oSO. SjO. 
affaber, Alcides. 
affinis, Aiolopus (Jiolopus). 
,, Bruchus. 
„ Oides. 

,, Podonlia. 
africana, Gryllotalpa. 
agamemnon, Papilio. 
Agamopsyche, 980. 
Aganoptila phanarcha, 846. 
Agathia visenda, 570. 
Agdistis tamaricis, 840. 
Agesti-ata orichateea, ISO. 
agilis, Trichonympha. 
aglea, Delias. 
Agonoscelis nubila, 252. 
agramma (peponis), Plusia. 
Agrilus acutus, 247; A. grisator, 574. 
Agriophani (Synchalara) rhombota. 
Agi'omyzidse, 47 — 49, 344. 
ATotis c-nigrum, 63 ; A. flammatra, 63 ; 

"a. sp., 64 ; A. ypsilon, 62, 349, 350, 580, 
622—625, 704. 
Aiolopus affinis, 305 ; A. tamulus, 303, 342, 

562, 860. 
albicilia, Sarangesa. 
albifrons, Epicephala. 
albilineella, Pyroderces. 
ivlbiscvipta, Hypelictis. 

albistigma, C'irphis. 
albistriga, Amsacta. 
albocaudata, Gymnoscelis. 
albofasciella, Latypica. 
alboguttata, Prot^tia. 
albomaculata, ThomsonieUa. 
albomarginatus, Rhagastis. 
albopunctata, Oxycetonia. 

,, Panilla. 

albostriata, Plusia. 
Alcides affaber, 199, 321 ; A. bubo, 198, 321*, 

934 ; A. coUaris, 199 ; A. fabricii, 199 ; 

A. fienatus, 200, 585; A. leopardus, 199, 

453 ; A. mali, 200, 567 ; A. pictus, 319*, 

A. sj)., 563. 
aleiphron, Hypsa. 
alemene, Chloiidolum. 
alecto, Thcretra. 
Aleurocanthus nubilans, 277 ; A. piperis, 277 

A. spiniferus, 277, 431*, 574. 
Aleiirolobus barodensis, 277, 418*. 
alexis, Parata. 
Aleyrodes cotesii, 278 ; A. ricini, 347 ; A. 

sp., 278. 
Aleyrodidae as crop-pests, 277, 574, 587. 
algira, Parallclia {Ophinsa). 
Alissonotuni piceum, 183, 361 ; A. simile, 

183, 361. 
alilalis (bivitralis), Margaronia (Glyphodes). 
allactopa, Acrocercops. 
almana, Junonia. 
alope, Lacera. 
alopecodes, Deuterocopus. 
altercata, Anarsia. 
alternus, Stauropus. 
Altha lacteola, 333, 337 ; A. nivea, 104. 
Alueita niveodactyla, 840. 
amabilis, Eublemma. 
Amaranth Pyra\istine, 134. 
Amata cyssea, 333, 338 ; A. passalis, 52, 333, 

.337, 338, 339 ; A. perixauthia, 661. 
Amatida;, 52. 
ambiguella, Clysia. 
, Amblyrrhinus poricollis, 194, 564, 508, 569, 

582, 583,, 585. 
amethystias, Strobisia. 

Amphipyra magna, 71 ; A. pyramidea, 71 ; 
A. surnia, 71 ; A. yama, 71. 
Amphitherida;, 854, 1006. 
amphix, Lyncestis. 
Ampittia dioscorides, 114 
ampla, Lyraantria. 
I amplura, Apion. 
! AmpuUaria sp., 694. 


Amsaota albistriga, 57 ; A. lineola, 55 ; A. 

moorei, 56, 71 ; A. moorei sara, 56, 71. 
Amyna ooto, 74 ; A. punctuni. 74. 335, 338 ; 

A. selenampha (punctuni), 74. 
anacardii, Phtocothiip.s. 
Auadastus sp., 316, 910*. 
analis, Bruchus. 

„ Parallelia {Ojihiusa). 
Anarsia acerata, 155, 845 ; A. altercata, 845 ; 

A. didymopa, 845 ; A. epliippias, 155, 845 ; 

A. epotias, 845 ; A. exallacta, 155, 845 ; 

A. idioptila, 845 ; A. melanoplecta, 155, 

453, 585, 845 ; A. omoptila, 155, 845 ; A. 

sagittaria, 155, 570, 845 ; A. sagmatica, 

845 ; A. veruta, 845. 
Anastatus coimbatorensis, 933, 935. 
anastomosalis, Omphisa. 
Anataractis plumigera, 149, 846. 
Anatona stillata, 178. 
Anatrachyntis coriacella (simplex) j A. falca- 

tella, 149, 846 ; A. simplex, 149, 846. 
Ancylis eyanostoma, 841 ; A. glycyphaga, 

841 ; A. lutesceus, 144, 569, 841. 
Ancylolomia ohrysographella, 120, 341. 
andersonianum, Potamon. 
Andraca bipunctata, 100, 006. 
Andrallus spinidens, 69. 
Andres Maire trap, 943. 
andrewesi, Platypria. 
Anerastia (Raphimetopus) ablutflla. 
angustatus, Calocoris. 
angustif 1 ons, Haliplus. 
Anisops sp., 867. 
amiandalei, Leidya. 
annecteus, Jcenia. 
annulatum, Spbaerodema. 
Anobium sp., 723*. 
Anomala antiqua, 173, 347 ; A. aurora, 173, 

590, 597 ; A. bengalcnsis, 171, 361 ; A. 

bibarensis, 172, 361*; A. deoorata, 173, 

590 ; A. dimidiata, 174, 566, 570, 579 ; A. 

dorsalis, 170 ; A. dussumieri, 174, 582 ; 

A. elata, 171 ; A. ignicollis, 173 ; A. 

lineatopennis, 173, 593 ; A. olivieri, 171 ; 

A. pallidospila, 173, 590, 598 ; A. polita, 

171, 361, 568, 579 ; A. regina, 175 ; A. 

rufiventris, 174, 566 ; A. transversa, 571 ; 

A. varicolor, 172, 593 ; A. variivestis, 172, 

anomala, Epipyrops. 
Anoraalococcus indicus, 316, 326. 
Anoplocnemis phasiana, 256. 
Anoplomus flexuosus, 589. 
Antestia cruciata, 252, 574, 586, 590. 
Antheraea paphia, 569 ; A. roylei, 100*. 


Anthieidse eaten by birds, 864. 
Antbomyiada;, 39-40, 324, 370*, 414, 573 

eaten by birds, 866. 
Anthophora confusa, 862. 
antliracina, Megachilc. 
Anthracophora oruoifera, 177, 1028. 
Anthrenus fasciatus, 317 ; A. pimpinellse, 

anticatus, Laccophilus. 
Anticrates lucifera, 850. 
Antkjjra (Dinara) combusta. 
Antigastra catalaunalis, 134, 347, 933. 
antiopa, Vanessa, 
antiqua, Anomala. 

Antispila argostoma, 848 ; A. aristarcha, 848. 
Antithyra vineata, 847. 
antonii, Helopeltis. 
antrami, Clania. 
Ants as pests, 33. 

„ indicating presence of insects, 941. 
„ nests. Insects in, 941. 
Anua coronata, 80, 335, 337. 
aonidum, Cbrysomphalus. 
Apanteles creatonoti, 932 ; A. papilionis, 932 : 

A. phycodis, 932; A. plusia;, 932; A. sp.. 

933 ; A. stauropi, 932 ; A. tachardia', 932. 
Apenesia electriphila, 986*. 
Aphanus sordidus, 262, 347, 348, 762. 
Aphididaj as crop-pests, 279, 325, 343, 344, 

345, 346, 348, 349, 350, 351, 592, 598, 763 ; 

eaten by birds 867. 
Aphis durranti, 283 ; A. gossypii, 284, 561, 

562 ; A. maidis, 283 ; A. malva;, 283 ; A. 

malvoides, 283 ; A. medicaginis, 282 ; A. 

nastiu'tii, 284 ; A. nerii, 282 ; A. rumicis, 

282 ; A. sacchari, 282. 
Aphis (Brevicoryne) brassicje. 

,, (Siphocoryne) indobrassicfe. 
apicalis, Hindsiana. 

„ Nephotettix. 
Apida?, 35 ; eaten by birds, 862. 
Apines concinna, 252. 
Apion sp., 198, 344, ; A. amplum, 320. 

,, spp. eaten by birds, 864. 
Apis dorsata, 772*, 862 ; A. fasciata, 779 ; 

A. florea, 772, 862 ; A. indica, 772. 
Apoderus tranquebaricus, 196, 321, 564, 583. 
Apogonia ferruginea, 167 ; A. proxima, 167 ; 

A. sp., 361. 
ApoUodotus praefectiis, 264. 
Apomecyna histrio, 217 ; A. perottcti, 211 

321*; A. pertigera, 217, 350. 
Apparatus for collecting, 946. 
Apple-borer, 597. 

„ Gracillariad (see G. zacbrysa). 


Apple Limaoodid, lOu*. 
„ Notudoutid, 101*. 
„ Tortricid, 148. 
approximator, Aristobia. 
Apriona cinerea, 21.3, 577, 589 ; A. germari, 

213, 589 ; A. sp., 21.3. 
Aprocereina (kStoinoptcryx) r.LTteria. 
aprobola, Argvroploce. 
Apsylla cistellata, 277, 585, 1029. 
Aptinothrips nifioornis, 619. 
Aquatic Insects, 937. 
.^rachidis, Sphenoptcra. 
Arachnida oaten by birds, 867. 
" Arbela " dea, 141; A. quadrinotata, 141, 
573 ; A. tetraonis, 141, 570, 574 ; A. tht,-i- 
vora, 142,. 587, 581, 587, 592. 
Arbelidcb (Teragridae). 
archesiri (undata), Pelaruia (Remigid). 
Arctiadse, 53 ; eaten by birds, 805. 
areticida, Meteorus. 
arctota>nia, Ophiusa. 
arenosella, Batrachedra. 
argentana, Cnepliasia. 
Ajgina argus, 94 ; A. cribraria, 94, 563 ; A. 

syringa, 94, 563. 
argostoma, Antispila. 
argus, Argina. 

Argynuis hyperbius, 107, 590. 
Argyresthia iopleura, 850. 
Argyria tumidicostalis, 119, 388*. 
argyrodoxa, Nepticula. 

Argyroplooe aprobola, 146, 582, 584, 842 ; 
A. cenchropis, 842 ; A. citharistis, 842 ; 
A. ebenina, 842 ; A. erotias, 146, 584, 585, 
842 ; A. illepida, 146, 568, 582, 595, 842 ; 
A. leucaspis, 146, 582. 842 ; A. paragramma, 
147, , 394*, 842 ; A. poetica, 842 ; A. 
rhynehias, 842 ; A. seiiiiculta, 842 ; A. 
tonsoria, 843. 
aria, Matapa. 
aristareha, Antispila. 
Aristeis thwaitesii, 847. 
Aristobia approximator, 215, 517, 599. 
aristolochix, Papilio. 
.4.ristotelia ingravata, 844. 
armigera, Hispa. 

Arrhonothrips ramakrishnse, 327, 019*. 
Arrhinotermes flavps, 101^. 
articulatus, Aspidiotus [Selanaspidus). 
artocarpi, Parlatoria. 
arvalis, f'ryptolechia. 
-Aiytaina isitis, 276. 
asellus, Blosyras. 
As.opus malabariciis, 255. 

asperulus, Ceuthorrhynolius. 
.\sphondylia scsami, 49. 

Aspidiotus articulatus, 299 ; A. camelli», 300, 
330 ; A. curoumae, 300, 320 ; A. cyanophylli, 
300, 605 ; A. cydonife, 300, 606, 607 ; A. 
destructor, 300, 583, 607 ; A. dictyospenni, 
301 ; A. liarfcii, 301, 326 ; A. lataniic, 301, 
574, 007 ; A. orientalis, 301, 568, 605 ; A. 
tamarindi, 302, 326. 

A?]iidiutus (Chrysompbalus) aurantii. 

aspidistrse, Hemichionaspis. 

aspidomorpba?, Cassidocida. 

Aspidomorplia foveata, 234 ; A. indica, 234, 
351 ; A. miliaris, 234, 934. 

Aspongopus brunueus, 256 ; A. janus, 255. 

as,?amensis, Ethmia. 

assamensis, Rerica. 

Assamia moesta, 268, 354. 

Assembling, 942. 

assulta, Heliotliis. 

Asterolecanium pustulans, 588. 

Astroopius sp., 934. 

Astycus lateralis, 188, 562, 589. 

Aswattliamanus cylindricus, 305. 

Asympiesiella indica, 934. 

Atabyria bucephala, 856. 

Atactogaster finitimus, 195. 

ataphus, Ismene. 

ater, Hypophorus. 

Athalia leucosttmia, 38 ; Athalia proxima, 
37, 348. 

atlianasii. Ceiaphron. 

Athvsanus fusconervosus, 441; A. indicus, 

atkinsoni, Adisura. 61. 
,, Idiocerus. 

„ Julodis. 

Atmetonychus pcregrinus, 187. 

atmopa, Odites. 

atomosa, Exelastis. 

Atractomorplia orenulata, 307, 800 ; A. 
scabra, 307. 

atripennis, Aulacopliora. 

nlromaciilata (cmcifcra), Anthracophora. 

Attagenus piceus, 719.* 

Atteva fabriciella, 160, 850 ; A. niveigutta, 
160, 850. 

attious, Tagiades. 

augias, Telieota. 

augur, Serinetha. , 

Aulacophora abdominalis, 229, 350, 588 ; A. 
atripennis, 229; 350; A. excavata (atri- 
pennis); A. foveicollis (abdomin:ilis) ; A. 
etevonsi, 228. 


Aularchos miliitris, 307, 347, 502, 575 ; A. 

punctatus, 307 ; A. scabiosiv, 307. 
aurantii, Chrysomphahis. 

„ " Dialeurodes eugenire. 

,, . Toxoptora. 
aiii'ichaloea, Protaetia. 
aiiricilia, Diatraea. 
auricilla, Acrocercoi)s 
auritliJu (xaathogastrella), Scirpopbaga. 
aurora, Anoraala. 
austeropa, Acrooercops. 
australis, Boophilus. 
aiithajma, Autosticha. 
Aiitoserica sp., 165, 361*, 574. 
Autosticha aiithoema, 845 ; A. chemetis, 845 ; 
A. exemplaris, 845 ; A. protypa, 845. 
itreiuB (padi) Siphocoiyiie. 
Aximopsis ovi, 934. 
Azazia rubricans, 86, 345. 
Azygophlcps scalaris, 140. 


Bactra triiciilenta, 394*. 842 
Saclrocem (See Cb^todaous). 
bada, Paniara. 

Badaiiiia exclamationis, 1025.* 
badglej'i, Epicauta liirtieoriiis. 
))adra, Hasora. 
Briel flea-beetle, 318. 
Bag for collecting, 955*. 
Bugnnllla (Thrips) oryz.-e. 
Bagrada piota, 253, 348, 350. 
Bakla stera-Hy, 48. 

Balaninus c-ajbiim, l<lt;, 581 ; B. sp, 197. 
balanoptycha, Euco-sma. 
Balantidium termitis, 1016*. 
ballardi, Phenaooccus. 
ballardi, Tylopbolis. 
balsamiiise, Metialma. 
Bamboo WooUy Apbis, 325.* 
bambucivora, Pyrausta. 
barabus^p, Cosmopteryx. 
,, Oregma. 

bangalorcnsis, Odontotc-rmes. 
banian, Hieroglyphus. 
banks!, Phyllipsocus. 
Baoris pencillata, 1024*. 
Baracus vittatus, 1023*. 
barbatum, Stroraatium. 
barberi, Diaspis. .• 

,, Molaserica. 
barbcriana, Epipyrojis. 

b.ircalis, Pilocrocis. 
barodensis, Aleurolobus. 
barrmgtoniella, Acrocercops. 
barrowi, Tonica. 
basalis, Chaitocnenia. 

„ Vespa. 
basipleotra, Stathmopoda. 
Bats, Insects living on, 941. 
Bathj'aulax sp., 935. 

Batocera rubus, 212, 577, 5S7 ; B. sp., 577. 
Batrachedra arenosclla, 840 ; B. silvatica, 

bauhiniaa, I.ithocoUctis. 
bayadera, Gyuacantha. 
Boara diehromella, 79, 335, 339, 509. 
Beating out insects, 945. 
beatrix, Lymantria. 
beckii, Lepidosaphes {MytilaspU). 
Bed-bug eaten by bird, 867. 
Bedellia somnulentella, 851. 
Bee-diseases, 779. 
Bees in Egypt, 779—781. 
Beeswax, Production of, in India, 775, 777. 
Belionota prasiiia, 245, 580, 5S7. 
Belippa laleana, 105*, 505, 592, 595. 
beUi, Idgia. 
Belostoma incliea, 807. 
Bolostomidaj eaten by birds, 867. 
Bembex Umata, 909*. 
Beinisia leakci, 278. 
bengalella, Hetei'ographis. 
bengalense, Pentodon. 
bengalensis, Anomala. 
benjamini, Rhopalocampta. 
Bennia burri, 1033. 
bergii, NeomasUclIia. 
Berosus decrescens, 863. 
Berytida; as crop-pests, 259. 
Bethylid parasite of Platyedra gossypiclla, 

helloni (nigrorcpletus), Hieroglyphus. 
bhiirmitra, Buaruiia. 
Biba''is sena, 1025*. 
bi'caudatus, Aduretus. 
biclavis, Howardia. 
bicolor, Adoretus. 

,, Meranoplus. 

,, Nupserlia. 

., Stauroderus. 

,, Trachys. 
bicolorata, Hicania. 
bieomis, .Scliizooephalug. 
bidentulus, Corigetua. 
bifrenis, Acrocercops. 
biharensis, Anomala. 

T 2 


bilinea, Caneo. 
bilinealis, Marasmia. 
bilineatus, Hieroglyphus. 
bilubus. Olenecaniptiiy. 
bimaculatus, Lioiirylliis. 
bimaciilatus, Mio prist is. 
binotalis, CrocidolomiLi. 
Biiifltta (See Tonica). 
biociilalis. Rivula. 
bioculatus, Tetranyclms. 
bipars, Acanthopsyclie. 
bipunctalis, Psara {Pn'hijzamhi). 
bipunctata, Aiidraca. 
bipunctatiis, Cletus. 

biiJiinctifer. Scha>nobius. 
Birdf, Insects eaten by, 8r.9— 871. 
bi.spinifrons, Pentodon. 
bisselliella, Tineola. 
Biston marginata, GG2. 
Bistoii supprcssaria, 101. 
Bitter-gourd gall-ily, .324*. 
biva.lvata, Inglisia. 
bivitralis, Margaronia (Olyphodes). 
bjerkandrella, Choreutis. 
blandiatrix, Kutelia. 
blandiella, Onebala. 
blandus, Myllocerus. 
blapsigona, PhtIiorima;a. 
Blastobasidse, 1-58, 849, 1005. 
Blastoba.sis crassilica, 158, 849 ; B. decolor, 

840 ; B. spermologa, 849 ; B. transcripta, 

blattarum, Lophomonas. 
Blattidse eaten by birds, 859. 
Blissus gibbus, 261. 
blitealis, Noorda. 

Blosyms asellus, 185 ; B. intoqualis, 180. 
Boarmia acaciaria, 335, 339 ; B. bhurmitra, 

335, .340. 
Boarmiane, 101, 565. 
Boarraiane No. 2, 101*, 565. 
bochug, Janiides., Hippotion. 
bceticus. Polyommatus. 
bolina, Hyiiolimnas. " 

Bombotelia jocosatrix, 75, 584 ; B. sp., 76. 
Bombycida', 100. 
Boophiliis australis, 867. 
Borers, Reari!?g of, 8S3*. 
Borkhausenia pseudo-spretella, 847. 
Borulia vcnalba, 67. 
brachelytra, Gonocephaliim. 
Brachraia arotra-a, 153, 844 ; B.effera, 154, 

323, 844 ; B. cngrapta, 154, 844 ; B. 

idiaslis, 1.5:;, 844; B. insul.Ma, l.".:i, S4:. ; 
B. xciopbasa. 845. 
Brachmia (Helcystogramma) hibisci. 
Brachycaudus pruni, 284. 
Brachycyltarus (Acanthopsyche) subteralbata. 
bracliymorpha, Platyptilia. 
Brachyplatys pauper, 249 ; B. subaeneus, 

249"; B. vahlii, 325. 
brachj-rrhinus, Lixus. 
Brachytes sp., 256. 
Brachytliemis contaminata, 895. 
Brachytrypes portentosus {achaiinvs), 312, 

349," 562, 585, 596, 634 : B. sp., 860. 
Brachyunguis carthami, 285. 
Braconid parasite of Platyedra gossypiella,- 

Bradinopyga geminata, 896. 
Brahmina coriacea. 167, 556, 576, 578, 591,. 

brassicse, Bre-picoryne. 
, Phaedon. 
,, Pieris. 
Brenthia coronigera,-849. 
bretingliami, Pachnephorus. 
breviceps, Phoxothrips. 
Brevicoryne brassicoe, 280 ; B. chenopodii, 

280 ; B. coriandri, 280. 
brevistylus, Dacus. 
breviusoula, Nanaguna. 
Brinjal Sarrothripine, 77. 
Brithys crini, 04, 334, 337. 
brochogramina, Acrocercops. 
bromelise, Pseudococcus. 
Bruchida" 239, 720. 

Bruchus anaUs, 321, 762 ; B. affinis, 239, 
721* : 929 ; chineiLsis, 239, 322, 721*, 702, 
I 858, 929 : B.sp., 722*, 762, 864 ; B. theo- 
, broma-, 239, 322, 762, 929. 
Bruchocida orientalis, 932. 
brunnea, Myrmicaria. 
! brunneicornis, Physothrips. 
' brunneus, Aspongopus. 
bubo, Alcides. 

Bucculatrix crateraoma, 854 ; B. exedra,. 
I 854 ; B. losoptila, 164, 854 ; B. mendax, 
854 ; B. verax, 854. 
bucephala, Atabyria. 
J bucephalus, Heliocopris. 

j Buckleria defectalis, 838 ; B. paludicola, 
I 838 ; B. wahlbergi, 838 ; B. xerodes, 838. 
i BuprestidiB as crop-pests, 244, 571 ; eatea 
by birds, 863. 
burkilli, Pulvinaria. 
Burmacrooera petiolata, 986*. 
! burmanica, Eleotrocyrtoma. 


Burmitempis halteralis, 986*. 
burmitica, Winncrtziola. 
burmiticus, Myodites. 
burmitina, Acmaeodera. 

,, Liburnia. / 

,, Seiara. 

burmitinus, Elater. 
burri, Bennia. 
Butca Limacodid, 322. 
botleri, Parata. 
Bulterflies, Decoy for, 943*. 

„ eaten by birds, 871. 

Byrrhidae eaten by birds, 863. 

Cabinets, Insect, 968*. 

cacalise, Platyptilia. 

cachara, Caligula. 

Caoceoia compacta, 840 ; C. dispilana, 840 ; 

C. epicyrta, 144, 571, .580, 840 ; C. isocyita, 

840 ; C. micaceana, 144. 344, 345, 579, 596, 

598, 840 ; C. pensilis, 840 ; C. philippa, 

cadambae, Cossue. 
Cadamuslus (Stephanitis). 
Cadmilos (Galeatus). 
Caduceia theobromae, 1019*. 
caesalis, Margaronia. 

,, Margaronia (Glyphodes). 
laffer, 8phenarchcs. 
Cages for rearing in^^efte, 878*, 892*. 
cajaui, Ceroplastodes. 
Calantira linearis, 595 ; C. oryzse, 715*, 735, 

741, 762 ; C. rugicollis, 320 ; C. stigmati- 

collis, 208, 576. 
e-albutu, Balanin'us. 
calcuttse, Serica. 
calianthina, Parlatoria. 
caUginosus, Adoretus. 
Caligula cachara, 836*. 
Callipterus trifolii, 285. 
callistrepta, Pyroderces. 
Callitetti.x versicolor, 272, 354. 
Calobata sp., 47. 
Calocoris angustatus, 206. 
Calotermes greeni, 1018 ; C. miUtaris, 20. 
Calpe ophideroides, 87, 590. 
Caltoris bevani, 116 ; C. colaca, 116. 
calvum, Potamon. 
calyptroldes (echinocacti), Diaspis. 
camelliie, Aspidiotus. 
eaminodes, Hilarographa. 
•Camouflage, 14, 900. 

campanula, Leidya. 
campestris, Melasina. 
Camponotinoe eaten by birds, 862. 
Camponotuscompressus, 310, 802 ; C. irritans, 

cana, Acanthopsyche. 

,, Thosea. 
candelaria, Fulgora. 
Candida, Dactylethra. 
Canea bilinea, 659. 
eanidia, Pieris. 
Cannibal caterpillars, 888. 
Cantao ocellatus, 910*. 
Cantharidse eaten by birds, 863. 
CantharidiT (Meloidoe). 
Cantharis (Lytta). 

canthusalis, Margaronia (Glyphodes), 
capensis, Heteracris. 
capensis, Perigea. 
capitata, Ceratitis. 
capitata, Dilinia. 
Cappsea taprobanensis, 251, 574. 
capparidana, Laspcyresia. 
caprese, Eulecanium. 
Caprinia conchylalis, 128. 
Capsidse as crop-pests, 264. 
Caprona ransonnettii, 1023*; C. siamJca, 

Capua invalidana, 143, 840. 
Carabidfe eaten by birds, 802. 
cardoni, Idgia. 
cardoni, Pheropso])hus. 
cardui (medicaginis). Aphis. 
Carea subtilis, 79, 322*, 933. 
carpahna, M}'iopardalis. 
Carpocapsa (Laspeyresia) pomonella. 
Carpomyia Tesuviana, 45, 324, 453, 570 
Carposinida?, 143, 840, 1002. 
carthami, Brachyunguis. 
Caryoborus gonagra, 763. 
Cassidinae eaten by birds, 804. 
Cassidocida aspidomorpliae, 934. 
castanea, Thosea. 
castaneum, Tribolium. 
castor Psychid, 139. 

„ iSemi-looper (sec Aclia\'i Janata); 
catachlora, Exinotis. 
Catalogue of Indian Insects, 989. 
Catantops sp., 310, 860. 
catalaunalis, Antigastra. 
Catephia inquieta, 86. 
Caterpillars eaten by birds, 865. 
cathedraea, Acroccrcops. 
Catochrysops (Euchrysops) cnejuB. 
Catochrysops pandava, 112; C. strabo, 897. 


oatoirei, Pheropsophus. 
Catopsilia pyrauthe, 110. 
caudata, Elymnias. 
caudatus, Cha;todacu9. 
oaudularia, Thalera. 
oausodes, OxyptUus. 
cauteUa, Ephestia. 

Cave Insects, 939. 

Cecidomyiada;, 49, 324, 554, 67S. 

Celama internella, 53, 344 ; C. squalida, 54. 

celerio, Hippotion. 

cephalonica, Coicyra. 

Cephalosporium leoanii, 328. 

Cephonodes picus, 96. 

Cerataphis lafcaniEE, 326. 

ceratitina, Stictaspis. 

Ceratitia capitata, 46. 

ceriferus, Ceroplastes. 

Cerococcus hibisci, 287, 561, 562. 

Ceronema koebeli, 291. 

cervina, Thosea. 

Ceroplastes actiniformis, 292 ; C. ceriferus. 
292, 632 : C. fioridensis, 292, 588, 608, 632 : 
C. rubens, 292. 603, 609, 632. 

Ceroplastodeg cajani, 293, 326, 600 : C. 
chiton, 293. 

ceUifera, Polychrosis. 

celtis, Selepa {Plotheia). 

oenchropia. Argyroplooe. 

Cerambycidai, 220, 587 ; eaten by birds, 864. 

ceramicus, Duomitus. 

Ceraphron athanasii, 933. 

Cercopidse as crop-pests. 272 : eaten by birds. 

corealella, Sitotroga. 

Ceropia induta, 341. 

Ceroplastes actiniformis, 603. 

Cerostoma (Dasyses) rugosellus. 

Cetoniadae, 177. 

Ceuthorrhynchus asperulus, 201. 

Ceylonia theccola (Tosoptera aurantii). 

ceylonica, Halpe. 

Charocampa (Hippotion) echeclus {cson). 

Chserocampa thoylia, 333, 338. 

Chaetocnema basalis, 233 ; C. sp., eaten by 
birds, 864. 

Chsetodacus caudatus, 44, 324, 351, 572, 589 
C. correctus, 43, 586 ; C. cucurbitoe, 19, 44 
351, 589, 592, 595, 025—629, 935 : C, 
diversus, 43, 572, 586, 592, 600 ; 0. dorsalis 
41, 572, 580, 581, 587, 591, 592, 598, 763 , 
C. duplicatus, 43 ; C. ferrugineus, 41, 572. 
580, 581, 591, 597, 598 ; C. hageni, 45 , 
C. incisus, 41, 324, 580, 581, 586 ; C. 
tuberculatus, 42, 598 ; C. versicolor 42, 

580, 586, 594 ; C. zonatus, 42, 568, 577, 
586, 591, 594, 935. 
Chafer grubs, 343, 345, 563. 
' Ckaiiophorvs macvlaivs (CaUipterus trifolii) 

Chalsenosoma metalUcum, 232. 
1 Chalcididte as crop-pests, 36. 
Chalciope hjrppasia, 81. 
Chalcis tachardiae, 932. 
chalcothorax, Chljenius. 
chalcytes, Plusia. 
ohaUnota, Opogona. 
chalybacma, Epicephala. 
Chapra mathias, 116, 341, 342, 354, 442, 933. 
Chauliojis fallax, 261. 

Chelaria phacelota, 846 ; C. rhicnota, 156, 586, 
846 ; C. soopulosa, 846 ; C. spathota, 156, 
584, 846. 
Chelidonium cinctum, 223, 317*, 331, 573. 
Chelonella sp., 933. 
chenopodii, Brevicoryne. 
cheradota, Ancylis. 
Chernetidse eaten by birds, 867. 
chernetis, Autosticha. 
cher-ssea (o'sckophora), Ephysteris. 
Cliilades laius. Ill, 322, S:!:?, 340 ; C. trochilus 

putU, 111, 572. 
Chilo oryzs'. 120, 390*, 410 ; C. simplex, 120. 
354, 385*. 410, 414, 416, 546, 933 ; C. sp. 
(C. S. 1769), 391*,; C. sp. (C. S. 1835), 392* ; 
C. sp., (C. S. 1795), 120, 391*; C. sp. 
(C. S. 1831), 120, 392*. 
Clhiloloba acuta, 179. 
Cliilomenes sexmaculatus, 32, 803. 
China Stemfly, 48. 
chinensis, (Bruchiis) Pachymerus. 
Chionaspis deciirvata, 295 ; C. dilatata, 
295, 588 ; C. graminis divergens, 295 ; C. 
manni, 295 ; C. megaloba, 296 ; C. nilgirica, 
296 ; C. sp. 571 ; C. these, 632 ; C. varicosa, 
296 ; C. vitis, 296, 588, 602. 
cliiridota, Idiophantis. 
chiton, Ceroplastodes. 

Chlseuius ehalcotl.orax, 863 ; C. circumdatus, 
863 ; C. hamifer, 863 ; C. marginifer, 863 ; 
C. nigricans, S63 ; C. rugulosus, 863. 
Chlidanotida>, 843, 1003. 
chlora. Pseudoterpna. 
Chloridea (See HeUothis). 
C'hloridolum alcmene. 222, 574. 
chlorion, Popillia. 

Chlorojjid*, 47 ; eaten by birds, 866. 
Chlumetia transversa, 76, 453, 582, 585. 
Cholam Cecidomyiad, 50. 
Cholam Fly, 39. 
Cholotis crypsiloga, 846; C. pachnodes, 846. 


chordites, Oxyptilu?. 
Choroutis bjerkandrcUa, 849. 
chotauica, Phyllotreta. 
chromaturia (cupreoviridis), Eariaa. 
Chrotogonus sp., 300, S60. 
Chrysanthemum Pyralid, 136. 
Chrysia fuscipennis, 802. 
Chrysoeliroa sp., 240. ~ ■ 

chrysographella, Anoylolomia. 
Chrysomela demooratica, 598. 
Chrysomeldise as crop-pests, 224, 503, 566, 
508, 572, 578, 579, 593 ; eaten by birds, 
Chrysomphalus aonidum, 302, 574, 602, 604, 
607, 1068 ; C. rossi, 303, 602 ; C. aurantii, 
302, 326, 574 ; C. triglandulosus, 303, 608. 
chrysophthalma, Phyllocnistis. 
Chrysopidae eaten by birds, 801. 
Chrysops dispar, 800. 
cichorii, Zonabris. 
Cicindelidce as crop-pests, 249 ; eaten by 

birds, 862. 
Cidaria cingala, 336, 338. 
cincta, Thea. 
cinctaUs, Phlaeoba. 
cinctum, Chelidonium. 
cinerea, Apriona. 
cinerea, Walkeriana. 
cingala, Cidaria. 
,, Parnara. 
cingulatus, Dysdercus. 
circulata, iEtherastis. 
circumdata, Metriona. 
oircumdatus, Chlaenius. 

Cirphis albistigma, 05, 323*, 933 ; C. compta, 
65 ; C. fragilis, 66 ; C. insularis, 05 ; C. 
loreyi, 05, 342 ; C. unipuncta, 66, 341. 
cirrhophanes, Phyllocnistis. 
cistellata, Apsylla, 
citharistis, Argyroploce. 
citrella, Phyllocnistis. 
citri, Dialeurodes. 
,, Euphalerus. 
„ Prays. 
„ Pseudoooccus. 
cifcrifoUa, Toxoptera. 
citrinella, Olegores. 
citroplccta, Microcolona. 
citropleura, platyptiUa. 
citrulli, Acythopeiis. 

„ (gossypii). Aphis. 
Clania antrami, 138 ; C. crameri, 138, 334, 
339 ; C. destructor, 138, 042 ; C. variegata, 
clarisona, Lithocolletis. 

Clavigralla gibbosa, 257, 344, 346 ; C. horrcns, 

clepsidoma, Eucosma. 
Cleridae eaten by birds, 863. 
clerodendronella, CEdematopoda. 
Cletihara (Giaura) sccptica. 

„ valida (see Nanaguna breviuscula). 
Cletus bipunctatus, 352. 
clientella, Phycita. 
Clinocentrus sp., 933. 
Clitea picta, 232, 568. 
Clivina striata, 863. 
Clothes for collecting, 955. 
Clovia lineaticollis, 325"; C. punctata, 442. 
clypealis, Idiocerus. 
clypeata, Serica. 

Clysia ambigueUa, 143, 579, 840. 
Cnaphalocrocis medinali.s, 127, 341, 442. 
cnejus, Euchrysops. :, 
o-nigrum, Agrotis. 

Coccidse as crop-pests, 286, 596, 598, 599. 
coccinea, Parectopa. 
CoccinelUdse as crop-pests, 248 ; ealen by 

birds, 863. 
Coccus acutissimus, 293 ; C. colemani, 32^ ; 
C. hesperidum, 293, 005 ; C. longulus, 293 ; 
C. mangifera?, 293, 588 ; C. viridis, 294 ^ 
328, 005. 
coclesalis, Pyrausta. 
Coconut Scolytid, 320. 
cocotis, Pseudococcus. 
Codophila maculicolUs, 251. 
Coelosterna scabrator, 215, 570 ; ('. sp., 214, 

589 ; C. spiuator, 215. 
ccerulea, Cyphosticha. 
coffece, Lecanium (Saissetia hemisph^rica). 

,, Zeuzera. 
eoffearia, Homona. 
Coffee Borer (.ee Xylotrechus quadripes) 

„ Pests in South India, 328. 
coffeifolieUa, Gracillaria. 
cognata, Hypena. 
coimbatorensis, Anastatus. 
Coladenia tissa, 1023*. 
Colasposoma semicostatum, 227, 572. 
colemani. Coccus. 
Colemania spheuarioides, 308. 
Coleophoridse, 850, 1000. 
Coleoptera as crop-pests, 166 : oaten by 

birds, 862. 
Colias croceus fieldi, 110; C. hvalo. 110. 
collaris, Alcides. 

Collecting insects. Hints on. 936 ; Localitie.-i 
for — . 930. 1001 ; time for — , 945 ; appar- 
atus for — , 946 ; importance of — , 97G. 


Collyris sp., 249, 331. 
combusta, Dinara. 
Committees, 22. 

C'omocriti.s pieria, 160, 336, 338, 850, 872. 
compacta, Caeoecia. 
complana, Hypsa. 
complanata, PopilUa. 
compressus, Camponotus. 
compta, Cirphis. 
Conarthrus jansoni, 319. 
conohylalis, Capriiiia. 
conciliata, Eucosma. 
concinna, Apines. 
conoolor, Hieroglyphus. 
,, Lymantria. 
,, Suana. 
concursa, Steg3.nodaetyla. 
Cnephasia argentana, 811. 
conferta. Holotrichia. 
confusa, Anthophora. 
confusus, Cybister. 
coniotalis, Metasia. 
conista, LithoooUetis. 
connaticornis, Aptinothrips ruficornie. 
Conocephalus indicus, 860. 
Conosia irrorata, 51. 
consangius, Polia. 
conspersa, Euproctis. 
conspersa, Lawana. 
coQtaminata, Brachytherais. 
Contheyla rotunda, 104, 322, 331, 575. 
Control of Insect Pests, 15, IS, 23, 27. 
convolvuli, Herse. 
Copromorphidse, 848. 
Coptosoraa cribraria, 249, 344, 345, 346, 935 ; 

C. indicum, 866; 0. nazira;, 250, 325*; C 

ostensura, 325 ; C. sp., 250, 344, 345. 
Coptotermes sp., 1018. 
Corcyra cephalonica, 323, 762. 
cordiger, Ectomocoris. 
Coreidse as crop-pests, 256 ; eaten by birds, 

coriacea, Brahmina. 
coriiu-ella (simplex), Anatrachyntis (Pyro- 

coriandri. Brevicoryne. 
Corigetus bidentulus, 211. 
Corixid e eaten by birds, 867. 
Corizus rubicundus, 259. 
cornifrons, Mudaria, 
cornigera, Promalactis. 
coronata, Anna (Ophlusa). 
coronata, Opbiusa. 
coronigera, Brenthia. 
correctus, Clisetodacus. 

corticina, Myrmecozela. 

corymbatus, PseudococcuB. 

Cosmophila (rosa (indica) ; C. fulvida, 85 ; 

C. indica, 85, 335, 339 ; C. eabulifera, 85. 
Cosmopolites sordidus, 208, 593. 
Cosmopterygida?, 149, 846, 1003. 
Cosmopteryx bambusse, 150, 486 ; C. mimetiB, 
486 ; C. phieogastra, 150, 486. 
Cosmoscarta funeraUs, 273 ; C. relata, 273, 

Cossida?, 142 ; eaten by birds, 8G5. 
Cossus cadambfe, 142. 
cotesii, Aleyrodes. 
Cowpea Agromyza, 48. 
Crabs, 327, 680—694. 
crameri, Clania. 
Craspedia defamataria, 102 ; C. fibulata, 335, 

337, 338, 340, 341 ; C. remotata, 335, 337, 

crassicornis, GallobeUcus. 
crassifica, Blastobasis. 
crateracma, Bucculatrix. 
crauropa, Istrianis. 
creatonoti, Apanteles. 
Creatonotus gangis, 59. 
Cremastogaster hodgsoni, 34 ; C. sp., 328 ; 

C. subnuda, 862. 
Creraastus sp., 933. 
crenulata, Atractomorpha. 
cretaceus, Sympiezomias. 
cretata, Pseiidodoxia. 
Cretonia vegeta, 73. 
cretosus, Spilophorus. 
cribraria, Argina. 

,, Coptosoma. 
cribratus, Aclees. 
Cricuk trifenestrata, 100, 569, 570. 581, 582. 

584, 597. 
crini, Brithys. 
crinitus, Sitones. 
critica, Eucosma (Encelis). 
Crobj'lophora daricella, 854. 
crocata, Tarache. 
croceus fieldi, CoUas. 
Crocidolomia binotaUs, 132, 336, 338, 340, 349, 

Crooidophora ptyophora, 133. 
Crocidosema plebeiana, 842. 
Crossotarsus sp., 185. 
crotonis, Pseudococcus. 
crucifera, Anthracophoia. 
Cruciferous Leaf-miner, 47. 
cruciata, Anfestia. 
cruentatum, Rhipiphorothrips. 
crypsiloga, Cholotis. 


<!rypsilychna, Lecithoccra. 

Cr3rpsithyris hypnota. 85G ; C. longicornis, 

856 ; C. mesodyas, 850. 
Cryptoblabes ephcstialis, 125. 
C'ryptocephalus dodecaspilus, 225. 
Cryptolechia arvalis, 847. 
Cryptophagidse eaten by birds, 863. 
Crypt orrhynchus gravis, 204, 587, 597 ; C. 
mangiferje, 204, 586 ; C. poricoUis, 205, 587. 
crystallopa, Acrocercops. 
Cucujidse eaten by birds, 863. 
cucumeris (gossypii). Aphis, 
cucurbitse, Chaetodaciis. 
carurbiti (malvse), Aphis. 
Curabu Cecidomyiad, 50, 324. 
Cumbu Fly, 39. 
cumulata, Planostocha. 
cunicularis, Elegistis. 
cupreoviridis, Eariae. 
cupricollis, Popillia. 

Curculionidse, 185, 570 ; eaten by birds, 864. 
CuTculionid>!, undetermined, 209 — 210, 211. 
curcumfe, Aspidiotus. 
Curry Leaf-hojjpcr, 325. 
cyanea, Haltica. 

,, Mimastra. 

,, Redoa. 

„ Sciitellista. 
cyanophylli, Aspidiotus. 
cyanostoma, An<:3'lis. 

Cybister confusus, 863 ; C. tripunctatus, 863. 
Cyclopelta obscura, 344. 
Cydnus sp., 866. 
cydonire, Aspidiotus. 
Cylas formicarius, 190, 351. 
cylicota, Acrocercops. 
Cylinders, Zinc, for rearing, 879*. 
cylindricus, Aswatthamanus. 
Cyphosticha crerulea, 163, 323, S53. 
cypris, Qidematopoda. 
Cyrtacanthacris ranacca, 310, 562, SCO. 
Cyrtotrachelus dux, 207 ; C. longipes, 207. 
cyssea, Amata. 

Dactylethra Candida, 844. 
Dactylopius (Pseudococcus). 

indicus, 288. 
Dacui, (see also Chsetodacus). 

„ brevistylus, 40, 324, 588, 595; D. 
longistylus, 40, 324, 935 ; D. olea>. 
17, 41, 590. 
dscdalota, Laspeyrcsia. 

daksha, Papilio. 

Dlanais plexippus, 332, 337. 

danica, Locusta. , 

dara, Padraona. 

daricella, Crobylophora, 

Dasychira divisa, 334, 337 ; D. dudgeoni, 
654 ; D. fusiformis, 334, 337, 338, 339, 340, 
344 ; r>. horsfieldi, 89, 334, 339, 566 ; D. 
mendosa, 89, 334, 338, 339, 340, 344, 566, 
583, 590, 653, 677 ; D. sccuris, 90, 341, 
342, 343, 354, 933 ; D. ep., 90, 590. 

Dasyneura gossypii, 49. 

daubei, Plusia. 

dayanum, Potamon. 

dea, " Arbela." 

Dead animals. Insect fauna of, 942. 

Decadarchis dissimulans, 855. 

decipiens, Sympiezomias. 

decolor, Blastobasis. 

decorata, Anomala. 
„ Halpe. 

Decoy for butterflies, 943*. 

decrescens, Berosus. 

decurvata, Chionaspis. 

defaraataria, Craspedia. 

defcotalis, Buckleria. 

defoliator, Emperorrhinus. 

Deilephila bypothcus, 97 ; D. nerii, 96, 333, 

Deiradolcus sp., 209, 566, 589, 591. 

delesserti, Fulgora. 

Delias aglea, 117. 

democratica, Chrysoniela. 

demoleus, Papilio. 

dentatus, Halys. 

„ Poh'ptychus. 

dentifer, Myllocerus. 

dentipes, Metaplax. 

depressa, Saissetia. 

depressella, Emmalocera (Payma). 

dcpressum, Gonocephalum. 

depunctalis, Nymphula. 

Dereodus pollinosus, 188, 506 ; D. sparsus, 
352, 362, 596. 

Dermestes larvalis, 987*. 

Dermestidse eaten by birds, 803. 

derogata, Sylcpta. 

deschampsi, Phymatostetha. 

Desert Insects, 937. 

dcsiccata, Acrocercops. 

Desmidophorus hebes, 206. 

destructor, Aspidiotus. 
,, Clania. 
., (pisi), Xcrliirophorri (Macrof-ipl uni). 

Deudorix epijarbas, 113, 694. 


Deuterooopus alopecodes, 839 ; D. planeta, 

839 ; D. ritsemffi, 839 ; D. socotranua, 839. 
devaslaiid, Empoasca. 
dcvestita, Laelia. 
Diabasis sp., 645. 
Diacrisia cximia, 677 ; D. montana (suffysa), 

55 ; D. nigrifrons, 54 ; D. obliqua, 5i, 324, 

345, 347, 348, 562, 563 ; D. sp., 55. 
Diaci'otricha fasciola, 136, 565, 838. 
Diadiplosis indica, 554, 617. 
Dialeiirodes citri, 278, 574 ; T>. eiigenise, 

aurantii, 278. 
D. eugema>, 325. 

dianthi, Bhopalosiphum (Myzus persica?). 
Diapromorpha melanopus, 225. 
Diaspis barberi, 297, 602 ; D. echinocacti, 

297 ; D. mangifera;, 298, 602 ; D. rosse, 

298, 602 ; X>. sp., 574. 
diatoiiica, Acrocercops. 
Diatrjea auricilia, 119, 387*, 416 ; D. sacchar- 

alis, 118; D. sacchariphagus, 119; D. sp. 

(C. S. 1610), 119, 388*; D. sp. (C. S. 1674), 

119,389*; D. sp., (C. S. 1769), 119; D. 

sp. (C. S. 1835), 119; D. venosata 

(striatalis), 118, 388*. 414, 416. 
Diclioeroois punctiferaUs, 128, 324, 336, 338, 

347, 580, 586, 587, 589, 591. 
Dichomeris evidantis, 845 ; D. ianthes, 154, 

dichromella, Beara. 
Dictyophora pallida, 268. 
dictyospermi, Aspidiotus. 
dicyola, Monopis. 
didyma, Nephele. 
didyraopa, Anarsia. 
diemonalis, Lamprosema (NacoUJa). 
diffusa, Naranga. 
Dihammus fistulator, 216. 
dilatata, Chionaspis. 

„ Phenaoaspis. 
Dilinia capitata, 569 ; D. medardai'ia, 509. 
diluticornis, Zalithia. 
dimidialis, Eublemma. 
dimidiata, Anoraala. 
Dinara combusta, 100. 
Dinoderus sp., 934. 
dionysius, Phyllognathus. 
Diopsidae eaten by birds, 866. 
dioscorides, Ampittia {Hesperia}. 
Diplonearcha insinuans, 841. 
Diptera as crop-pests. 39 ; eaten by. birds, 

Dirades theclata, 590. 
direptalis, Platyptilia. 
discolor, Myllocerus. 

discrepans, Lecaiiium. 
disjuncta, Megachilc 
dispar, Chrysops. 

Disphinctus humeralis, 265 ; D. politus, 266, 
dispilana, Caeoecia. 
dissimilis, Phytoscaphus. 
dissimulan.?, Decadarchis. 
distans, Tagiades. 
distincta, Sogata. 
distinotissima. Geisha, 
divergens, Cliionaspis grKminis. 
diversus, (Bactrocera) Chsetodacus. 
divisa, Dasychira. 
dodeoaspilus, Cryptoceplialus. 
dodecastigma, Epilachna. 
Dolycoris indicus, 251, 343, 562. 
dominica, Glotlnla (see Brithys crini). 
dominica, Rhizopertha. 
j dorinda, Lithoeolletis.' 
dorsalis, Anomala. 
dorsalis. Chsetodaeus. 

„ Epacromia (Aiolopus tamulus). 
„ Scirtothrips. 
dorsata. Apis, 
dorsatus, M3'llocerus. 
Dorylus labiatus, 35 ; D. orientalis, 35, 349, 

downesi, Lema. 
dracsenae, Hemichionaspis. 
DragonHies,. Preparation of. 954. 
Dragonflies (see Odonata). 
Drasterius sy., 244, 361*, 
Dry specimeas, 960. 
dudgeoui, Dasychira. 
dumetana, Tortrix. 
Duomitusceramicus, 142, 699 ;'^D. leuconotus, 

142 ; D. mineus, 142 ; D. spf, 142. 
dupUcatus, Ch»todacus. 
durantre (durranti). Aphis. 
] durranti. Aphis, 
dussuraieri, Anomala. 
duvauceh, Adoretus. 
dux, Cyrtotrachelus. 
Dynastidse, 181. 
Dyscerus fletcheri, 210*, 567 ; D. malignus, 

210*, 567. 
Dysdercus cingulatus, 262, 351, 562, 867. 
Dysodia ignita, 333, 338. 
Dytiscidie eaten by birds, 863. 

Earia3 cupreoviridis (cJirorimiaria), 78, 335, 
339, 448, 562; E. fabia, 78,f335, 339, 351, 


443, 448, 451, 470, 562 ^ E. iusulana, 78, 
443, 448, 470, 503, 562. 
ebenina, Argyroploce. 
Eboda obstinata, 841. 
eburifera, Gnatholea. 
echeelus, Hippotion. 
echidna, Platj'pria. 
echinocacti, Diaspis. 
echinus, Urentius. 
Economic Entomology, Some aspects of. 

Ectadiophatnus tachardise, 932. 
Ectomocoris cordiger, 86". 
edocla, Hctcrusia. 
Education, Entomological, in Agricultural 

Colleges, 10(39. 
edwardsi, Sesarma. 
Eelworms, 327. 
efEera, Brachmia. 

,, Lecithocera. 
egena, Halpe. 
egialealis, Terastia. 

Egypt, Entomological Service in, 511 — 513. 
Egypt, Bee-keeping in, 779. 
Etachistida;, 850, 1005. 
elaphopa, Acrocercops. 
Elasmoscelis platypoda, 268, 354. 
elata, Anomala. 
Elater burmitinus, 987*. 
Elateridse as crop-pests, 244, 317 ; eaten by 

birds, 864. 
electrinus, Hyptiogastrites. 
electriphila, Apencsia. 
Electrocyrtoma burmanica, 986*. 
elegans, Heteracris. 

., Heterrorhina. 
Elegistis cunicularis, 856. 
Eligma narcissus, 78. 
elongatum. Conocephalum. 
elongella, Stenachroia. 
elpis, Lampides. 

Elymnias caudata, 575 ; E. undularis, 105. 
Emmalocera (Papua) (Pohjocha) depressella 

(saccharella), 123, 379*. 
Emmalocera sp., 377*. 
emolus, Lycsenesthes. 
Emperorrhinu.'; defoliator. 190, 560, 568, 590, 

Empoasca dcvastans, 276 ; E. flavescens, 275, 

633 ; E. Bp., 276 ; E. thea, 270. 
Empusa lecanii, 328. 
Endrosis lactecUa, 847. 
Enchelyspheroides trichonymphanim, 1016*. 
cnerga, Melasina. 
engrapta, Brachmia. 

Enitharcs sp., 867. 

Entomological Education in Agricultural 

Colleges, 1069. 
EntomologicalJournal vSuggested, 1035, 1041. 
Entomological Literature, Subject indexing of, 

Entomological Publications, Proposals regard- 
ing, 10—13, 1034. 
Entomological Society, Proposed Indian, 

Entomological work. Organization of, 1080. 
Entomology, Some Aspects of economic, 

Envelopes for Specimens, 960*. 
Eophileurus perforatus, 576. 
Epacromia (Aiolopus) tamulus (dorsalis). 
Epcpeotes uncinatus, 215, 577. | 
Epermeniadse, 853, 1006. 
Ephemeridae eaten by birds, 861 ; eaten by 

fish, 908) 
Ephestia cautella, 323. 
ephestialis, Cryptoblabes. 
ephippias, Anarsia. 
Ephysteris cherssea {oschcphora), 844. 
Epieauta hirticornis badgleyi, 240 ; E. sp., 

Epioephala albifrons, 851 ; E. chalybacftia, 

453, 851. 
Epicometis squalida, 180. 
Epicrocis lateritialis, ;i36, 337. 
epicj-rta, Cacsecia. ' 
epidectes, Oxyptilus. 
epidesma, Pcronea. 
epijarbas, Dendorix. 
Epilachna dodeeastigma, 248, 346, 351 ; E. 

viginti-octo-punctata, 248 ; E. sp., 350. 
Epimarptis philocoma, 853. 
Epipyropidae, Indian. 978.* 
Epipyrops anomala, 978 : E. barberiana, 979 ;, 
j E. eurybrachydis, 981*, E. poliographa, 980 ; 
E. sp., 979. 

Episomus lacerta, 189. 
Epithectis .studiosa, 844. 
epius, Spalgis. 
epotias, Anarsia. 
erebius. Plat j-met opus. 
Ercchthias zebriua. 855. 
Eretcs sticticus, 863. 
Eretmocera impactr'.la, 158, 849. 
ergasima, Phthorima'a. 
Ergolis merione. !07, 347 : E. taprobana,. 

Eridontomeroidella gibboni, 935. 
Eriosoma lanigera, 285, 597. 
eriosowa (chalcytea), Plusia. 


Eriophyes g0S8ypii, 559 ; E. sp., 581, 582. 

erioplaca, Acrocercops. 

-erilhonius (demoleus), Papilio. 

erosa (indica), Cosmophila. 

•erotias, Argyroploce. 

Erotylidie as crop-pests, 249. 

erythrina, Lepidosaphes. 

esoii (eoheolus), Hippotion ( Jhierocampa). 

Estigmene lactinea, 55, 334, 337, 338, 339, 

Ethmia assaraensis, 850. 

Etiella zinckenella, 126, 344, 346. 

Eublemma amabiUs, 453, 797 ; E. dimidialis, 
73 ; E. hemlrhoda (dimidialis), 73 ; E. 
olivacea, 73, 335, 340, 350 ; E. quadrilineata 
453, 554, 617 ; E. scitula, 335 ; E. secta 
(dimidialis), 73 ; E. silicula, 73, 585, 586. 

Eucelis (Eucosma) critica. 

Euchromia polymena, 52. 

Euchrysops cnejus, 112, 333, 339, 344. 

Eucoptacra prsemorsa, 310. 

Eucosma balanoptycha, 841 ; E. clepsidoma, 
841 ; E. conciliata, 841 ; E. critica, 145, 
841 ; E. foenella, 842 ; E. melanaula, 145, 

841 ; E. melarioneura, 842 ; E. stereoma, 

842 ; E. zelota, 145, 842. 
Eucosma ludicra (critica). 
Eucosma trichocrossa (critica). 
Eucosmids, 144, 841 1003. 
Eucrotala nucleata, 855. 
eugeniae aurantii, Dialeurodes. 
eugeniae, Dialeurodes. 
Eugnamptus marginatus, 197, 584, 597. 
eugraphella, Nephopteryx. 
Eulecanium capreae, 294 ; E. persicfe, 294. 
Eumastacins, 1032—1033. 
euraenoides, Mellesis. 

Eupatorus hardwickei, 181. 

Euplaalerus citri, 276, 574. 

Euplexia opposita, 333, 337, .341. 

Euprootis conspersa, 646 : E. flava, 567, 578, 
583, 591, 593, 594 ; E. fraterna, 91, 324. 
334, 338, 339. 340, 344. 593, .596, 933 ; E 
latifascia, 91 ; E. lunata, 91, 569, 583, 584 
589 ; E. semisignata, 334, 337 ; E. seintil 
lans, 92, 334, 338, 339, 340, 344, 565, 583 
586, 594 677, 933 ; E. sub-fasciata, 91 
E. varians, 648. 

Eupterote geminata, 99, 333, 339, 340 ; E. 
mollifera, 99. 

Eupterotidse, 99. 

^urybrachydis, Epipyrops. 

Eurybrachys tomeiitosa, 2G7. 

Eurydema pulchrum, 348, 350. 

Eurygenius wickhami, 987*. 

eurynome, Neptis. 

eurytion, Melittia. 

Eurytoma indi, 37, 315*, 935 ; E. pigra, 934. 

Eurytomine, 36, 37. 

Eusarcocoris guttiger, 252 ; E. ventralis, 251 ; 

E. sp., 206. 
Eutelia blandiatrix, 587. 
Euthalia garuda, 106, 584. 
Euxoa segetum, 61, 349 ; E. spinifera, 61. 
Euzophera pertioella, 123, 336, 340, 933 ; 

E. plumbeifasciella, 124, 323, 508, 595 ; 

E. punicaeella, 124, 594. 
evidantis, Dichomeris. 
exallacta, Anarsia. 

eicavala (atripennis), Aulaoophora. 
excavatus, Macropes. 
exclamationis, Badamia. 
exclamationis, Laelia. 
Excrement. Insect fauna of, 942. 
e.xedra, Bucculatri.x. 
Exelastis atomosa 137, 839, 933 ; E. lioijhanes, 

exemplaris, Autosticha. 
exigua, Laphygma. 
eximia, Diacrisia. 
Exinotis catachlora, 849. 
expansum, Paralecanium. 
extenuata, Acrocercops. 
externalis, Nodaria. 

fabia, Earias. 

fabriciana, Simaethis. 

fabricieUa, Atteva. 

fabricii, Alcides. 

falcatella, Anatrachyntis (Gracilaria ?). 

fallax, Cliauliops. 

farinalis, Pyralis. 

farinosus, Paramecops. 

fascialis, Hymenia. 

fasoiata, Adoxophyes. 

„ Apis, 
fasciatus, Anthrenus. 

,, Hapalochrus. 
fasciola, Diacrotricha. 
fastuosa, Psiloptera. 
Fatua longicornis, 317. 
faunus, Xantliotraohelus. 
fe:e, Popillia. 

Feeding habits of insects, 879. 
femorata, Sagra. 
ferrugalis, Hapalia {Pionea). 
ferruginea, Apogonia, 


ferniginea, Tcttigoniella. 
ferruginous, Choetodacus. 

,, Rhj'nehophorus. 

fetialis, Polychrosis. 
fibulata, Craspedia. 
fici, Hemichionaspis. 
ficus (aonidum), Chrysomphalus. 

,, Hypsa. 
Fig. Borer in, 577. 
filiformis. Ranatra. 
finitimu.s, Atactogaster. 
Fiorinia proboscidaria, 299 ; F. these, 299. 
Fisheries, Importance of insects to, 90G. 
fistulator, Dihammus. 
fiagellata, Pyrsonympha. 
flammatra, Agrotis. 
flanimitera, CEdomatopoda. 
flava, Euproctis. 

flavescens fsamelliae), Aspidiotus.' 
„ Empoasca. 

,, Orthacanthacris. 

flaviceps. Pj'cnosoma. 
flavo'asciata, Opogona. 
flav'is, Arrhinotermes. 

,, Salius. 
Flea-beetles, 343, 563. 
fletclieri. Dyscerus. 
., Nyctotherus. 
„ Opius. 
,, Stylotermes. 
flexuosus, Anoplomus. 

florea. Apis, 
floridensis, Ceroplastes. 

florivora. Prosintis. 

fiuctuosalis, Nymphula. 

fcenella, Eucosuia. 

folus, Udaspes. 

Forceps, t'51*. 

Forest Insects, 009— 704. 

ForficuIidK eaten by birds, 859. 

f ormicarius, Cylas. 

Formicida>, 33 ; eaten by birds, 862. 

Forraicomus sp., 361. 

forniosana, Lecithocera. 

formosanus. Odontotermes. 

fornicatus, Xyleborus. 

Fossil Insects, Indian, 982*. 

fossilis, Henicocephalus. 

foveata, Aspidomorpha. 

foveirollis (abdominalis), Aulacophora. 

fragilis, Cirphis. 

Frauciella termitis, 1018*, 1019. 

frater, Synipiezomias. 

fraterna, Euproctis. 

frenatus, Alcidea. 

fructica-ssiella, Trachylepidia. 

frugalis, Pelamia {Bemigia). 

frugivora. Tinea. 

Fruit IiLsects, Rearing ofr884. 

Fulgora candelaria, 1031*; F. delessorti, 1031. 

Fulgoridse as crop-pests. 267 ; eaten by birds, 

fuUonica, Opbiusa {Olhreix). 
fulvida, Cosmophila. 
fumiceps, Opogona. 

Fumigation of imported plants, 1064*. 
fumipennis, Microdus. 
funeralis, Cosmoscarta. 
Fungal diseases of Coccus viridis, 328. 
furcifer (banian), Hieroglyphus. 
furcifera, Megamelus, 270. 271. 
fusca, Protfetia. 
fuscipennis, Chrysis. 
fuscipunctella. Tinea, 
fusconervosus, Athysanus. 
fuscus, Eiptortus. 
fiisiformis. Dasychira. 


gaika, Zizera. 

galba, Spialia. 

Galeatus retiarius, 263. 

Galerucella singhara, 229, 595 ; G. sp. 230, 

Galerucincs, undetermined, 231. 
Gall-making insects. Rearing of, 882. 
GaUobolicus crassicornis, 266, 349. 
Gangara thyrsis, 115, 575, 600, 1024*. 
gangis, Creatonotus. 
ganodes, LithocoUetis. 

ganida, Euthalia. 

Gastrimargus transversus, 306. 

Geisha distinctissima, 634. 

Gelasimus acutus. 693. 

Gelatine grubs, 30. 

Gdcchia (Helcystogramma) hibisci. 
,, (Platyedra) gossypiella. 
,, tamariciella, 844. 

Gelechiada>, 150, 843, 1003. 

geminata. Bradinopyga, 

geminata, Euptcrote. 

geminata, Solenopsis. 

gemoniella, Acrocercops. 

genialis, Lobesia. 

geochrota, Trichotaphe. 

geometra, Acrocercops. 

geometralis, Lepyrodes. 

geometrica, Grammodea. 

Geometrid larva, A very curious, 978*. 


Geometridse, 101. 
Geotomus sp., 866. 
germari, Apriona. 
Gerris sp., 867. 
Gwura t^ceptica, 77. 
Gibbiuni scotias, 719*. 
gibboni, Eri;lontomeroidc-lla. 
gibbosa, ClaVigralla. 
gibbus, Blissus. 
gidoon, Xylotrupcs. 
gUviberbis, Scirpophaga. 
Gitonides perspicax, 555*. 
gla'.icitis, Thyrsostoma. 
Glass-bottomed boxes, 952*. 
Glass jars for rearing, 877*. 
glanciuans, Perioyma (Homoptera). 
globigera, Lepidosoia. 
globosa, Xystrocera. 
globuUfera, Monauthia. 
glorios«, Polytela. 

Olottula dominica (see Brithys crini). 
glycyphaga, Anoylis. 
Glyphipterygidae, 1.59, 849, 1005. 
Gli/phodes (see Margaronia). 
Glyptomorpha sp., 934. 
Gnatholea eburifera, 221, 573, 596. 
Gnathospastoides rouxi, 242. 
gnoma, Theretra. 

Onorlmoschema (Phthorimsea) heliopa. 
gonagra, Caryoborus. 

Gonocophahim braclielytra, 242 ; G. depres- 
sum, 243, 578, 864 \ G. elougatum, 243 ; 
G. hofman'iseggi, 243, 578 ; G. sp., 244, 864. 
gonodactyla, Platyptilia. 
gossypiella, Acria. 
gossypiella, Platyedra {Geleckla) {Peclino- 

gossypii, Aphis. 

,, Dasyueura. 
,, Eriophyes. 
„ Sphenoptera. 
Graoillariad*. 161, 850, 1006. 
Graoillaria acidula, 853 ; G. eoffeifoliella, 
853 ; G. isoU'ca, 853 ; G. octopuuotata, 853 ; 
G. soyella, 163, 853, 934 ; G. theivora, 163, 
853 ; G. zachrysa, 17, 103, 566, 853. 
graoUsi, Acontia. 
graminea, Nezara. 
graminis divergens, Chiouaspis. 
graminum, Toxoptera. 
graminivoia, Mahasena. 
GraramoJes geometrica, 81 ; G. stolida, 81. 
granariuin. Macrosiphum. 
grandissimum, Trombidium. 
granularis, Melagina. 

Graptostethus servus, 260, 344, 346, 562. 
Grasshoppers, Observation of oviposition of, 

grassii, Pyrsonympha. 
gravis, Cryptorrhynchus. 
Green potato leaf-beetle, 319. 
greeni, Calotermes. 
gremius, Suastus. 
grisator, Agrilus. 

„ Sthenias. 
GrylUdoe as crop-pests, 311, ; eaten by birds, 

Gryllodes sp., 860. 

Gryllotalpa africaua, 311, 359*, 861. 
GryUus viator (melanocephalus), 313, 588. 
guttiger, Eusarcocoris. 
Gymnonympha zeylanica, 1019*. 
Gymnopleunis sp., 864. 
Gymnoscelis albocaudata, 335, 339. 
Gynacantlia bayadera, 896. 
Gynaikothrips liarnyi, 619. 


habrochroa, Pliyllocnistis. 

hageui, Chaetodacus. 

hahdayi, Idolothrips. 

HaUplidse eaten by birds, 863. 

Haliplus angustifrons, 863. 

hahstrepta, Macliajropteris. 

Halpe eeylonica, 1024*; H. deoorata, 1024* . 

H. egena, 1024*. 
halteraUs, Burmitempis. 
Haltica cyanea, 232. 
Halticiues, unidentiaed, 233, 234. 
Halticus ininutus, 267. 
Halys deutatus, 866. 
hamifer, Chlsenius. 
Hantana infernus, 1023*. 
Hapalia ferrugalis, 135. 
Hapalochrus fasciatus, 248. 
Haplosonyx trifasciatus, 566. 
Haplothrips tenuipennis, 27, 619, 621. 
Hapsifera (Da-syses) rugosella, 165, 395*, 590, 

856 ; H. seclusella, 856. 
hardwickei, Eupatorus. 
Harmologa miserana, 841. 
hartii, Aspidiotus. 
Hasora badra, 1024*. 
hebes, Desmidophorus. 
hccabe, Terias. 
liedera;, Odites. 

Helcystogramma hibisoi, 154, 845. 
helenus, Papilio. 


Holeoooris sp., 867. 

helioodes, Phyllocnistis. 

Heliocopris bucephalus, 887 ; H. sp., 8G5. 

HeUgdinidie, 158, 848, 1004. 

heUopa, Phthorimsea. 

Heliothis assulta, 61, 335, 340, 349, 578 ; H. 

obsoleta, 60, 335, 338, 340, 344, 345, 394*, 

573, 578. 
Heliothrips indicus, 018, 019. 
Heliozelid*, 848, 1004. 
Hellula undalis, 132, 336, 338. 
Helopcltis antonii,265, 325, 330 ; H. theivora, 

24—26, 30, 265, 325, 069—671. 
Hemichionaspls aspidistrse, 298, 326, 608 ; 

H. draciense, 298 ; H. fici, 298 ; H. minima, 

298 ; H. minor, 299 ; H. the:e, 299, 606. 
hemicitra, Monopis. 
hemidoxa, Laspeyresia. 
hemiglypta, Acrocercops. 
Hemiptera as crop-pests. 249 ; eaten by 

birds, 866. 
hemirhoda (dimidialis), Eublemma. 
homisplijerioa, Saissotia (Lecanium). 
hcmitorna, Stathmopoda. 
Henicocephalus fossilis, 087*. 
HenicospUusreticulatus, 933; H. sp., 933. 
Hepialids, 1007, 1018. 
heringi, Rhodoplioea. 
Herse convol-nili, 95, 333, 339. 
hespera ( didy ma), Nephele. 
Mesperia (Ampittia) dioscorides {maro). 

,, (Spialia) galba. 
Hesperiadse, 114. 

„ Ceylonese, Genitalia of, 1021*. 

liesperidum. Coccus. 
Heteracris capensis, 311 ; H. elegans, 311 ; 

H. illustris, 311 ; H. sp., 311. 
Heterogamus sp., 933. 
Heterograpliis l)ongalella, 125, 323, 576. 
Heteronychus lioderes, 865 ; H. eacchari, 

Heteropsyche, 980. 
Heteropternis rcspondens, 306. 
Heterorrhina elegans, 177. ■ 
Heterusia iedia, 664 ; H. edocla, 140 ; H. 

magnifica, 139 ; H. virescens, 140. 
hoxamitoiiles, Microjoenia. 
hibisci, CVrococcus. 

„ Heloj'stograrama. 
hierooosma, Acrocercops. 
HieroBula westwoodi, 859. 
hieroglyphi, Seelio. 

Hieroglvphus banian, 309, 935 ; H. biMneatus, 
309 ; H. coneolor, 309 ; H. nigrorepletus, 

Hilarographa caminodes, 159, 849. 
Hindsiana apicalis, 618. 
Hippobosoidse eaten by birds, 866. 
Hippotion boerhavife, 333 ; H. rafSesi, 333, 

Hippotion celerio, 97, 578 ; H. echeclus 

(eson), 97. 
hirsutus, Phenacoccus. 
hirticornis, Epicauta. 
hislopi, Lomatus. 
Hispa armigera, 237, 342. 
hispidus, Tanymecus. 
Hispine beetle on plantain, 593. 
histeroides, Tetroda. 
histeroidea, Popillia. 
histrio, Apomecyna. 
liistrio, Menida. 
hodgsoni, Cremastogaster. 
Hodotermcs tristis, 987* ; H. viarum, 314, 

hofmannscggi, Gouocephalum. 
Holcocera pulvcrea, 797, 850. 
Holcomyrmex scabriceps, 33. 
holosericea, .Eolcsthes. 
Holotrichia conferta, 167, 329 ; H. repetita, 

168, 1028 ; H. sp., 1028 ; H. rufoflaTa, 

Homona cofiearia, 30, 143, 840 ; H. menciana, 

637, 840. 
Hoinopiera (Pericyma) glaucinans. 
honesta, Lagoptera. 

„ Ropica. 
Honey, Uses of, in India, 773. 
Hopatroides seriatoporus, 242. 
Hoplocerambyx epinicornis, 696, 703. 
horreiLs, ClavigraUa. 
horsfieldi, Dasychira. 
horticola, Adoretus. 
liospes. Lygfous. 
Hot Springs, Insects in, 940. 
Howardia biclavis, 297. 
hugelii: Lophosternus. 
Humbertiella indica, 859. 
humeralis, Disphinctus. 

„ Rhynchocoris. 

hunteri, Meristos, 
hyale, Colias. 

Hyalomma KgyptJum, 167. 
Hyalopterus pruni, 215. 
Hyarotis adrastus, 1024*. puera, 88. 324. 701. 
hybridella, Phalonia. 
Hydaticus larv.-o eaten by birds, 1^63. 
hydrodromus. Paratelphusa. 
Hydrometridfc eaten by brids, 867. 


Hydi'ophilidae eaten by birds, 863. 
Hydrophilus olivaceus, 863. • 

Hyelopsis (Lithacodia) signifera. 
Hymenia fascialis, 127, 336, 337. 
Hymenoptera as crop-pests, 33, 315 ; eaten 

by birds, 861. 
Hypai'gyria sp., 323. 
Hypelictis albiscripta, 84.5. 
Hypeua cognata, 335, 341. 
Hypera medicaginis, 194 ; H. variabilis, 194. 
hyperbius, Argyniiis. 
Hypermastigina, Families of, 1020. 
hyi^hantica, Acrocercops. 
hypnota, Crypsithyris. 
HypoUmiias bolina, 332. 
Hypomeces squamosus, 187, 572, 668. 
Hypouomeutida;, 160, 850, 1005. 
Hvponomeuta lapidella, 850 ; H. malinellus, 

Hypophorus ater, 863. 
H3'pophrictis inceptrix, 855 ; H. plana, 855 ; 

H. sp., 855. 
Hyposidra talaca, 335, 338, 339, 340. 
hypothous, Deilephila. 
hyppasia, Chalciope {Trigonodes). 
Hypsa alciphron, 93. 577 ; H. complana, 93 ; 
H. ficus, 93, 576, 577. 
Hypsipyla robusta, 700. 
Hyptiogastrites electrinus, 986*. 
hyrtaca, Metanastria. 
hystrioellus, Tingis. 
hystrix, Platypria. 

ianthes, Dicliomeris. 
Icerya purohasi, 633. 
iceryoides, Phenaooccus. 
iohnsea, Stenoma. 
Ichneumonidse eaten by birds, 
Idgia belli, 248 ; I cardoni, 247 

idiastis, Brachraia. 
Idiocerus atkinsoni, 273, 586. 597 

273, 586 ; I. niveosparsus, 273 
Idioglossa triacma, 853. 
Idiophantis chiridota, 844. 
idioptila, Anafsia. 
Idolothrips halidayi, 618. 
ignicoUis, Anomala. 
ignita, Dyaodia. 
illepida, Argyroploce. 
lUustrations, Preparation and Reproduction 

of scientific, 1042. 


I. melanura. 

; I. civpcalis. 
; I. sp., 274. 

illustris, Heteracris. 
inibricans, Lecanium. 
Imma mylias, 849. 
immaculata, Xanthopimpla. 
immeritalis, Schojnobius. 
impactella, Eretmocera. 
impolita, Rh3rtinota. 
Importation of insects on plants, 
importunitas, Ragmus. 
impressus, Pachncpliorus 
inachus, Kallima. 
inaequalis, Blosyrns. 
inceptrix, Hypophrictis 
incisus, Chsetodacus. 
iuconspicuus, Nysius. 
Inourvariadte, 856. 
incurvata, Lithooolletis. 
indi, Eurytoma. 
,, Megastigmus. 
„ Telenomus. 
indica. Apis. 

„ Aspidomorpha 
,, Asympiesiella. 
,, Belostoma. 
,, Cosmophila. 
„ Diadiplosis. 
„ Humbertiella. 
,, Leucaspis. 
,, Margaronia (Glyphodcs). 
„ Metapelma. 
,, Neolieegeria. 
„ Tinda. . 
indicata, Lamjiroscma (Nacoleia). 
indicola, Leucotermes. 
indicum, Coptosoma. 
,, Podagrion. 
„ SyntomosphjTum 
„ Anomalococcus. 
,, Athysanus. 
„ ConoccplialnR. 
,. Dactylopins. 
,. Doiycoris. 

,, Leeuwcma. 
„ Ootetrastichiis 
„ Panchaetothrips. 
,, Tanymecus. 
indobrassicae, Siphocorye 
indus, Scarites. 
induta, ^Slolestlies. 

,, Ceropia. 

inferens, Se.samia. 

infernus, Hantana. 

inficita, Acrotylus. 

„ Sahiria. 


infusella, Phycita. 

Ingliaia biyalvata, 293. 

ingravata, Aristotelia. 

iuquieta, Catophia. 

inquisitrix, Macrajola. 

Insectaries, Construction of, 889*. 

Insootary Technique for wood-borers, 892*. 

inseotoUu, Setomorpha. 


insiguis, Orthezia. 

insinuans, Diplonearoha. 

insolitus, Plienaooccus. 

insiilaa, Erachmia. 
,, Earias. 

insularis, Cirphis. 
intogranota, Nemoria. 

internella, Celama. 
interpuuctella, Plodia. 
intersepta, Acontia. 
iuvalidana, Capua, 
ioploura, Argyresthia. 
Ipobracon sp., 935. 
Ipa longifolia, 702. 
irritans, Camponotus. 
irrorata, Conosia. 
iselsea, Gracillaria. 
isitis, Arytaina (Psylla). 
lamene ataphua, 1024*. 
ismono, Melanitis. 
iaocampta, Pammene. 
isochalca, Neptioula. 
iaocrates, Virachola. 
isocyrta, Cacoecia. 
isodclta, Acrocercops. 
isonoma, Acrooeroopa. 
Isoptera aa orop-pests, 313. 
Istriania crauropa, 844. 
iteina, LithoooUetia. 
ityaalis, Margaronia (Qlyphodes). 

jaculatrix, Laspeyresia. 

Jak-fniit weevil, 320*. 

jambuiaua, Tumidicoxoides. 

Jamidcs bochus, 333, 339. 

Janata, Acliaea. 

jansoni, Conarthrua. 

janus, Aspongopua. 

japonica, Aclerda. 

Jaaaidse as crop-pests, 273,563; eaten by 

birds, 807. 
Jivatma sp., 268. 
joooaatiix, Borabrftelia 

VOL. Ill 

Jceuia annecteus, 1019*. 
Juar Cecidomyiad, 50. 

„ stemfly, 51. 
juliani, Metastenomyia. 
Julodia atkinsoni, 246, 688. 
Junonia almana, 106; J. lemonias, 106, 902; 

J. orithyia, lOU. 
Jute Apion, 198. 

„ Trachys, 246. 

Kalidasa sanguinalis, 1031*. 
Kallima iuachus, 106, 591. 
kamyi, Gynaikothrips. 
kempi, Leidya. 
khapra, Trogoderma. 
Kilimg-bottle, 952*. 

„ specimens, 952*. 
Knives, 952.* 
kcebeli, Ceronema. 
koeuigana, Laspeyresia. 
koenigi (viarum), Hodotormes. 
KoUiigi pod beetle, 318*. 
Kolla mimica, 275 ; K. sp., 442. 
kumara, Pamara. 

Labelling insects, 959*, 973. 
labiatus, Dorylus. 
Labidura riparia, 859. 
labrodes, Parectopa. 
labyrinthica, Acrocercops. 
lacca, Tacbardia. 
Laecophilus anticatus, 863. 
Laccotrephes ruber, 867 
Lac-dye, Production of, 786 
Lacera alope, 335, 339. 
lacerta, Episomus. 
lachanitis, Opogona. 
lache sis, Acherontia. 
Lachnus pyri, 284. 
Lao inaeots, 795*. 
Lacon sp., 864. 
lacteella, Endrosis 
lacteola, Altha. 

,, Arasacta. 
lacticinia, Nyctemera. 
lactinoa, Estigmene. 
lactuca;, Oxyptilus 

Lselia deveatita, 89 ; L. exolamatioiiis, 334, 


laetus, O.vvcarenus. 

Lagoptera honesta, 590. 

lahoroasia, Stepheiisonia. 

laius, Chilades. 

laleana, Belippa. 

Lamiad cane-borer, 372*. 

Lamiadse, 212. 

Lamiads, unidentified, 220, 572. 

Lampides elpis. 1 12. 

Lamprosema diemenalig, 129 ; L. indicata, 

129, 336, 337, 345. 
Langia zenzeroides, 98*, 565, 592. 
Languages, Proposed restriction of, 12. 
Languria sp., 249 (see also Anadastus). 
lanigera, Eriosoma. 
Lantana Agromyzid, 675. 
Lantern SUdos, 1047. 

Laphygma exigua, 70, 71, 324, 342, 347, 349. 
lapidella, Hyponoineuta. 
Lariada;, 239, 720 ; eaten by birds, 864. 
Lariadse, Bionomics of, 928. 
Larvae, Preservation of, 969. 
larvalis, Dermestes. 
lasiantlii, Lepidosaphes. 
Lasiooampidse, 102. 
Lasioderma serricome, 722*, 762. 763 
lasiopygus, Adoretus. 
Laspeyresia capparidana, 843; L.. dtedalota, 

843 ; L. hemidoxa, 147, 843 ; L. jaculatrix, 
_843; L. koenigana, 843 ; L. leucostoma, 

147, 32.3, 843; L. malesana, 843; L. 

mamertina, 843 ; L. pomonella, 148, 567, 

843 ; L. pseudoncctis, 147, 843 ; L. pty- 

chora, 149, 843 ; L. pulverula, 843 ; L. 

pycnoclira, 843 ; L. torodeUa, 148, 843 ; 

L. tricentra, 147, 843. 
Laspeyresia (Eucosma) trichocrossa (critioa), 
latanise, Aspidiotus. 
„ Cerataphis. 
lateralis, Astyous. 
lateritialis, Epiorocis. 
Latheticus oryzje, 714*. 
latifasoia, Euproctis. 
latus, Poecilocoris. 
Latj'pica albofasciella, 856. 
Lawana conspersa, 574. 
Leaf-eating insects, Rearing of, 881. 
Leaf -mining insects, Rearing of, 882. 
lebadea, Paduka. 
lecanii, Cephalosporium. 

„ Empusa. 
Lecanium (see also Coccus). 
„ a"utissimum ; 603. 

adersi, 295. 603 ; L. discrepans, 295, 

603, 605 ; L. imbricana, 295 ; 

L. marsupiale, 296 ; L. marcarae, 296 j L. 

signiferum, 296, 605. 
Lecithocera crypsilychna, 844 ; L. efiera, 844 ;. 

L. formosana, 637. 
Leeuwenia indicus, 618. 
lefroyi. Micro bracon {Rhogas). 
lefroyi, Physothrips. 
Legislation against pests in Mysore, 57 — 59. 

in Egypt asainst cotton boll worms, 


,, regarding Plant Imports, 1054. 

Leidya annandalei, 1014*, 1015, 1019 ; L. 

campanula, 1014*, 1015; L. kempi, 1014*, 

101.5, 1019 ; L. metcluiikowi, 1014*, 1015, 

Leraa downesi, 224. 
lemonias, Junonia. 
Lens, 9-52. 

lentiginosum, Phacopteron. 
leontina, Slyrmecozcla. 
leopardus, Alcides. 
lepida, Parasa. 
Lepidoptera as crop-pests, 52, 322 ; eaten by 

birds, 865. 
Lepidosaphes beokii, 303 ; L. erythrina, 303 ; 

L. lasianthi, 303 ; L. pallida, 303 ; L. 

piperis, 303. 
Lepidosoia globigera, 856. 
leptalina, Soritia. 
Le])tispa pygmaea, 235. 
Leptocorisa acuta, 25S ; L. varicornis, 257, 

Leptoglossus menibranacuus, 257. 
LepioxytUi (Dacus) longistylus. 
Lepyrodes geometraUs, 336, 340. 
leucaspis, Argyroploce. 
Leucaspia indica, 299, 588. 
Leucinodes orbonalis, 132, 336, 340, ,350. 
Leucophlebia lineata, 96. 
leuconotus, Diiomitus. 
Leucoptera sphenograpta, 854. 
leucostoma, Laspeyresia. 
Leucotermes indicola, 1011, 1014, 1016, 1019. 

„ speratus, 631. 

Liburnia burmitina, fli87* ; L. psyllo ides, 271 ; 

L. sp.,271. 
lienigianus, Pterophorus. 
Light, Effect of, on specimens, 965. 

traps, 943*. 
Limacodid, 105*. 
Limacodidae. 103, ^yV^'^. 
lirabirena, Plusia. 
Limnoecia metacyphi. 846 ; L. peronodes,. 

840 ; L. phragmitolla, 1000. 


limulus, Pseudodoxia. 

luoidalia, Pisara. 

Linda nigroscutata, 216*, 567. 

lucifera, Anticrates. 

linearis, Calandra. 

ludrcrn (critica), Eucosma. 

linearis. Hiptortus. 

lugubris, Oxycarcnus. 

lincata. LoncophIel>ia. 

lunalis, Sylepta. 

liiu-atifollis, Clnvia. 

lunata, Bembex. 

linr.itirnllis, Paranicsus. 

lunata. Euprocti.s. 

liii. Mt.ipi'nnis. Anomala. 

lunifer, Lucanus. 

liochalca, Nepticula. 

lutcscens, Anoybs. 

Lioorobyla paraschista. 163, 853. 

Lymantriadse, 88 ; eaten by birds. 865. 

liodercs, Hetoronychus. 

Lycsenestbes emolus, 112, 582, 583. 

Liogiyllus bimaculatus, 312, 349, 


Lycsenidjc, as crop-pests, 111 ; eaten by birds 

liophaiics, Exelastis. 


Litchi Eriophyes, 581, 582. 

Lygajidfe as crop-pests, 260 ; eaten by birds 

Literature, Subject indexing of 



gical, 1047. 

Lygajus hospes, 260. 866 ; L. pandurus, 260, 

Lithacedia signifera. 74. 

5^9 1. 

Lithocollctis bauhinise, 850 : L. 

clari,sona . 

Lygropia quaternalis, 336, 

850 ; L. conista, 850 ; L. dorinda, 850 ; 

Lymantria ampla. 334, 337, 338. 339, 340 ; 

L. ganode.s, 161, 851 ; L. incurvata, 851 ; 

L. beatrix, 90, 584 ; L. concolor, 91 ; L, 

L. iteina, 850 ; L. neodoxa. 

851 ; L. 

obfuscata, 90 ; 568. 

triarcha, 101, 850 ; L. virgnlata 

. 850. 

Lynccstis anvpliix, 86. 

litterata, V'anina. 

Lyonetiada;, 164, 854, 1006. 

litlnrnlis (litvira) Prodenia. 

lysibathra, Acrocercops. 

litnra, Prodenin. 

lysimon, Zizera. 

livii. Polygnutus. 

Lytta actseon, 240 ; L. picta, 240 ; L. rufi- 

Lixus braohyrrhinus, 195. 352, 569. 

coUis, 240 ; L. tenuicollis, 240 

Lobe.sia seolopa, 145, 842 ; L. genialis, 842. 

lobiceps, Adoretus. 


Lobopelta ocelUfera. 862. 

Locusta danica, 306. 

Macalla moncusalis, 126, .583, 584, 597 

Lociislidce (Phasgonuridse). 

Machseropteris halistrepta, 856. 

Locusts, 15. 

Macbierota planitise, 272, 556* ; M. sp., 272,. 

Loemophlo_nis pusillus. 714*. 


Lomatus hislopi. iJ87. 

machseralis, Pyrausta. 

longicep.s, Physothrips. 

machaon, Papilio. 

longieollis, Odoiponig. 

Macra?ola inquisitrix, 856. 

longicornis, ('rypsithyris. 

Macrobathra nonuea, 847. 


macroclina, Acrocercops. 

longifolia, Ips. 

Macroma nielanopus, 181. 

longipes, Cyrtotracholus. 

Macropes excavatus, 261 ; M. raja, 261- 

longipe?, Plagiolepi.-^. 

Macrosiphum granarium, 279 ; 343 ; M. pis). 

longispinus. Pseudococcus. 

279 : M. rosaeformis, 279 ; JI. sanbomi, 279 ; 

longistvlus, Daous. 

"M. sonchi, 279, 348. 

Longitarsus nigripennis, 318, 92.5. 

maculatus, Chaitophonis (Callipterus trifolii) 

longuhi^i. Coccus. 

maculicollis. Codopbiia. 

Lophouionas blattarum, 1019*. . 

maculipennis, Plutella. 

Loplia^temus bugelii, 220. ,567. 

maculosa, Serica. 

loreyi. Cirphis. 

madurensis, Nisotra. 

loxias, Acrocercops. 

msesioides, Padraona. 

loxoptila, Bucculatrix. 

magna, Amphipyra. 

Loxostege massalis. 1.34. 

magnifica, Heterusia. 

Lucauidae, 184. 

Mahnxenn (Clania) destructor 

Lucanus huiifer, 184, 591. 

graminivora, 137 : M. theivora. 

Lucerne .stcmfly, 49. 


u 2 


Mahasena ep., 644. 
maidis. Aphis, 
major, Taeniothrips. 
malabaricus, Asopus. 
„ PhassuB. 

MalEenus sp., 863. 
malesana, Laspeyresia. 
mall, Alcidcs. 
maligaus, Dyscerus. 
malinellus, Hyponomeuta. 
malvse, Acontia. 

,, Apliis. 
malvoides, Aphis, 
mamertina, Laspeyresia. 
Manatha scotopepla, 139. 
manganeutis, Acrolepia. 
mangifersB, Coccus. 

„ Cryptorrhynchus. 

,, X)ac!4s (see Chsetodacus zonatus). 

„ Diaspis. 

„ Parlatoria. 

„ Phenacooous. 

„ Rhynchsenus. 

Mango-hoppers (see Idiocerus). 
Mango-leaf Cecidomyiad, 50, 583. 
maimi, Chionaspis. 
Mantidfe eaten by birds, 859. 
Mantis sp., Parasite on eggs of, 935. 
Marasuiia bilinealis, 127 ; M. trapezalis, 127, 

342, 354 ; M. veniUalis, 127. 
Margaronia alilalis (bivitralis); M. bivitralis, 
131, 336, 341 ; M. caesalis, 17, 131, 581 ; 
M. canthusalis, 131 ; M. indica, 131, 336, 
338, 351 ; M. itysalis, 576 ; M. marginata, 
130 ; M. negatalis, 130 ; M. stolalis, 130 ; 
M. vertumnalis, 130. 
Margaronia (Olyphodes) pyloalis, 599. 
marginata, Biston. 

,, Margaronia (Glyphodes). 

marginatus, Eugnamptus. 
marginella, Serica. 
marginifer, Chlsenius. 
marmoralis, Taraohe, 
marmoratus, Oidaleus. 
maro (dioscorides), Ampittia (Hesperia). 
Marsh Insects, 941. 
marsupiale, Leoanium. 
martens!, Potamon. 

Maruca testulalis, 133, 336, 339, 344, 345, 346. 
Mason, C. W., 7. 

massalis, Loxostege (Phlycicenodes). 
Mastacidos nilgirisious, 1033. 
Matapaaria, 11.5, 1024* 
mathias, Chapra (Parnara). 
mauritanious, Tenebroides. 

mauritia, Spodoptera. 

maxima, Pulvinaria. 

Mealy-bugs, 350, 351, 561, 563, 597, 598, 

medardaria, Dilinia. 

medicaginis. Aphis. 
„ Hypera. 

medinalis, Cnaphalocrocis. 

Megachile anthracina, 35 ; M. disjuncta, 36. 

Megaccelum stramineum, 264. 

megaloba, Cliionaspis. 

Megamelus furcifera, 270, 271. 

Megastigmus indi, 37, 935. 

melanaula, Eucosma. 

Melanitis ismene, 105, 332, 338, 341. 

melanocephalus, Gryllus, 313. 

melanoneura, Eucosma. 

melanoplecta, Anarsia. 

melanopus, Diajiromorpha. 

melanopus, Maoroma. 

melanozona, Telphusa. 

melanura, Idgia. 

Melaserica barberi, 107. 

Melasina campestris, 855 ; M. energa, 855 ; 
M. granularis, 855. 

melicerta (Janata), Achsea (Ophiusa). 

melititis, Odites. 

Melittia eurytion, 159, 
mellerborgii, Polytus. 
Mellesis eumenoides, 45, 351. 
Meloidse as crop-pests, 240, 348. 
Melolonthid Beetles, control of, 28, 30. 
Melolonthidas, 165, 1027 ; eaten by birds, 

Melyridee as crop-pests, 247. 
Membracidas as crop-pests, 271 ; eaten by 

birds, 867. 
membranaceus, Leptoglossus. 
memnon, Papilio. 
menciana, Homona. 
mendax, Bucculatri.x. 
mendosa, Dasychira. 
Menida histrio, 245, 342. 
Meranoplus bicolor, 34, 344. 
mercarae, Lecaniura. 
Meridarchis reprobata, 143, 581, 840; M. 

scyrodes, 143, 570, 840. 
merione, Ergolis. 
Meristos hunteri, 987. 
mesodyas, Crypsithyris. 
Metaoauthus pulcliellus, 259. 
Metachandidae, 846, 1003. 
metacypha, Liinnoecia. 
metallicum, Chalaenosoma 
Mf-canastria hyrtaca, 103, 564, 580, 594. 


Metapelma indioa, 934. 

Monolepta signata, 230, 345, 347, 348, 361 


Metaplax dentipea, 692. 

Monopia dicycia, 856 ; M. hemicitra, 856 

; M 

Metasia coniotalig, 135. 

monachella, 856. 

Metastenomyia juliani, 934. 

Monophlebua stebbingi octocaudata, 286, 


metchnikowi, Leidya. 

-M. sp., 287, 589 ; M. tamarindua, 286. 

Meteoru3 arctioida, 932. 

monostigma, Scirpophaa.T. 

Metialma balsaminse, 201. 

montana, Diacrisia. 

meticulosaUs, Terastia. 

„ Ocliropluira. 

Metisa (Mahasena) theivora. 

monticollia, Teratodes. 

Metriona cireuradata, 235, 351. 

montis', Porthesia. 

mioaceana, Cacoecia. 

moorei, Am.sacta. 

Microbracon lefroyi, 44(), 450, 452, 453 ; 

Morinda shoot-borer, 318. 

rcdescribed, 1025 — 1020. 

Moringa atem-borcr, 317, 922*. 

Microbracon sp., 933, 1026. 

Mosquitos eaten by Msh, 908. 

Microcolona citroplecta, 846. 

Mosquito, Tea (aee Helopeltis tlieivora). 

Microdus fumipennis, 933. . 

Mould on apecimens, 964. 

Microjoenia hexainitoides, 1019*. 

Mucialla (see Tirathaba). 

Microlepidoptera, Life-histories of, 838 ; 

Mudaria cornifrona. 

Sketch of knowledge of , 999. 

mungonia, Pachytycluus. 

llioropezidse, 47. 

Micropterygida;, 857, 1007. 
Microtermea obesi {attandi), 313, 711. 

Muscidse, 39 ; eaten by birds, 866.^ 
Mycaleaia mineus, 105 ; M. perseus, 105. 
MycetophibdaB eaten by birds, 865. 

miliaria, Aapidomorpha. 
,, Aularches. 

Myelois pectinicomeUa, 124, 330, 340. 
Myiopardalis carpalina, 45, 589, 592. 
mylias, Imma. 

,, Calotermes. 
„ (pandurus), Lygasus. 
Mimaatra cyanea, 230, 567, 568, 571, 578, 579, 
589, 592. 

Myllocerus spp. eaten by birda, 864. 

blandus, 191, 361, 594 ; M. dentifer 
192, 319 ; M. discolor, 192, 319. 

301, 568,669,579, 581,-583 


mimetis, Cosmopteryx. 

dorsatus, 190 ; M. sabulosus 

mimica, KoUa. 

191, 570, 583, 593 ; S. setulifer. 

mimoaae, Pylcetia. 

190 ; . M. aub fasciatus, 


mineus, Duomitus. 

319 : M. tranamarinua. 


„ Myoalesis. 

570 ; ai. viridanus, 190, 


minima, Hemichionaapia. 

579 ; M. undeoim-puatui 


minor, Heniiohionaspis. 

192, 361, 500, 569, 579, 583 


„ Icerya. 

Myodites bunniticus, 897*. 

„ Phyoodea. 

myricw (rubena), Ceroplaste's. 

minuta, Suastus. 

Myrmicaria brunnea, 34. 

minutella, Nephopteryx. 

Myrmecinse eaten by birds, 862. 

minutns, Halticus. 

Myrmecozela corticina, 855 : M. leontina. 


Miopristis bimaculata, 225. 

M. tineoides, 855. 

miserana, Harmologa. 

myrseuaalia, Rhodoneura. 

Mites, 327, 559, 581, 582. 

Mysore, Peat Act in, 57 — 59. 

modeata, Phidodonta. 

mytilaapiformia, Parlatoria proteus. 

moesta, Assamia. 

Mytilaspis (LepidoSaphes). 

Mole-crickets (see Gryllotalpa). 

Mytilaapia pallida, 004. 

moUifera, Eiipterote. 

myxodes, Opostega. 

molopias, Platyptilia. 

Myzus peraiese, 280. 

Monanthia globulifera, 264. 

monachella, Monopia. 


monouaalis, Macalla. 

monodaotylus. Pterophorus, 840. 

Nacoleia (Pilocrocis) barcalis. 

Monoliiinunwi (Dihamraua) fiatulator ; M. 

(Lampro.sema) diemenalis ; X. 


nivosua, 215 ; M. verateegi, 216, 573. 



naevana, Ancylis. 

nilgirica, Chionaspis. 

Nagoda nigricans, 660. 

nilgiriensis, Serioa. 

Nanagima breviuscula, 76, 585. 

nilgirisicus, Mastacides. 

napaea, Paratelphusa. 

nipje, Pseudococcus. 

Naranga diffusa, 74, 341. 

Njsaga simplex, 99. 

nararia, Natada. 

Nisotra madurensis, 231, 351. 

narcissus, Eligma. 

nitidula, Tarache. 

narooa, Pamara. 

nitidus. Adoretus. 

Narosa conspersa, 333, 340 ; N. ni 



nitobei, Narosa. 

nasicomii?, Oryctes. 

nivea, Altha. 

nasturtii. Aphis. 

niveigutta, Atteva. 

Natada nararia, 103, 322, 933 

; N. 


niveodactyla, Alueita, 840. 

103, 584. 

niveospars\i3, Idiocerus. 

NaucoridiE eaten by birds, 867. 

niviferana, Tonica (Binsittu). 

nazirjE, Coptosoraa. 

nivosuj, Monohammus. 

nebulosa, Rapama. 

nobilis, Seutellera. 

nebulosua, Plecophlebus. 

Noctuid cane-borcr. 377*. 

Necrobia rufipcs, 863. 

Noctuidie, 60 ; eaten by birds, 865. 

Nectarophom destructor (Macrosiphum pisi). 

Nodaria externalis, 88. 

negatalis, Margaronia (Glyphodes). 

Nodina rufipes, 226, 590, 598. 

Ncmoria integranota, 336, 339. 

Nodostoma subcostatum, 226, 578, 592. 

neodoxa, Lithocolletis. 

nolalella, Symitlia. 

Ncodurtus acocephaloides, 596. 

nomsea, Macroballira. 

Neoheegeria indica, 619. 

no'iagrioides (vuteria), Sesaniia. 

NeomaskelUa bergii, 278, 427*. 

Noorda blitealis, 134. 

Xephantis serinopa, 157, 575, 




notabilis, Tarache. 

Nephele didyma (liespira), 333 



Notiobiella sp., 555. 

nephelotis, Plotlieia. 

Notodontid, 101*, .565. 

Nephopteryx eugraphella, 124, 


N. minu- 

Notodontidse, 100. 

tella, 124, 336, 340, 350 ; N. semiru 


Notonectidte eaten by birds, 867. 


nubila, Agonoscelis. 

Nephotettix apicalis, 275, 433 ; 

N. bi 


nubilalis, Pyrausta. 

275, 342. 4.33*. 

nubilans, Aleurocanthus. 

Nepidse eaten by birds, 867. 

nubilans, Scymnus. 

Nepticula argyrodoxa, 857 ; N. 



nucleata, Eucrotala. 

N. liochalca, 857. 

nuda, Perina. 

Nepticulidas, 857, 1007. 

Nupserha bicolor, 218. 

Neptis eurynorae, 332, 339. 

Nyctemera lacticinea, 334. 

nerii. Aphis. 

Nyctothems fletcheri, 1016* ; N. termitie. 


nerii, Deilephila. 

nymphseae, SiphocorjTie. 

Nerius sp., 47. 

Nymphalidse. 105. 

nerteria, Aprooerema (Stoinopteryx) 

Nymphula depunctalis, 120, 341, 352 

; N 

Nets, 947*. 

fluctuosalis, 126, 341. 

Nezara graminea, 254 ; N. viridula, 

254, 563. 

Nysius inconspicuus, 200, 325. 

ni, Plusia. 

nigri, Saissetia (Lecaniv m). 

nigricans, Chlasnius. 

nigricans, Nagoda. 

nigrifrons, Diacrisia. 

Oberea sesami, 219 ; 0. sp., 219. 

nigripennis, Longitarsus. 

obesi (anandi), Microtermes. 

nigrisigna, Plusia. 

obesus, Odontotermes. 

nigrita, Sagra. 

obesus, Plocaederus. 

nigrofasciatus, OEdaleus. 

obfuscata, Lymantria. 

nigrorepletus, Hieroglyphus. 

obliqua, Diacrisia. 

nigroseutata, Linda. 

obscura, Cyclopelta. 



obsoleta, Heliothis. 

obstinata, Eboda. 
obtusisigna, Plusia. 
ocellaris, Paniscus. 
ocellatus, Cantao. 
ocellifera, Lobopelta. 
Ocinara varians, 100, 577. 
occipitalis, Pheropsophus. 
Ochrochira sp., 250. , 
Ochrophara montana, 251. 
octo, Arayna. 

octocaudata, ilonophlebus stebbiiigi. 
octopunctata, Gracillaria. 
Odites atmopa, 847 ; 0, bambusse, 848 ; 0. 

hederae, 848 ; O. melititis, 848 ; 0. spolia- 

trix, 848. 
Odoiporus longicollis, 208, 593, 600. 
Odonata eaten by birds, 801 ; night-flying — , 

895 : eaten by fish, 908. 
Odontotermes bangaloreusis, 314; 0. fornio- 

sanus, 630; 0. obesus, 314, 711; 0. 

parvidens, 313. 
Q?cia oecophila, 846. 
(Ecopliylla smaragdina, 33, 310, 561, 582, 583, 

CEcophoridse, 150. 847, 1003, 1004. 
QCdaleus marmoratus, 860. 

„ nigroiasciatus, 306. 
OEdeuiatopoda clerodendronella, 849. 
(F.cypris, 849,'a!:. flammifera, 849 ;CE. venusta. 
(Edipodinae eaten by birds, 860. 
Oidea affinis. 228. 
oldenlandise, Theretra. 
oleie, Dacus. 

„ 8aissetia (LcrMiiium). 
Olegores citrinella, 636. 

Olenecamptus bilobus, 218, 321*, 577, 581. 
Oliarus sp., 268. 
■olivaoea, Eublemma. 
oUvaceus, Hydrophilus. 
OUvc Friutfly (see Dacus olese). 
ommatiieformis, /Egeria. 
omoptila, Anarsia. 
Omphisa anastomosalis, 133. 
Oncocephala tuberculata, 236. 
Oncbala blandiella, 844. 
Onthophagua sp., 864. 
oophagus, Tumidiscapus. 
Ootetrastichus indicus, 935. 
Opalina termitis, 1016*, 1019. 
opalinoides, Tarache. 
Opatrum (Gonocephalum). 
operculella, Pbthorimsea. 

Ophideres fuUonica, SO, 573. 
opbideroides, Calpe. 
opliioscma, Simacthis. 
OphUisa (ParaUeba) algira, 

„ (Parallelia) analis. 

„ arctotsenia, 594. 

„ (Anna) coronata. 

„ (Acbsea) melicerla (Janata), 
opbiusa;, Tetrastichus. 
Opius Hetcheri, 19, 62S. 

Opogona cbalinota, 855 ; O. flavofasciata, 
855 ; 0. fumiceps, 855 ; 0. lacbanitis, 855 ; 
0. prsecincta, 855. 
Opostega myxodes, 85.3. 
opposita, Euplexia. 
opsigona, Tinea, 
optabilis, Paranagrus. 
" Orange beetle," 225. 
„ Psychid, 139. 
orbonalis, Leucinodes. 
ordinatella, Acrocercops. 
Oregma bambusa:, 286. 
Orgyia postica, 88, 324*, 334, 338, 339, 340, 

orichalcea, Agestrata. 
orichalcea, Plusia. 
orientalis, Aspidiotus. 
,, Brucbocida. 

,, Dorylus. 

„ Vespa. 

orithyia, Junonia. 
Orneodidaf, 848, 1004. 
Ortalidaj eaten by birds, 866. 
Orthacris sp., 308, 326. 
Orthacantbacris segyptia, 309 ; 0. flavescens, 

309 ; 0. succincta, 310. 
Ortbezia insignis, 676, 857. 
Orthocraspeda trinia, 658. 
ortbogona, Simaethis. 
Ortboptera as crop-pests, 304, 326. 
ortbostacta; Acrocercops. 
Oryctes nasicomis, 181 ; O. rhinoceros, 182, 

575, 600. 
oryz», C'alandra. 

„ Latheticus. 

,, Pachydiplosis. 

,, Ripersia sacchari. 

„ Thrips. 
oschophora (chersaia), Epbysteris. 
Oscinis these, 47, CCS. 
osteneum, Coptosoma. 
Oihreis (Ophideres) fullonica. 
ovaJis, AdoretUB. 


ovi, Aximopsid. 

ovigera, Stathmopoda. 

Ovipoaitiou, Inducing, 886. 

Oxya velox, 308, 34l>, 935 ; 0. sp., 860. 

oxy«e, Scelio. 

O.xyambulyx sericeipennis, 96*, 595. 

Oiycarenus liyaliuipennis, 502, 561 ; 0. lastus, 
261, 562 ; 6. iugubris, 262. 

Oxycetonia albopuuotata, 1T9. 572 ; O. versi- 
color, 179. 

Oxyptilu3 causodes, 839 ; O. chordites, 839 ; 
O. epidectes, 839 ; 0. lactucEe, 136, 838 ; 
O. peleoynteis, 839. 

Oxyrhachis tarandus, 271. 

Pachydiplo.-3i3 oryza;, 49, 324, 371*, 442, 935. 
Paohnephorus bretinghaini, 227 ; P. impres- 

8US, 227 ; P. spp., 361. 
paoknodea, C'liolotis. 
Paohyinerua chinensia, 239, 721*, 762. 
Pachyonyx quadridens, 206. 
paohyspila. Tinea. 
Paohytychiua mungouia, 201, 321. 
Pachyzancla (Psara) bipunotalia {ceyrotalis}. 
Paddy atem-fly, 342. 
padi, Sijihocoryue (Hiphonaphis). 
Padraona dara, 1022, 1024* ; P. maesioides, 

1U24* ; P. pseudomseaa, 1024*. 
Paduka lebadea, 1024. 
Pagria signata, 226. 
Palaeopsyche, 980. 
paUmpsesta, Pseudodoxia. 
pallescena, Sogata. 
paUicosta, Theretra. 
palUda, Dictyophora. 

„ Leijidoaaphes. 

„ Mytilaspia. 
pallidospila, Anomala. 
Palm Psychid, 139. 
paludicola, Buckleria. 
palpigera, Paraspistea. 

Panimene iaooampta, 843 ; P. bheriatis, 843. 
pammoH (polytea), Papilio. 
Panchsetotlirips indioua, 327*, 618. 
pandava, Catoohryaopa. 
Pandemia ribeaua, 480. 
pandurua, Lygaeua. 
Panilla albopunctata, 335, 341. 
Paniscus ocellaria, 933. 
Panivaragii flea-bei^tle, 318. 
Paper, Wood-tibre for making, 14. 
paphia, Antheraea. 

Papilionidse, 107. 

Papilio agamemnon, 108, 332, 337 ; P. 
aristolochiaa, 332, 337, 903 ; P. dakalia, 108, 
571 ; P. demoleua, 107, 332, 340, 568, 571, 
596, 900; P. erilhonitis (demoleua) ; P. 
helcnua, 108 ; P. hector, 903 ; P. luachaon, 
107 : P. memnou, 108, 571, 906 ; P 
parinda, 108, 332, 340 ; P. polymnestor, 
108, 571 ; P. poly tea, 109, 332, 340, 571, 
900, 903. 

papilionia, Apanteles. 

papiUoaa, Parlatoria. 

Papua (Emmalocera) depressella. 

paraclina, Porthmologa. 

paragramma, Argyroploce. 

Paralecanium expanaum, 294. 

ParalleUa algira, 81 ; P. analis, 80, 592. 

Paramecops farinosua, 195. 

Parameaua lineatiooUis, 442. 

Parauagrua optabilia, 935. 

Parasa lepida, 104, 575, 583, 587, 592, 594, 
695, 933. 

paraschiata, Liocrobyla. 

Paraaitea, control by, 30, 62 ; P. of orop-pett.?, 
931 ; P. Rearing of, 880*. 

Paraapistes palpigera, 154, 845. 

Parata alexia, 114, 322, 1024*; P. butleri, 

Paratelijimsa liydrodrouius. ti86. 088 ; P. 
napaea, 681 ; P. apinigera, 683, 684 ; P. 
sp., 681. 

Parectopa ooeciuea, 853 ; P. labrodes, 853. 

parinda. Papilio. 

Parlatoria artocarpi, 608 ; P. calianthiiia, 
304 ; P. mangiferee, 304 ; P. papillosa, 609, 
P. pergandii, 304, 583 ; P. proteua mytilas- 
piformis, 304 ; P. zizyphus, 304, 604. 

Parnara bada, 117, 1024* ; P. cingala, 1024* ; 
P. kumara, 1022, 1024* ; P. narooa, 1024* j 
P. pliilippina, 1022 ; P. aeriata, 1024*. 

Parnara (Caltoria) colaca. 
„ (Chapra) mathias. 

parviceps, Periaaothripa. 

parvidens, Odontotermea. 

paasalis, Amata (Syntoinis). 

pauper, Brachyplatya. 

pealianum, Potamon. 

Pebrine, 805, 808, 809. 

pecten, Spodoptera. 

pectinicomella, Myeloia. 
Pectinophora (Platyedra) goasypiella. 

peculiaria, Physothrips. 
{Jedator, Xanthopimpla, 
pedestria, Ploosederua, 
„ Riptortus. 


Pelamia fi-ugalis, 81, 335, 33S ; V. undata, 

polecyntee, Oxyptilus. 

pellionolla, Tinea. 

Peltotraclielus pubes, 193, 321, otJO, 571. 

Pcmpheres affinis, 202, 320. 

Pemphigus sediticator, 1029. 

pencil lata, Baoris. 

pensilis, Oacoecia. 

pentalocha, Acrocercops. 

Pentatomidse as crop-pest-j, 249 ; eaten by 
birds, S6G. 

Pentodon bengalense, 183 ; P. bispinifrons, 

peiJonis, Plusia. 

peregrinus, Atuietonyclius. 

perforatus, Eophileurus. 
„ Platj-notus. 

pergandii, Parlatoria. 

Pericallia riciui, 59, 334, 338, 339, 340, 592. 

Pericyma glaucinans, 82. 

Peiigea capensis, 67, 933. 

Perina nuda, 93, 576, 581, 583. 

Perisaothjrtps paiviceps, 619. 

perixanthia, Amata. 

perlatus, Xanthotracholus. 

Perlida; as pests, 18. 

Peronea epidesma, 841 ; P. siderota, 841. 

peronodes, Limncecia. 

perotteti, A'pomecyna. 

perpusiUa, Pyiilla. 

perseus, Mycalesis. 

■persicw, Daci's (see Chsetodacus zonatus) 
persicpe, Eulecanium. 
„ Myzus. 
„ Tuberodryobius. 
perspicax, Gitonides. 
perticella, Euzophera. 
pertigera, Apomecyna. 
pervetns, Trigoualys. 
Pest Act in Mysore, 57 — 59. 
Pests, Collecting specimens of, 938. 
Petasobathra siriua, 165, 855. 
petiolata, Burmacrocera. 
petiolatum, Zyxomma. 
petrolei, Psilopa. 
phacelota, Clielaria. 

Phacopteron lentiginosum, 1029, 1030*. 
Phsedon brassicse, 228. 
phseospora, Acrocercops. 
phalerata, Zouabris. 
Phalonia ambiguella, 840. 
Phaloniadse, 143, 840, 1002. 
phanarclia, Aganoptila. 

Phasgouuridaj as crop-pests, 354, 574; eaten 

by birds, 860. 
pliasiana, Anoplocnemis. 
pharopcda, Acrocercops. 
Phassus malabarious, 165. 
Phenacaspis dilatata, 588. 

Pheuacoccus ballardi, 288, 003 ; P. hirsutus, 

288, 549, 550,. 610*, 618; P. iceryoides, 

288, 326, 603, 605 ; P. insolitus, 288, 326 ; 

P. mangiferse, 288, 603. 

Phenice (Assamia) mcesta. 

Plierojisopbus cardoni, 863 ; Pb. catoirei, 

863 ; Ph. occipitalis, 863. 
Philanthus ramakrishnse, 315. 
philippa, Cacoccia. 
phihppina, Paniara. 
Phidodonta modesta, 238. 
Philoeoma, Epiniarptis. 
Phlaioba cinctalis, 305. 
Plilyclwnodes (Loxostege) massalis. 
PhoxothriiJS breviceps, 618. 
phractopa, Acrocercops. 
phragmitella, Limnocecia. 
Phragmatooecia sp., 140. 
Phrixoseeles plexigrapha, 161, 851. j 
Phthorimsea blai^sigona, 152, 323, 844, 933 ; 

i'h. crgasima, 152, 844 ; Ph. heliopa, 150, 

349, 844, 939 ; Ph. operculella, 152, 350, 

704— 770, 844. 
Phtocothrips anacardii, 618. 
Phycita cUenteila, 125 ; P. infusella, 125, 453. 
Phyoitid cane-borers, 378*. 
Phycodes minor, 1.59, 699, 849 ; P. radiata, 

159, 577, 849. 
phycodis, Apanteles. 
Phyllipsocus banksi, 897*. 
Phyllocnistis cluysophthalma, 854 ; P. cirr- 

hophancs, 854; P.-citrella, 164, 568, 572, 

854 ; P. habrochroa, 854 ; P. helicodes, 

854 ; P. selenopa, 854 ; P. synglypta, 854 ; 

P. toparcha, 164, 323, 578, 854. 
Phyllocoreia ramakrishnai, 1033*. 
PhyUognathus dionyaius, 183. 
Phyllotreta chotanica, 232 348, 349, 350 ; 

P. vittata, 232, 349. 
Phymatostetha deschampsi, 272. 
Physouierus sp., 257. 
Physoptila scenica, 847. 
Physoptihda?. 847, 1004. 
Physothrips bninneicornia, 619 ; P. lefroyi, 

618 ; P. longieeps, 619 ; P. peculiaris, 619 ; 
. P. setiventris, 619, 621 ; P. usitatus, 618. 
Phylometm (see Plusia). 
Phytoscaphus dissimilis, 194 ; P. triangularis,. 

193, 569, 591. 


piceus, Attageims. 

picroplisea, Pseuilodoxiat 

picta, Bagrada. 
,, Clitea. 
,, Lytta. 


pictus, Aloides. 
„ Poecilocerus. 
„ Cephonodes. 

pieria, Comoci'itis. 

Pieridaj, 109. 

Pieris brassictf, 109, 349. .352 ; P. canidia, 
109, 352. 

Piezodorus rubrofasciatus, 204 

pigra, Eurytoma. 

Pilemostoma triliiieata, 235. 

Piloorocis barealis, 12S. 

pilula, Sorica. 

pimpinellse, Aiithrenus. 

Pinning in.seots, 957*. 

Pins, 951. 

Pioneii. (Hapalia) furn'igalis. 

piperis, Lepidosaphes. 
,, Aleurocanthus. 

Pisara lucidalis, 334, 337. 

pisi, Macrusipliiim. 

plagiata, Tiraoola. 

plagiatus, Rhynchocoiis. 

plagiola, Selca. 

Plagiolepis longipes. 32S. 

plana, Hypophrictis. 

planeta, Deuterocopus. 

pianitiie. Maohserota. 

Planostocha cumulata, 841. 

Plantain stem- boring beetle, 353. 

Plant Imports into India, 1051 — 1068. 

Platyedra gossypiella, 153, 336, 339, 443, 445, 
453, 472—547, 562, 84-4. 

Platyedra gossypiella. Parasites on, 446*, 447. 

Platymetopus erebius, 863. 

Platyniycteriis sjostcdti, 193, 569, 583. 

Platynotus perforatus, 864. 

platypoda, Elasmoscelis. 

Platypodidse, 185. 

Platypria andrewesi, 236, 569 ; P. eclxidna, 
237 ; P. hystrix, 237. 

Platyptilia brachymorpha, 839 ; P. cacaliae, 
839 ; P. citropleura, 839 ; P. direptalis, 
839 ; P. gonodaetyla, 839 ; P. molopias, 
839 ; P. pusillidactyla, 677, 839 ; P. 
taprobanes, 839. 

plebeiana, Crocidosema. 

Plecophlebus nebulosus, 986*. 
plectica, Stomphastis. 

plexigrapha, Phrixosceles. 

plexippus, Danais. 

Plodia interpunctella, 1069. 

Plocsedenis obesus, 222 ; P. pedestris, 222, 

Plothcki (Selepa) celtis. 

nephelotis, 77, 335, 340. 
plumbeifasciella, Euzophera. 
plumigera, Anataractis. 
Plusia ugramma (peponis) ; P. albostriata, 

83 ; P. chalcytes, 83, 335, 338, 339, 340 ; 

1*. daubei, 83 ; P. eriosoma (chalcytes) ; 

P. limbirena, 82, 334, 337 ; P. ni, 82 ; P. 

nigrisigna, 84 ; P. obtusisigna, 335, 339 ; 

P. oriclialcea, 84, 335, 338, 341 ; P. peponis, 

84, 335, 338, 933 ; P. signata, 83. 
plusia', Apanteles. 
Plutella maciilipcnnis, 164, 33(), 338, 349, 854, 

Plutellidie, 164, 854, 1006. 
Podagrion indicum, 935. 
Podontia affinis, 597 ; P. 14-punctata, 233. 
Pcecilocerus jnctus, 307, 577. 
Poecilocoris latus, 250. 
Poederlis sp., 863. 
poetica, Argyroploce. 
Polia consanguis, 64. 
poliographa, Epipyrops. 
pollinosus, Dereodus. 
politus, Disphinctus. 
polita, Anomala. 

Polycbrosis cellifera, 581, 842 ; P. fetialis, 842. 
Polygnotus livii, 935. 
polymena, Enchromia. 
polymnestor, Papilio. 
Poli/ocha (Einraalocera) dcprcssella (saccJia- 

Polyommatus bceticus, 113. 
Polyptychus dentatus, 96. 914*, 933. 
Polyrachis sp., 862. 
polytes, Papilio. 
Polytela gloriosse, 64, 334, 337. 
Polytus mellcrborgii, 207, 593. 
pomonella, Laspeyresia (Carpocapsa). 
Ponertnse eaten by birds, 862. 
Popillia chlorion, 170, 316*. 1028; P. com- 
planata, 598 ; P. cupricollis, 169 ; P. fese, 

169, 598; P. histeroidea, 170, 590, 598. 
" Popping " larvae, 970. 
poricollis, Amblyrrhinus. 

,, Cryptorrhynchus. 
portentosus, Brachytrypes. 
Porthesia montis, 649 ; P. xanthorrhoea, 92. 
Porthmologa paraoUna, 156, 569, 847. 
postica, Orgyia. 

„ Thiaeidas. 


Potaraon andcrsoniauiim, 689 ; P. calvum, 
6S9; P. dayanum, 689; P. martensi, 682, 
683, 684 ; P. pealianum, 689 ; P. sp., 683. 

priEalbata, Stathmopoda. 

prar,cinot:i, Opogona. 

praefectug, Apollodotus. 

prsemorsa, Eucoptacra. 

prasina, Belionota. 

prasinifenim, Spathostcrnuiii. 

Prays citri, 160, 572, 850. 

Predators, Roaring of, 880. 

Preservation of early stages, 889 ; — of 
specimens, 964 ; — of larvae, 699 ; — by 
Dr. Hankin's method, 974. 

prin'oeps, Tanymecus. 

Pristomenis test^^ceus, 933. 

privatan.i, Adoxophycs. 

proboscidaria, Fiorinia. 

Procometis trochala, 157, 384, 84S. 

Prodenia litura, 68, 71, 324, 335, 337, 338, 339, 
340, 341. 345, 347, 348, 349, 560, 567, 576, 

producta, Abidama. 

Promalaetis comigera, 847 ; P. semantris, 847. 

prosacta, Acrocercops. 

Prosintis florivora, 158, 586, 850. 

Prot.-etia nlboguttata, 178 ; P aurichalcea, 
1028 ; P. fusoa, 178. 

Protapanteles sp., 933. 

Protermitidse as crop-pests, 314. 

proteus mytilaspiformis, Parlatoiia. 

Protofcenus swinhoei, 986*. 

protypa, Aiitosticha. 

pro.xima, Apogonia. 

pro.xima, Athalia. 

pniinosa, Serica. 

pnmi, Brachycaudus. 
,, Hyaloptenis. 

prunicula tJiece (manni), Chionaspis. 

Psalis (Dasychira) securis. 

Psara bipunctalis, 134, 336, 340, 350. 

Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis, 302, 583, 602. 

pseudobrassicce (indobrassicse), Siphocoryne. 

Pseudococcus bromeliae, 337, 608 ; P. citri, 
289, 329 ; P. cocotis, 289 ; P. corymbatus, 
289, 326, .549, 550, 551*— 553*, 561, 605, 
609 ; P. crotonis, 606, 607 ; P. longispiaus, 
289, 326 ; P. nipoe, 289 ; P. sacchari, 290, 
326; P. saccharifolii, 290; P. theaecola, 
290 ; P. virgatus, 290, .549, 550, 551*. 607, 

Pseudodo.xia cretata, 847 ; P. limulus, 847 ; 
P. ■ palimpsesta, 847; P. picrophsea, 847 ; 
P. sepositella, 847. 
jweudomseaa, Padraona. 

pseudonectis, Laspeyresia. 

pseudospretella, Borkhausenia. 

Pseudoterpna chlora, 336, 339. 

psidii, Pulvinaria. 

Psila sp.. 46. 

Psilidao, 46. 

Psilopa petrolei, 940. 

Psiloptera fastuosa, 245. 

Psyche vitrea. 138, 322, 583. 

Psyohid on palms, 139; • — on orange, 139, 
571 ; — on rose, 139 ; — on eapota, 139, 
322 ; — on castor, 139. 

Psychida;, 137, 322, 592. 

Psylla (Arytaina) isitis. 
„ obsoleta, 1029. 

Psyllid on Ficiis vervosa, 1030*. 

Psyllidse as crop-pests, 276. 

Psylliodes tenebrosus, 231. 

psylhoides, Libnrnia. 

P-ii/Uopri {Aiytamn) punctijyeunis (isitis). 

ptarriiioa, Tischcria. 

Pterophorids, 136, 838, 994. 

Pteroiihonis lienigianus, 137, 839 ; P. mono- 
daotylus, 840. 

Ptochoryctis simbleuta, l.")7, 847. 

ptychora, Laspeyresia. 

ptyophora, Crocidophora. 

pubes, Peltotrachelus. 

Publications, Entomological, Proposals regard- 
ing, 10—13, 1034. 

puera, Hyblasa. 

pulchclla, ITtethcisa. 

pulchelius, Mftaciinthus. 

pulchnim, Eurydcma. 

piilverca, Holcocera. 

piilverula, Laspeyresia. 

Pulvinaria burkilli, 291 ; P. maxima, 291, 
316, 326, .561, 609; P. psidii, 291,329, 
583, 588, 602, 604 ; P. sp., 291, 606. 

puncta, Clovia. 

punctatus, Aularches. 

punotiferalis, Dichocrocis. 

piinctimarginalis, Acanthopsyche. 

pimctipennis (isitis), Psijllopn (Arytaina). 

punctum, Amyna. 

Pundaluoya simplicia, 270, 935. 

punicseella, Euzophera. 

punjabipyri, Toxoptera. 

Pupae, Lepidoptcrous, eaten by birds, 865. 

purchasi, Icerya. 

Purohita sp., 32.5*. 

pusann, Pyrilla. 
pusana, Sogata. 
pusillidactyla, Platyptilia. 
pusilhis, Lcemophlceus. 


pustulans, Asteroleoanium. 
pustulata, Zonabris. 
putli, Chilades. 
pycnochra, Lasjieyresia. 
Pycnosoma flavioeps, 39, 866, 
pygmsea, Leptispa. 
pyloalis, Margaronia. 
Pyloetis mimosse, 855. 
Pyraliil cane-borers, 393*. 

„ on Chrysanthemum, 136. 
Pyralidse, 117 ; eaten by birds, 865. 
Pyralis farinalis, 715 ; P. pictalig, 715. 
pyramidea, Amphipyra. 
pyranthe, Catopsilia. 
Pyrausta bambucivora, 136 ; P. codesalis, 

"l35; P. machseraUs, 135, 701 ; P. nnbiblis, 

Pyraustine on Amaranthua, 134. 
Pyrgomorphin® eaten by birds. 860. 
pyri, Laehnus. 
Pyrilla aberrans, 269 ; P. perpusilla, 269 ; 

P. pusana, 269. 
Pyroderces albilineella, 150, 846 ; P. callis- 

trepta, 846 ; P. promacha. 150, 846 ; P. 

semicoccinea, 150, 846. 
Pyroderces (Anatrachyntis) falcatolla (.sjjorfo- 

Pyrrhocoridae as crop-pests, 262 ; eaten by 

birds, 867. 
Pyrsonympha flagellata, 1016* ; P. grassii, 

"l016* ; P. vertens, 1017*. 
Pyrsonymphidse, 1017. 


quadraria, Thalassodes. 
quadrata, Tcssarotoma. 
quadridens, Pachyonyx. 
quadridentatura. Scleroderma, 
quadrifasciata, Acrocercops. 
quadrilineata, Eublemma. 
quadripeg, Xylotrechus. 
quadripunctata. " Arbela " 
quatemalis, Lygropia 
quatiiordecim-punctata, Podontia. 

radiata, Phycodes. 
Radish Bea-beetle, 319. 
ia6Se3i, Hippotion. 
Ragi ear-haad worm, 323. 

Ragmus importunitas, 267. 

raja, Macropes. 

ramakrishnai, Arrhenothrips. 

ramakrislmse, Philanthus. 

ramakri.shnai, Phyllocoreia. 

Eamila raficostalit, 394*. 

panacea, Cj"rtacanthacris. 

Ranatra filiforniis, 867. 

ransonettii, Caprona. 

Raparna nebulosa, 88. 

RaiJiimetopus abluteUa, 122, 385*. 

Rearing insects. Notes on, 875 — 892. 

Recaredus sp., 263. 

Records, Keeping, of, 888, 956. 

Red-gram .4gromyza, 47. 

Redoa cyanea, 656. 

Red Spider (see also Tetranychus), 32. 

Reduriidje eaten by birds, 867. 

regina, Anomala. 

relata, Cosmoscarta. 

Relaxing Specimens, 963*. 

Eemigia (Pelamia) frugalis ; B. (P.) undata 

remotata, Craspodia. 
repetita, Holotrichia. 
reprobata, Mcridarchis. 
resinophila, Eiijersia. 
resplendens, Acroceroops. 
respondens, Hetcroptemis. 
retiari\is, Galeatus (Cadmilos). 
reticulatus, Hcnicospilus. 
Rhagastis alboraarginatus, 98. 
rhicnota, Chelaria. 
rhinoceros, Oryctes. 

Rhipiphorothrips cruentatum, 327, 619. 
Rhizopcrtha dominica, 322, 716*, 762. 
Khizotrogus rufus, 316*. 
Rhodoneura myrseusaUs, 593. 
Rhodoph»a heringi, 125. 
Ehoijas (Microbracon) lefroyi, 1025. 
rhombota, Synchalara (Agriophara). 
Rhopalocampta benjamini, 1025*. 
Skojialosiphum dianthi (Myzus persicae). 
Bhopalosi-plivni (Siphocoryne) nymphsese, 
rhothia, Spilonota. 

Rhynchaenus mangiferae, 202, 583, 584. 
rhjTichias, Argyroplooe. 
Rhynchocoris humeralis, 253, 573, 574, 596 ; 

R. plagiatus, 253. 
Rhynchophorus ferruginous, 207, 576, 600. 
Rhynchotal crop-pests, 249 
Rhyncolaba acteus, 98, 333, 337. 
Rhyssemus sp., 864. , 

Rhytidodera robusta, 222, 597, 599. 
Rhytinota impolita, 864. 


ribeana, Panderais. 

Ricania bicolorata, 1031 ;* R. ap., 269; R. 

ricini, Alcyrodes. 

,, Pericallia. 
riparia, Labidura. 
Ripcrsia rcsinophiia, 290 ; R. Baochari, 290. 

32G, 354 ; R. sacohari oiyzje, 291, 342, 353, 
Riptortus fuscus, 259 ; R. linearis, 259, 345, 

340; R. pedesfcris, 238. 
ritsemse, Deuterocopue. 
Rivula bioculalis, 85. 
robusta, Hypsipyla. 

„ Rliji.idodera. 
robustalis, Simplicia. 
Root-eating Insects, Rearing of, 884. 
Ropioa houesta, 347. 
rosse, Diaspis. 
rossefor'Jiis, Maorosiphura. 
Rose Psycid.^lSy. 

„ Sawflies", 38—39. 
rossi, Chrysomplialus. 
rotunda, C'ontheyla. 
roylei, Anthersea. 
Rubber Platypodid, 320*. 

„ Scolytid, 320*, 
rubens, Ccroplastes. 
ruber, Laccotrephes. 
rubicundus, Corizus. 
rubidus, Tabanus. 
rubrioans, Azazia. 
rubrofasciatus, Piezodoms 
rubus, Batocera. 
nifioullis, Lj'tta. 
ruficoruis, Aptinothrips. 
ruficostalis, Raniila. 
rufipes, Necrobia. 
rufipcs, Nodina. 
rufiventris, Anomala. 
rufuflava, Holotrichia. 
rufus, Rhizotrogus. 
rugicollis, Calandra. 
rugosella, Hapsifora {Dasyses). 
rugiilusus, Clilsenius. 
rumicis, Aphis. 
Rutelidffi, 1G9. 

sabulifera, Cosmophila. 
sabulosus, Myllocerus. 
sacoharalis, Diatraea. 
saccharella (depressella), 


saccliari. Aphis. 

,, Hetoronychus. 
„ oryzsB, Ripersia. 
„ Pseudococciis. 
,, Ripersia. 
saceharifolii, Pseudococous. 
sacchariphagus, Diatrtea. 
sacraria, Sterrha. 
Safflower seed-fly, 51 ; — shoot-fly, 01, 348; 

—stem-fly, 51, 348. 
sagittaria, Anarsia. 
sagmatica, Anarsia. 
Sagra femorata, 224 ; S. nigrita, 224. 
Saissetia depressa, 294, 605 ; S. hemisphserica, 
294, 329, 574, 604, 632 ; S. nigra, 295, 560, 

561, 606, 608, 009, 935; S. olese, 295. 
Salius flaviis, 862. 
SaUiria inficita, 122. 
sauborni, Macrosiphum. 
sanguinalis, Kalidasa. 
Sapota Psych id, 139. 
Sara, Amaacta. 
Sarangesa albicilia, 1023*. 
sarasinorum, Stegodyphus. 
Sarrothripine, Brinjal, 77. 
Sathrophyllia sp., 574. 
Saturnia (Caligula) simla, 595. 
Satumiada;, 99. 
scabiosse, Aularehes. 
scabra, Atractomorpha. 
acabrator, Ccclosterna. 
scabriceps, Holcomyi'mex. 
scalaris, Azygophleps. 
scandalota, Aerocercops. 
Scarabseidai catL'n by birds, 864. 
Scardia sistrata, 855. 

Scarites indus, 863 ; S. semirugosus, 863. 
Scavengers, Rearing of, 880. 
Scelio hieroglyphi, 935 ; S. o.xyse, 935. 
Scelodonta sp., 864 ; S. strigicollis, 226, 678, 

scenias, Aerocercops. 
scenica, Physoptila. 
sceptica, Giaura {CUUhara). 
Schistocerca tatarica. 310. ' 
Schizocephalus bicomis, 860. 
Schizoneura (Eriosoma) lanigera. 
Schcenobius bipunctifer, 121, 342, 383*, 410, 

442; S. immeritalis, 121, S. sp., 384. 
Sciara burmitina, 986*. 
scintillans, Euproctis. 
Scirpophaga aurijiua (xanthogastrella) ; S. 

gilviberbis, 121, 342 ; S. monostigma, 121, 

382* ; S. sp., 354; S. santhogastrella, 120, 



Scirtotlirips dorsalis, 019. 

scitula, Eublenima. 

sciurus, Tanymecus. 

Scleroderma qiiadridentatum, 980*. 

Scolytidie, 184. 

scopulosa. Chelaria. 

scotias, (Jibbium. 

scotopepla, Manatha. 

scriptulata, Acrocercops. 

Scutellera nobilis, 250. 

Scutellista oyanea, O.S.i. 

Scymnus nubilans, 553 ; S. sp., 863. 

scyrodes, Meridarchis. 

Sc}-thridida>, 850, 1005. 

Beclusella, Hapsifera. 

secta (dimidialis), Eublemraa. 

Sectional Meetings of Board of Agriculture, 5. 

securis, Dasychira. 

segetum. Eu.xoa. 

Selca plagiola, 334, 340. 

Sdenamphn (punctum), Amyna. 

Selanaspidus (Aspidiotus). 

selene, Actias. 

Selenoccphalu.s virescens, 442. 

selenopa, Phyllocnistia. 

Selepa {Plollieia) celtis, 564, 582, 584, 585. 

semantris, Promalactis. 

semialbana, Tortrix. 

semicoccinea, Pyroderces (Cosniupteryx ?). 

semico.statum, Colasposoma. 

semiculta, Argyroploce. 

seminibella, Nephopteryx. 

semirugosus, Scarites. 

semisignata, Euproctis. 

Sena, Bibasis. 

sepositella, Pseudodoxia. 

seriata, Paruara. 

seriatoporus, Hopatroides. 

Serioa asaamensis, 1G6 ; S. calcuttae, 166 ; 
S. clypeata, 166, 571 ; S. maculosa, 166, 
571 ; S. marginella, 166, 571 ; S. nilgiriensis, 
166, 1028 ; S. pilula, 166 ; S. pruinosa, 166. 

sericeipennis, Oxyarribulyx. 

.Serinetha abdominalis, 259 ; S. augur, 259. 

serinopa, Ncphantis. 

sertaticomi,s, Acanthophorua. 

serricorne. Lasiodcrina. 

serviLS, Graptostcthus. 

se.sarai, Aspbondylia. 
,, Obcroa. 

Sesamia inferens, 72, 342, 375*. , 410 ; S. 
Jionagrioides, (vuteria), 72 ; S. uniformis, 
72, 377* : S. vuteria, 72. 

Sesarma cdwardsi, 692. 

setiventris, Phj-sothrips. 

Setomorplia insectella, 856. 
Setting insects, 956*. 
setulifer, Myllocerua. 
se.xmaculata, Gliilomenes. 
sexpunctalis, Talanga. 
seychellaruin, Icerya. 
Shellac, Production of in India, 784. 
" Shingling " specimens, 951*. 
siamica, Caprona. 
siccifolia, Cyclopelta. 
siderota, Peronea. 
signata. Jlonolepta. 
„ Pagria. 
„ Plusia. 
signifera, Litliacodia (HypJopns). 
signiferum, Lecanium. 
silhetana, Terias. 
silicula, Eublemma. 
Silkworms, 800, 808, 809, 835, 836. 
Silphidae eaten by birds, 863. 
Silvanus advena, 324. 
silvatioa, Batrachedra. 
Simaethis segytica, 849 ; 

S. ophiosema, 849 ; S. orthogona. 849 
simbleuta, Ptochoryctis. 
Simla, Satumia (Caligula), 
simplex, Chilo. 

„ Nisaga. 
simplicia, Pundaluoya. 
„ robustalis, 88. 

sinensis, Thosea. 
singhara, Galerucella. 
Sipuocoryne indobrassicae, 280 ; S. nympheae,- 

281 ; S. padi, 281. 
Sipkonaphis (Siphocoryne) padi. 
(Siphonopliora) Macrosiphum pisi. 
sirina, Petasobathra. 
siatrata, Scardia. 
Sitones crinitus, 193. 
Sitotroga cerealella, 343, 720*, 762, 843. 
siva, Taragama. 
sjostedti, Platymycterus. 
' Sleeving " plants, 870. 
smaragdina, /Ecophylla. 
Smoking out insects, 944. 
Snails, 694. 

Societ5', Proposed Indian Entomological, 7— '.>. 
socotranus, Deutcrocopus. 
Sogata distincta. 270; S. pallescens, 271 ; t^. 

pusana, 270. 
Solenopsis geminata, 34, 343, .576. 
somnulentella, Bedellia. 
sonehi, Macrosiphum. 
sordidus, Aphauus. 
sordidus. Cosmopolites. 


eorghi (maidi.s), Aphis. 

Soritia leptalina, 140,, ;")(>."). 

soyella, Graoillaria. 

Spalangia sp., 028. 

SpaJgis epiiis, 333, 613. 0*7. 

eparsus, Dereodus. 

Spathostcmum prasinifenim, 309 

spathota, Chelaria. 

spectra, Tettigoniella. 

speculum, Pvicania. 

Spelling of plaee-uames, 9o9. 

speratus. Lciicotgrmcs.: 

s[)crnio]o;.'a . Bla.stobasis. 

SjJonnoplui>;us sp., 8f)4. 

Sphacrodfiua annulatum, 8fi7. 

SpluMiarcheseaffer. 13r>, 330. 338. 340. .344, 

sphenarioides, Colemania . 
sphenograpta. Lencoptera. 
Sphenoptcra arachidia, 24.t ; S. gossj-pii, 244. 
Sphcnoptera sp.. 934. 
Sphingida;, 9.5. 
Spialia galba, 1 14, 333, 339. 
Spiders attacking caterpillars, 898. 
Spider's webs. Insects living in, 941. 
Spilonota rhothia, 144, ."580, ,582, 841. 
Spilophonis cretosus. 180. 
spinator, CiBlostema. 
spinicornis, Hoplocerambyx. 
spinidens, Andrallus. 
spinifera. Euxoa. 
spiniferas, Aleurocantlius. 
spinigera, Paratclpbusa. 
spodochtJift (falcatella). Anatrachyntis (Pyro- 

Spodoptera abj'.«sinia. 09 ; S. mauritia, 69, 

341 ; S. pecten, 68. 
spoliatrix, Odites. 
squalida. C'elama. 
squalida, Epicometis. 

sqnfilidti'!, Daciis (.see Cli;etodacug zoJiatus). 
squamosus, Hypomcces. 
Staging small specimen.". 9.51*. 
StaphylinidiB eaten by birds, 803. 
Stathmopoda adulatrix. 849 : S. basiplectra, 

848 ; S. Iiemitorna, 848 ; S. ovigera, 848 ; 

S. prrealbata, 848 ; S. sycastifi, 158, 577, 

848 ; S. .svcophaga. 848 ; S. theoris, 158, 

Staurodenis bicolur, 30.5. 
stauropi, Apantclcs. 
Stauropus altemus, 101, 333, 339, 595. 
stebbingi octocaiidatus, Monoplilebus. 
Stcganodactyla conoursa, 336. 341, 840. 
Stegasta variana, 844 ! 

StrgodypluLS sara.'iiniinim, 3.31. 

stollifera, Viasonia. 

Stenaehroia elongolla, 117, 343. 

Stcnoma ichna;a, 848. 

.Strnomida?, 157, 848, 1004. 

Stenopienga sp., 933. 

Stenoptilia zopliodactyla, 839. 

Stephanitis sp.. 203 ; S. typicus, 203, 592. 

Stephanonympha, 1019*. 

Stephenaonia lahorensis, 2Su. 

stereoma, Eucosma. 

Sterrha sacraria, 102. 

stevensi. Aulacophora. 

Sthenias grisator, 217, 579, 589. 

Stictaspis ceratitina, 45, 371* ; S. striata, 45. 

sticticus, Eretes. 

stigmaticoUis, Calandra. 

stillata, Anatona. 

stolalis, Marearonia (Glyph odes). 

stolida, GramnnKies. 

iStomatocems sulcatiscutelliim, 935. 

Stomopteryx ncrteria, 152, 844. 

8forapha.stis plectica, 853. 

Storaiii- (it spcciiiifMs. 967. 

Store-boxes, 950, 965. 

strabo, Catochrysops. 

stramineum, Megacselum. 

Stratiomyiadse eaten by birds, 866. 

Streams, Insects in, 940. 

striata, Clivina. 

striata, Stictaspis. 

striatnUs (venosata), Diatrse.i. 

strigicollis, Scelodonta. 

Strobisia amethystias, 845. 

.Stromatium barbatum, 221, 574. 

studiosa. Epithectis. 

Stylopyga orientalis, 20. 

Stylotermes fletcheri, 314, 587. 

styx, Acherontia. 

Suana concolor, 333, 339. 

Suastus gremius, 115, 575, 1023* ; S. minuta, 

subaeneus, Brachyplatys. 
subcostatum, Nodostonia. 
snbfasciata, Euproctis. 
subfasciatus, Myllocerus. 
subnuda. Cremastogaster. 
subtoralbata, Acanthopsyclie. 
subtilis, Carea. 
succincta, Orthacantliacris. 
Sucking Insects, Rearing of, 885. 
suffiim (niontana), Diacrisia. 
Sugaring, 942. 

sulcatiscutellum, Stomatoceras. 
supercilioRus, Xanthotraclielus. 


supplex, Acrocercops. 
suppressai'ia, Biston. 
Bumia, Amphipyra. 
ewinhoei, ProtofoMius. 

„ Trichomyia. 

,, Termopsis. 

sycastis, Stathraopoda. 
sycophaga, Stathmopoda. 
Sylepta derogata, 129, 336, 339, 351, 453, 562 ; 

" S. lunalis, 130, 323. 
Symitha nolalella, 7(i. 
Sympiezomias cretaceus, 189, 319, 589 ; S. 

decipiens, 189, 319 ; S. frater, 189, 319. 
Synchalara rhombota, 157, 848. 
S.yngamia abruptalis, 763. ■ 
synglypta, Phyllocnistis. ■ 
syngramma, Acrocercops. 
Syntomidce (AmatidEe). 
Syntomis (Amata). 
Syntomosphyrum indicum, 628. 
syringa, Argina. 

Tabauidae, eaten by birds, 866. 
Tabanus rubidus, 866. 
Tacliardia lacca, 604, 799. 
tachardiae, Apantelcs. 
,, Ghalcis. 

., Ectadiopliatiius. 

Tacliinidtf eaten by birds, 866. 
Tfeniothrips major, 691. 
Tagiades atticus, 1023* ; T. distans, 1023*. 
talaca, Hypoaidra. 
Talanga sexpunotalis, 576. 
tamariciella, Gelechia. 
tamaricis, Agdistis. 
tamarindi, Aspidiosus. 
tainarindus, Monophlebus. 
tamulus, Aiolopns {Molopns). 
Tanymecus hispidus, 186, 570 : T. indicus, 

187 ; T. princeps, 186 ; T. sciurus , 186. 
Tanymecus spp. eaten by bird.s, 864. 
Tapena thwaitesi, 1023*. 
taprobana, Ergolis. 
taprobanensis, Cappsea. 
-taprobanes, Platyptilia. 
Tarache crocata, 75. 562 ; T. marmoralis, 75 ; 

T. nitidula, 75 ; T. notablUs, 75 ; T. opali- 

noides, 75. 
Taragama siva, 102, 569, 933. 
tarandus, Oxyrhachis. 

Tarucus theophastus, 113, 569. 
tatarica, Schistoccrca. 
Tea borer in Formosa, 668 
Tea Mosquito (see Helopeltis theivora). 
„ Pests in South India, 330. 
„ Red Spider (see Tetranychus bioculatus). 
., Tortricid (.see Homona coffearia). 
Teak leaf-gall, 324. 
Telohinia viola;. 107, 332, 340. 
Telenomus indi, 912, 935. 
tclestis, Acrocercops. 
Telicotaaugias, 116, 1024* ; T. barabus*, 342, 

Telphusa melanozona, 843. 
Tenebrionidae as erop-pests, 242 ; eaten by 

birds, 864. 
Tenebroides mauritanicus, 718*. 
tenebrosus, Psylliodes. 
tenera, Acrocercops. 
Tenthredinidae, 37 — 39. 
tenuicollis, Lytta. 
tenuipennis, Haplothrips. 
tenuiscapa, Xylocopa. 
terasella, Tonica. 
Terastia egialealis, 133 ; T. meticulosalis, 133, 

336, 339. 
Teratodes raonticollis, 310 579, 860. 
Terias hecabe, 110. 332, 339; T. silhetana, 

terminaliae, Lithocolletie. 
Termites, 27, 32. 

„ nests. Insects in, 941. 
„ Trichonj'mphid parasites of, 1009. 
Termitidae, 313. 343. 345, 347, 354, 356—359, 
587, 588, 705—712 ; eaten by birds, 861 ; 
rearing of — , 887*. 
termitis, Balantidium. 
„ Franciella. 
,, Nyctotherus. 
,, Opalina. 
., Treponema. 
Termopsis ewinhoei, 897*. 
Tcssarotoma quadraria, 255. 
leslaceum (serricorne) Lasioderma. 
testulalis, Maruca. 

Tetranychus bioculatus, 26, 29, 612, 668. 
tetraonis, " Arbela." 
Tetrastichus ophiusae, 932. 
Tetriginse, eaten by birds, 860. 
Tetroda histeroides, 256. 
Tettigid, 304. 
Tettigoniella ferruginea, 597, 634 ; T. spectra, 

274, 342, 442. 
Thalassodes quadraria, 102, 584 ; T. veraria, 
102, 336, 340. 582. 


Tlialera caudularia, 335, 340. 
Thea cincta, 612, 8G3. 
tliea, Empoasca. 
these, Chionaspis. 

the(^, Chionasyis prunicolii (manni). 
„ Fioriuia. 
„ Hemichionaspis. 
„ Oscinis. 
theoacold, Ceylonia {Toxoptcra aurantii). 
theaecola, Pseudococous. 
theclata, Dirades. 
theivora, " Arbela." 
„ Gracillaria. 
„ Helopeltis. 
„ Mahasena. 
theobromae, Bruchug. 
„ Caduceia. 

tlieophrastus, Tarucus. 
theoris, Stathmopoda. 

Theretra alecto, 97, 579, 590 ; T. gnoma, 97, 
579, 59U; T. oldenlandia', 98, 596; T. 
pallicosta, 98, 579. 
Theretra (Rln-ncolaba) (acteus) actmi. 
theristis, Pammene. 
theylia, C'hajrocampa. 
Thiacidas postica, 89, 509. 
Tholymis tillarga, 896. 
Thomsoniella albomaculata, 442. 
Thosea cana, 333, 340 ; T. castanoa, 057 ; T. 

cervina, 330 ; T. sinensis, 657. 
Thrips, 27 ; control of, 620, 621. 
,, orj'zs, 327, 619. 
spp., 343, 344. 
thwaitesi, Tapena. 
thwaitesii, Aristeis. 
thyrsis, Gangara. 
Thyrsostoma glaucitis, 844. 
Thysanoptera, 304, 327, 618—622. 
Ticks, eaten by birds, 867. 
Tinda indica, 593. 
Tineida;, 165, 855. 1007. 
tineoides, Myrmecozela. 
Tineola bisselUella, 856. 
Tingidid* as crop-pests, 263. 
Tingis hystricellus, 264. 
Til Root Fly, 46. 
tillarga, Tholymis. 

Tinea frugivora, 856 ; T. fuscipunctella, 856 ; 
T. opsigona, 856 ; T. pachyspila, 856 ; T. 
pellionella, 856. 
Tipulidae, 51 ; eaten by fish, 908. 
Tiracola plagiata, 64, 567, 605. 
Tirathaba sp., 118, 575. 
Tischeria ptarmica, 165, 569, 855. 
Tischeriadoe, 165. 

VOL. Ill, Coladenia. 
tomentosa, Eurybrachjs. 
Tonica barrowi, 847 ; T. niviferana, 156, 847 ; 
T. tcrasella, 847 ; T. zizyphi, 156, 572, 847. 
tonsoria, Argyroploce. 
toparcba, Phj'Ilocnistis. 
torodelta, Laspeyresia. 
Tortricid boring apple fruits, 148. 
Tortricida;, 143, 336, 840, 1002. 
Tortrix dumetana, 841 ; T. scmialbana, 841. 
Toxoptera aurantii, 281. 574 ; T. eitrifolia, 
631 ; T. graminum, 281 ; T. punjabipyri, 
Trabala vishnu, 103, 564, 580, 598, 933. 
Trachylepidia fructicassiella. 117. 
Trachys bicolor, 246, 317* ; T. sp., 246. 

tranquebaricus, Apodenis. 

transcripta, Elastobasis. 

transmarinus, Myllocerus. 

Transmission of Specimens, 971. 

transversa, Acontia. 

transversa, Anomala. 

transversa, Chlumetia.^ 

transvereus, Gastrimargus. 

Treponema teimitis, 1019. 

trapezalis, Marasmia. 

triacma . Tdioglossa. 

triangularis, Pljytoscaphus. 

triarcha, Lithocolletis. 

Tribolium castaneum, 717*, 702, 703. 

tricentra, Laspeyresia. 

trichocrossa (critica), Eueosma {I.aspcuresin.) 

Trichomyia sninhoei, 986*. 

Trichonympha agilis, 1011—1014, 1018, 1019*. 

trichonympharum, Enchelyspberoides. 

Trichonymphid parasites of Termites, 10, 

Trichophaga abruptella, 856. 

Trichotaphe geochrota, 845. 

tricyma, Acrocercops. 

Tridactylmse eaten by birds, SCO. 

trifasciatus, Haplosonys. 

trifenestrata, Cricula. 

trifolii, CalHpterus. 

triglandulosus, Chrj'somplialu.?. 

Trigonalys pervetus, 986*. 

Trigonnde-s (Chalciope) hj'ppasia. 

trigrapha, Ulodemis. 

trilineata, Pilemostoma. 

trilobitiformis, Pseudaonidia. 

trima, Orthocraspeda. 

tripunctatus, Cj'bister. 

triscalma, Acrocercops, 

tristig, Hodotermea. 

trochala, Procometis. 


trochilus putli, Cliilades. 

velutina, Natada. 

Trogoderma khaprar, 717*, 7o2, 7o9. 

venalba, Borolia. 

Trombidium grandissimum, 807. 

veno-sata. Diatraea. 

Trox sp., 864. 

venilialig, Marasmia. 

truculenta, Bactra. 

ventralis, Eusarcocoris. 

Trypaneidse, 40. 

venusta, ffideraatopoda. 

Trypetidie eaten by birds, 866. 

veraria, Thalassodes. 

Tiyxalinic eaten by birds, 860. 

verax, Bucculatrix. 

t'lberculata, Onoooephala. 

versicolor, Callitettix. 

tiiberculatus, ChaJtodacus. 

„ Chsetodacus. 

Tuberodryobius persicse, 285. 


tubmidicostali.s, Argyria. 

versteegi, Monohainmus. 

Tiimidicoxoides jambulana, 933. 

versutus, Adoretus. 

Tumidiseapus oopliagus, 935. 

vertens, Pyrsonyraplia. 

turrita, Acrida. 

vertumnalis, Margaronia (Glyphodos). 

Tylopholis ballardi, 189, 322. 

veruta, Anarsia. 

Tylotropidius varicomis, 311. 

Vespa basalis, 36 ; V. orientalis, 780. 

typicus, Stephanitis. 

Vespidse, 36. 
vesuviana, Carpomyia. 
viator, Grylhis. 


vigescens, Ancylis. 
vigintiocto-punctata, Epilacluia, 

Cdaspes folus. 115. 

vineata, Antithyra. 

Ulodemis trigrapha, 480. 

Vinsonia stellifera. 292, 588, 603, 607. 

uncinatus, Epepeotes. 

violse, Telchinia. 

undalis, Hellula. 

Virachola isocrates, 113, 565, .573, 580, 


iindecim-pustulatus, Myllocerug. 

593, 594, 595. 

undularis, Eh'ranias. 

virescens, Heterusia. 

unipuncta, Cirphis. 

„ Selenocephalus. 

Urentius echinus, 263, 350. 

virgatus, Pseudococcus. 

usitatug, Physothrips. 

virgulata, Litbocolletis. 

ustulatella, Aoroceroops. 

viridanus, Myllocerus. 

Utetheisa pulchella, 60, 563. 

viridis. Coccus (Lecnnium). 
viridula, Nezara. 
visenda, Agatbia. 


vishnu, Trabala. 

Vitellus orientalis. 253, 325*, 573 

vnlida, CUWhara. 

vitis, Chionaspis. 

vahlii, Brachyplaty8. 

Vatipooa ant.inna ^9.1 

vitrea. Psyche. 

TfJftata PViirU^frofa 

vanula, Aorocercops. 
variabilis, Hypera. 
variana, Stegasta. 
varians, Euproctis. 

„ Ocinara. 
varicolor, Anoraala. 
varicomis, Leptocorisa. 

,, Tylotropidius 
varicosa, Chionaspis. 
variegata, Clania. 
Varuna litterata, 690. 
variivestis, Anoraala. 
vaughani, Xyroptila. 
vegeta, Cretonia. 
velox, Oxya 

vittatus, Baracus. 

vulgaris, NacoUia (Lamprosema indicata). 

vuteria, Sesamia. 


wahlbergi, Bucklcria. 

Walkeriana cinerea, 287 ; W. sp., 287. 

Wallacea sp., 236, 576. 

War, Effects of, 10, 13. 

Wasps as enemies of bees, 780 

Wax Moth. 780, 782. 

Websteriella (see Parlatoria). 

Weeds in India, 679. 

Weevil cane-borers, 372*, 373*. 


wcstwoodi, Hierodulii. 

Wet specimens, Preservation of, 9o4, 970. 

White Flics (see Aleyrodida;). 

wickhami, Eurygenius. 

Winnertziola bumiitica, 986*. 

Wood-borers, Breeding Cage for, 892' 

Collecting — , 940. 
Woodhouse, E. J., 6—7. 
Worms, 694 

xanthogastrella, Scirpophaga. 

Xanthopimpla immaoulata, 933 ; X. pedator, 

933 ; X. sp., 933. 
xanthorrhoea, Porthesia. 
Xanthotrachelus faunus, 194, o69 ; X. per- 

latus, 194 ; X. superciliosus, 195, 569. 
xerodes, Buckleria. 
xerophaga, Brachmia. 

Xylebonis fomicatus, 184, 322* ; X. sp., 184. 
Xylocopa tenuiscapa, 316. 
Xyloryctidfe, 157, 847, 1004. 
Xylotrechus quadripes, 15, 223, 330. 
Xylotnipes gideon, 181. 
Xyroptila vaughani, 839. 
Xystrooera globosa, 221. 

j'ama, Aniphipyra. 
ypsilon, Agrotis. 

zachrysa, Gracillaria. 

Zalitliia diluticomis, 844. 

Zriwila (Pyrilla). 

zebrina, Ercchthias. 

zelota, Eucosma. 

zenzcroides, Langia. . 

Zeuzera coffea;, 140, 563, 599. 646. 

Zeuzerid cano-borera, 373*, 374*, 416. 

Zeuzerida?, 140. 

zeylanica, Gymnonynipha. 

zinokenella, Etiolla. 

Zizcra gaika, 678 ; Z. lysimon, 1 1 1. 

zizyphi, Tonica. 

zizyphus, Parlatoria. 

Zotiabris cichorii, 345 ; Z. phalerata, 2'50 ; 

Z. pustulata, 240, 344, 345, 346. 
zonatus, Chaetodacus. 
zophodactyla, StenoptiUa. 
Zygaenida;, 139. 
Zyxomma petiolatum, 896.